Tag Archives: ergonomics

1082–1089 J. Vošahlík and J. Hart
Reliability of camera systems to recognize facial features for access to specialized production areas
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Reliability of camera systems to recognize facial features for access to specialized production areas

J. Vošahlík¹* and J. Hart²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Constructions, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: vosahlik@oikt.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article deals with ergonomics and reliability of camera systems for recognition of facial features and identify person for access to specialized areas. The monitoring of areas relates not only to crime, but it is also an integral part of access to specialized production areas (pharmaceutical production, chemical production, specialized food production, etc.). It is therefore important to adequately secure these premises using the relevant system. One of them is a system based on user identification using specific facial features. For this purpose, there are CCTV systems for recognition of facial features of different price categories (conventional cameras, semi-professional and professional) on the world market. However, problematic situations may occur when identifying. For example, by having the user partially masked face. This research is focusing on the problem. The main goal of the research is establishing the scale of negative impact, in case the identified person has partially masked face, on camera systems recognizing facial features, primarily on recognition time. The results are evaluated in detail. Some camera systems are not suitable in specialized production areas due to their insufficient recognition ability. From all the tested devices, the HIKVISION iDS-2CD8426G0 / F-I camera identification system has proved to be optimal for identification purposes. In the case of designing, it is therefore necessary to choose suitable camera systems that have ergonomics and reliability at a level that will guarantee their sufficient use in the mentioned areas, while decreasing comfort and user-friendliness as little as possible. By measuring the ergonomics and reliability of these CCTV systems, it can be stated that there are statistically significant differences between conventional, semi-professional and professional systems, and it’s not just a design change, but also a more efficient recognition method.

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915–922 D. Maksimov, H. Kalkis, Y. Perevoschikov and Z. Roja
Qualimetry as productivity criteria in metal-cutting operations
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Qualimetry as productivity criteria in metal-cutting operations

D. Maksimov¹*, H. Kalkis², Y. Perevoschikov¹ and Z. Roja³

¹Institute of Economics and Management, Udmurt State University, 1, Universitetskaya street, bld. 4, RU426034 Izhevsk, Russia
²Faculty of European Studies, Riga Stradins University, 16 Dzirciema street, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
³University of Latvia, 19 Raina blv., LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maksim.dan.gen@gmail.com

Abstract:

The qualimetry method will allow an objective assessment of the performance of metal-cutting machines and the production capacity of machinery, as well as an objective assessment of their use in multi-product manufacturing, applying the qualimetry approach and qualimetry indicators, which are based on the concept of qualification of metal removing during machine operations. The aim of the study is to develop methods for measuring the performance of metal-cutting machines and open the way to create a regulatory framework based on quantitative indicators of the equipment quality. Qualimetry measured volume of metal removing allows setting the maximum possible productivity (quali-power) of metal cutting machinery, based on a small number of basic quality indicators contained in the machinery data sheets. It is essential that the quali-power of the machinery is an objective indicator of its quality, independent of the specific conditions of its operation at any given time. Hence the productivity criteria in metalworking cutting operations can be measured.

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1123–1131 D. Maksimov, H. Kalkis, Y. Perevoschikov and Z. Roja
Use of qualimetry method in production labour estimation
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Use of qualimetry method in production labour estimation

D. Maksimov¹*, H. Kalkis², Y. Perevoschikov¹ and Z. Roja³

¹Institute of Economics and Management, Udmurt State University, 1, Universitetskaya Str, bld. 4, RU426034 Izhevsk, Russia
²Faculty of European Studies, Riga Stradins University, Dzirciema street 16, LV 1007 Riga, Latvia
³University of Latvia, Raina blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maksim.dan.gen@gmail.com

Abstract:

Every work process of production organization involves employees and employer interaction with each other by “agreement”. Such agreement is contracted based on the implementation of concrete types of work processes in particular workplaces. The general the total number of workplaces are continuous interaction areas of people to transform substance, energy and information. The solution of the assigned tasks requires the methodology for designing product quality, analyzing market consumer needs, forecasting potential prices and detecting effectiveness in order to present the strategic objectives in digital values. This study is part of a larger investigation which involves principles of economic metrology and qualimetry of work. The purpose of the research is to demonstrate use of qualimetry in the production organization, based on experience of several years in many industry organisations by focusing on engineering.

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1033–1040 H. Kalkis, Z. Roja, K. Bokse, S. Babris and I. Roja
Work posture load evaluation in medium size metal processing enterprise in Latvia
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Work posture load evaluation in medium size metal processing enterprise in Latvia

H. Kalkis¹², Z. Roja², K. Bokse², S. Babris³ and I. Roja⁴

¹Riga Stradiņš University, Dzirciema street 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia, Aspazijas blvd. 5, LV-1050 Riga, Latvia
³BA School of Business and Finance, K. Valdemara 161, LV-1013 Riga, Latvia
⁴Riga 1st Hospital, Latvia, Bruninieku 5, LV-1001 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: henrijs.kalkis@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of individual workers to ergonomic risk factors associated with upper, lower extremities and trunk WRMSDs and to assess entire body posture for risk of WRMSDs. The company that produces finished metal products (ironing boards) was chosen for the research. Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) was used to assess the entire body posture for risk of WRMSDs. Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method was used for ironing boards employees to evaluate exposure of the neck, trunk, arms and legs in relation to physical load. Our study proved that employees are subjected to WRMSDs due to the load on certain body parts during the work: shoulder and neck area, lower back, legs and arms. Forced work postures are an essential risk factor at work. Assemblers and packers are subdued to high risk level, but inspectors – to medium risk level, which corresponds to evaluation with RULA and REBA methods.

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1708-1719 H. Kalkis, Z. Roja and S. Babris
Faults and the physical workload in sawing and packing-related woodworking processes when considering potential ergonomic solutions
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Faults and the physical workload in sawing and packing-related woodworking processes when considering potential ergonomic solutions

H. Kalkis¹²*, Z. Roja³ and S. Babris⁴

¹Riga Stradiņš University, Faculty of European Studies, Dzirciema street 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia, Faculty of Business Management and Economics, Aspazijas blvd 5, LV-1050 Riga, Latvia
³University of Latvia, Ergonomic Research Centre, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
⁴BA School of Business and Finance, K. Valdemara 161, LV-1013 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: henrijs.kalkis@gmail.com

Abstract:

The forest sector is a high-risk economic sector in Latvia, one in which manual work, awkward postures, the tightening up of individual muscle groups, and work monotony still exists. The aim of this study was to analyse the physical workload and fault modes, and their effects on the sawing and packing processes in woodworking when considering potential ergonomic solutions. Results show that packing operators and saw operators alike are exposed to severe loads, and these results coincide with survey results in which employees in these professions complain about the physical load and mention lower back pain. Fault modes and their effects on the sawing and packing processes were analysed using Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, and the main errors which were revealed in packing operations were related to machinery and lifting equipment, as well as to ergonomics and errors involving the human factor. The risk priority was calculated in terms of a figure. Financial indices were compared before and after any potential improvement in the sawing and packing processes. Analysis proves that investments in the improvement of ergonomics in relation to the automation of the production process saves human resources and is economically favourable when it comes to ensuring the sustainable development of the business in question.

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1756–1770 R. Raimla and E. Merisalu
Effectiveness of simulation models on technical skills among surgeons. A critical review
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Effectiveness of simulation models on technical skills among surgeons. A critical review

R. Raimla* and E. Merisalu

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Husbandry Engineering and Ergonomics, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014, Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: riin.raimla@emu.ee

Abstract:

Based on simulation models the surgeons can train technical skills and improve their functional status of musculoskeletal state. Work in good ergonomic position could reduce and prevent musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this review is to carry out critical analysis of research on simulation techniques analysing the effectiveness of simulators on technical skills among the surgeons. The search of the articles based on the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and Web of Science. The articles published in 2011–2016 years and not the literature reviews of simulator models in surgery were the selection criteria. Most often the simulator models have used for training of laparoscopic operations, choosing new instruments or introducing new methodologies. Some articles have paid more attention to ergonomic equipment layout in practice to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. It is important to use simulators in the university hospitals, where the young surgeons and medical students are practicing.

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1602–1612 G. Hrenov, I. Vilcane, V. Urbane and P. Tint
Improving job satisfaction with different intervention methods among the school personnel in Estonia and Latvia
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Improving job satisfaction with different intervention methods among the school personnel in Estonia and Latvia

G. Hrenov¹, I. Vilcane², V. Urbane² and P. Tint¹*

¹Tallinn University of Technology, Faculty of Economics, Institute of Business Administration, Ehitajate 5, EE19086, Tallinn, Estonia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management, Institute of Labour Safety and Civil Defence, Kalku street 1, LV-1658, Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: piia.tint@ttu.ee

Abstract:

This investigation was carried out in two high schools: one in Estonia (EST1) and one in Latvia (LAT1). The offices EST2 and LAT2 were chosen from the countryside of the both countries. Office EST1 is situated in an atrium-type building for educational and research needs. The second building is mainly for education (auditoriums) and the offices LAT1 are situated on the ground floor. The third and the fourth offices were taken for comparison. Office EST2 is situated in a countryside in an old wooden building; the fourth office LAT2 is located in a new building in Latvian countryside. All together 181 office-workers were involved. At first, the work environment conditions were measured. The ergonomics of workplaces was assessed with ART-tool and Kiva-questionnaire was used to study psychosocial conditions and job satisfaction at computer-equipped workplaces. Occupational hazards were measured to clarify, do the work environment influence on the behaviour and the job motivation and satisfaction of the worker at workplace? After the first questioning of workers using Kiva-questionnaire, the Metal Age programme was implemented and after the intervention, the Kiva-questionnaire was carried out again. The results showed that if the preventive measures for solving the problems at workplace are implemented, and the employers and the employees are trained and consulted using the appropriate programmes, the stress situations could be avoided. The workers in all offices were confident that the discussion about the problems is very important as the work with computers is intensive and there is a very short time to communicate with each other. The educational work is also stressful.

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1406-1416 D.G. Maksimov and H. Kalkis
Software development for Qualimetrical ergonomics of a workplace
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Software development for Qualimetrical ergonomics of a workplace

D.G. Maksimov¹* and H. Kalkis²

¹Institute of Economics and Management, Udmurt State University, Universitetskaya str. 1, bld. 4, RU 426034 Izhevsk, Russia
²Faculty of European Studies, Riga Stradins University, Dzirciema str. 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maksim.dan.gen@gmail.com

Abstract:

Ergonomics is the science investigating the person and the activity within the process management aiming at improvements of labor conditions and labor process at workplace. The microelement analysis as part of ergonomics allows in quantitative measures estimate time that is expended and to analyse effective use of time, as one of the major indicators. Along with an indicator of time it is necessary to consider and other indicators influencing man during commission of labor process which can be presented in the quantitative form, using science a qualimetry. The aim of the research is to analyze scientific literature on qualimetrical ergonomics of a workplace and develop software for practical evaluation of qualimetrical ergonomics. At the crossroads of a qualimetry and ergonomics the system of the microelement analysis was discovered. The research provides approach in software development for the microelement norm-fixing at the beginning of process automation.

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513–524 C.M. Lind and L.M. Rose
Shifting to proactive risk management: Risk communication using the RAMP tool
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Shifting to proactive risk management: Risk communication using the RAMP tool

C.M. Lind* and L.M. Rose

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Health, Unit of
Ergonomics, Alfred Nobels Allé 10, SE 141 52 Huddinge, Sweden
*Correspondence: cmeri@kth.se

Abstract:

Ergonomic risk factors are major contributors to work-related musculoskeletal disorders and quality deficiencies in the manufacturing industry. Due to lack of tools or systems that can support a systematic risk management of these production and health related factors, a new risk management tool (RAMP) was developed. In this paper, the risk communication system (the Results module) of this tool is presented along with a description of its development. An example of how it can be used, based on assessments performed in industry, is given. An evaluation of its usability, which included twenty practitioners active in the industry, gives support to the notion that the system is usable both for risk communication and as a decision base.

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460–474 K. Kuimet, M. Järvis and A. Virovere
Integrating ergonomics principles and workplace health protection and promotion to improve safety and health at work – evidence from Estonia
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Integrating ergonomics principles and workplace health protection and promotion to improve safety and health at work – evidence from Estonia

K. Kuimet¹, M. Järvis²* and A. Virovere³

¹,³Estonian Entrepreneurship University of Applied Sciences, Suur-Sõjamäe 10a,
EE11415 Tallinn, Estonia
²Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: karin.kuimet@eek.ee

Abstract:

Previous scientific literature indicates that organisations manage workplace health promotion (WHP) in different ways. Despite conceptual and empirical justification, researchers have not consistently included concepts of WHP in ergonomics and safety studies.
The objective of the study is to explore workplace health protection and promotion activities available in Estonian organisations and to assess how ergonomic principles are integrated with workplace health protection and promotion within an  organisation.
The current study adopted a multi-method approach. The WHP activities were evaluated using the questionnaire of 36 items administrated to all members (organisations) of the Estonian Human Resource Management Association. A qualitative approach includes eight case studies (organisations, with the best practices of WHP and ergonomic interventions), semi-structured interviews with human resource personnel.
The data reveal key issues in WHP management in Estonian organisations. A statistical analysis of WHP questionnaires shows many organisations with outstanding programs and positive employers’ perceptions towards WHP. However, qualitative data indicate some important aspects of WHP and drawing attention to contextual variables in the development of safety management systems and improving the integration of ergonomics programs with WHP. The main contribution of the study is providing the conceptual clarification on incorporated WHP, how it complements a safety management system and showing its possible effect on employees’ health, safety behaviour and on knowledge exchange. It is essential for the established WHP program to have a fully integrated part of safety management system in the organisation and employees’ health and healthy behaviour must be recognised, acknowledged and be managed.

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