Tag Archives: fertilization

147–170 Z. Magyar, P. Pepó and E. Gyimes
Comprehensive study on wheat flour quality attributes as influence by different agrotechnical factors
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Comprehensive study on wheat flour quality attributes as influence by different agrotechnical factors

Z. Magyar¹*, P. Pepó¹ and E. Gyimes²

¹University of Debrecen, Kerpely Kálmán Doctoral School, Böszörményi street 138, HU4032 Debrecen, Hungary
²University of Szeged, Faculty of Engineering, Mars square 7, HU6724, Szeged Hungary
*Corresponding author. magyarzoltan93@gmail.com

Abstract:

The present polyfactorial long-term experiment was conducted to determine the role of different agrotechnical factors, like fertilization, forecrop, year and cultivar on the quality and yield attributes of a classical and a modern winter wheat genotypes. The research gives a complex view of the alteration of the most quality parameters (32) that are rarely done together in a single experiment (n = 96). All the studied factors had a significant effect on some tested properties. First growing season with fair water supply was beneficial for yield (+21.7%) however, the 2nd one with mild weather in spring and average annual precipitation was favourable for quality parameters (HFN: +3%, GI: +19%, GS: -51%, DDT: +22.4%, ST: +24.6%, DS: -14%, PDR: +37.6%, PD: +6%, PMR: +51.5%, PE: +52.7%, W: +25.8%, LV: +16.3%, HI: +13.3%). The optimal fertilizer demand of the different parameters varied to realize the potential of the varieties (N90P68K80 for Y, VWA, PWA, PMR, PE, LV, Mavg, KW and HI; meanwhile N150P113K133 for CP, WGC, ZI, VQN, ST, W and P/L). In the case of suboptimal nutrient supply, the effect of fore crops was significant (Y, CP, DGC, ZI, FE, VQN, DDT, ST, DS, PDR, PMR, PE, Mavg and all alveographic values). Comparing the varieties, GK Öthalom had better fertilizer response attribute (NUECP) and quality parameters, till then Mv Ispán possessed significantly better natural nutrient utilizing property (+22.9%), NUEY and yield (+31.7% in 2019). Summarizing the results, there is a need to put great emphasis on the selection of adapted cultivar and variety-specific agrotechnology practices, also these data contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between the quality parameters.

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2742–2751 V. Laugale, S. Dane, S. Strautiņa and I. Kalniņa
Influence of vermicompost on strawberry plant growth and dehydrogenase activity in soil
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Influence of vermicompost on strawberry plant growth and dehydrogenase activity in soil

V. Laugale*, S. Dane, S. Strautiņa and I. Kalniņa

Institute of Horticulture (LatHort), Graudu iela 1, LV-3124 Dobele, Latvia

Abstract:

Vermicompost is increasingly becoming popular as an organic fertiliser used for different crops. Effects of vermicompost on strawberry plant growth and soil properties were studied in this investigation. The research was performed in LatHort from 2015 to 2017. Strawberry was grown on open field in rows. Two trials were established. In Trial 1, the application of vermicompost with a dose of 50 mL per plant was compared to growing without any fertilization. In Trial 2, several treatments were used: 1) only inorganic mineral fertilization applied; 2) vermicompost applied with a dose of 100 mL per plant in planting holes, later mineral fertilization applied; 3) vermicompost applied with a dose of 100 mL per plant in planting holes, no additional fertilization applied; 4) vermicompost applied two times per season on the ground around plants with dose of 50 mL per plant, no mineral fertilization applied. The plant growth was assessed two times per season by evaluating the amount of leaves and plant height. Soil dehydrogenase activity was evaluated during all growing seasons as indicator of soil microbial activity. The application of vermicompost positively influenced plant growth in comparison to growing without fertilization. In Trial 2, plant growth varied among years. During first two growing seasons better plant growth was observed for plants fertilized by inorganic mineral fertilizers, while later the growth levelled off for all treatments applied. The application of vermicompost had positive influence on the soil dehydrogenase activity in contrary to fertilization by mineral fertilizers.

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1573–1583 B. Wiśniewska-Kadżajan and K. Jankowski
Effects of the interaction between slurry, soil conditioners, and mineral NPK fertilizers on selected nutritional parameters of Festulolium braunii (K. Richt.) A. Camus
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Effects of the interaction between slurry, soil conditioners, and mineral NPK fertilizers on selected nutritional parameters of Festulolium braunii (K. Richt.) A. Camus

B. Wiśniewska-Kadżajan and K. Jankowski

University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce, Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture, B. Prusa 14, PL08-110 Siedlce, Poland
*Correspondence: bwisniewska@uph.edu.pl

Abstract:

The research was aimed at assessing the biomass yield of Festulolium braunii and its content of raw protein and crude ash after application of slurry, both on its own and together with soil conditioners (UGmax and Humus Active), and mineral fertilizers. The studies were conducted on the basis of a two-year field experiment. The interaction between slurry and soil conditioners and between slurry and mineral fertilizers was studied on the Sulino variety of Festulolium braunii, a hybrid between Lolium multiflorum and Festuca pratensis.
Compared with plants treated with liquid manure on its own, slurry applied with soil conditioners and mineral fertilizer did not significantly increase the biomass yield of the grass. However, there was higher protein content in Festulolium braunii, even if statistically insignificant, as a response to slurry supplemented with mineral fertilizer than in plants treated with slurry only. Various forms of treatment did not differentiate crude ash content in plant dry matter in a statistically significant way.

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1693–1699 H. Meripõld, U. Tamm, S. Tamm, T. Võsa and L. Edesi
Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam) grass potential as a forage and bioenergy crop
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Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam) grass potential as a forage and bioenergy crop

H. Meripõld*, U. Tamm, S. Tamm, T. Võsa and L. Edesi

Estonian Crop Research Institute, EE-48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
*Corresponding author: heli.meripold@etki.ee

Abstract:

Fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) is a forage legume that has been grown in Estonia for almost forty five years. Pure galega is known to be persistent, high-yielding crop and rich in nutrients, in particular crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). Galega is usually grown in a mixture with grass in order to optimize its nutrient concentration, increase dry matter (DM) yield and improve fermentation properties. The trial plots were established on a typical soddy-calcareous soil. There are certain grass species suitable for the mixture. In this study galega mixtures with reed canary grass cv. ‘Marathon’, timothy cv. ‘Tika’, red fescue cv. ‘Kauni’ and festulolium cv. ‘Hykor’ were under investigation in three successive years (2013–2015). In order to increase competitiveness of grasses and the yield of the first cut, two N fertilization levels were used: N0 and N50 kg ha-1. Two cuts were carried out during the growing season in all three years. The total dry matter yield varied from 9.1 to 12.8 t ha-1. The NDF concentration in the DM varied from 495−559 g kg-1. Both DM-yield and NDF were dependent on the year, mixture, cutting time and fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization (N50 kg ha-1) favoured grass growth and reduced the role of galega in the sward.

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1486-1493 R. Simson, L. Tartlan, E. Nugis and V. Eremeev
The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato
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The effect of fertilizer and growing season on tuber dry matter and nitrate content in potato

R. Simson¹*, L. Tartlan², E. Nugis¹ and V. Eremeev³

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Department of Field Crop and Grassland Husbandry, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: reijo.simson@etki.ee

Abstract:

Field trials with two potato varieties were undertaken at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 2005 and 2006. Year 2005 was generally optimal for potato growth but year 2006 was dry and very warm, hence, it was adverse for growth. The effect of fertilizing on two main traits of potato, i. e. tuber dry matter (DM) and nitrate content was examined. Five rates of compound fertilizer were applied, N50P20K85, N70P28K119, N90P36K153, N110P44K187 and N130P52K221. Results indicated that DM content was largely determined by variety but it also depended on fertilizer amounts and particular environmental conditions of a year. Nitrate content of tubers was quite clearly dependent upon variety, but growing season had significant effect on final nitrate content in tubers. Water stress during early and main bulking periods resulted in high tuber nitrate levels. In order to gain tuber yield fit for intended use, it is necessary to manage nutrient acquisition based on expected yield and nutrient supply from soils.

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543-552 D. Lazdiņa, A. Bārdulis, A. Bārdule, A. Lazdiņš, M. Zeps and Ā. Jansons
The first three-year development of ALASIA poplar clones AF2, AF6, AF7, AF8 in biomass short rotation coppice experimental cultures in Latvia
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The first three-year development of ALASIA poplar clones AF2, AF6, AF7, AF8 in biomass short rotation coppice experimental cultures in Latvia

D. Lazdiņa*, A. Bārdulis, A. Bārdule, A. Lazdiņš, M. Zeps and Ā. Jansons

Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, 111 Rigas str., LV2169 Salaspils, Latvia; *Correspondence: dagnija.lazdina@silava.lv

Abstract:

Hybrid aspen and willows are the fastest growing tree species used for biomass production in short rotation coppice (SRC) cultures in Latvia. Poplars are suitable for cultivation in Latvia, however, their potential for this purpose as SRC in Latvia and North Eastern Europe has not yet been investigated. There is an increasing interest in using poplar clones to establish short rotation plantations. The aim of this study is to analyse the productivity of the Italian poplar clones AF2, AF6, AF7, AF8 and their potential use for biomass production, as well as the effect of fertilization on the development and survival of trees. The experimental plot consisted of drained mineral soil with the initial spacing of trees ranging from 9,000 to 10,000 trees ha-1 (1.5 m x 0.7–0.5 m). Weed management has been carried out on the plantation once per season every year. Four management methods were tested – control (no fertilization), fertilization with waste water sludge 10 t DM ha-1, wood ash 6 t ha-1, mineral fertilizer NPK (12:5:14) 100 kg ha-1. In the second year, the height of the trees ranged from 0.2 to 2.64 m, on average 1.12 ± 0.005 m. The annual increments during the third year ranged from 0.01–2.14 m, on average 0.787 ± 0.004 m. At the end of the third season, the tree diameters at breast height of all clones varied greatly from 0.36 cm to 4.4 cm. The trees reached average diameters of 1.48 ± 0.007 cm; the tree heights ranged from 0.36 m to 4.24 m and were 1.99 ± 0.01 m, on average at the end of the third season. Depending on the clone and treatment, the amount of fresh biomass was 1.57–10.67 t ha-1(planting density 10,000 trees), and one fifth of the biomass, on average, was located in branches. Sewage sludge fertilizer contributed to the development of the micropatogen Venturia sp., resulting in lower initial retention and delayed development. Mineral fertilizers were the most effective. No animal and frost damages were observed. Overall, the results indicate a significant potential for us for using poplar for bioenergy production, with the optimal rotation age for bioenergy production being more than 3 years.

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827-836 K. Styla, A. Sawicka
Microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation and fertilization in apple (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation
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Microbiological activity of soil against the background of differentiated irrigation and fertilization in apple (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation

K. Styla¹, A. Sawicka²

¹Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment Polish Academy of Sciences,
Poznań, Poland; e-mail: styla.katarzyna@gmail.com
²Department of Agricultural Microbiology, University of Life Science, Poznań, Poland

Abstract:

The effect of differentiated irrigation and fertilization on the number of microorganisms in the soil of an apple (Malus domestica) orchard after replantation was investigated. In the experiment, three irrigation levels were used: W0 – maintenance of soil moisture at the level of atmospheric precipitations, W1 – maintenance of soil moisture at the level of -0.03MPa of water potential, and W2 – maintenance of soil moisture at the level of – 0.01MPA of water potential. Three fertilization combinations were used, i.e. 65 kg N/ha, 65 kg N/ha and 95 kg/ha K2O as well as 130 kg N/ha and 190 kg/ha K2O. The highest number of fungi was noted in the 130 kg N/ha and 190 kg/ha combination. The highest number of actinomycetes, Azotobacter, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and the total number of bacteria were found of 65kg N/ha and 95kg/ha combination. A high number of fungi was observed in W0 combination. The highest number of actinomycetes, Azotobacter, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and the total number of bacteria were confirmed in the W1 and W2 combination. A high number of actinomycetes, Azotobacter, proteolytic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, and the total number of bacteria and lower number of fungi in control object (Nowina and virgin soil) were recorded.

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531-536 S. Bumane
The influence of NPK fertilization on Lolium perenne L. forage quality
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The influence of NPK fertilization on Lolium perenne L. forage quality

S. Bumane

Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute, 1a Zinatnes St., Priekuli, LV 4126, Latvia;
e-mail: skbumane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Within the framework of the research program developed at the Latvian University of Agriculture (LLU), at the Research Institute of Agriculture (ZZI), Agency of LLU field trials were established and research was conducted over the period 1999–2003. In all trials, tetraploid perennial ryegrass cv. ‘Spidola’ was sown to plots at a rate of 12 kg ha-1. The impact of three factors (NPK) in 17 treatments, replicated four times, were researched according to the so-called „star” scheme added to control treatment N0P0K0 + absolute MAX N120P120K160. The totalplot area was 17.5 m2, harvested area 13.5 m2. In the trial, five levels of fertilizer werecompared: – 0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of N, 0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and 0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1of K2O. The goal of current research was to clarify the influence of mineral fertilizer optimization on forage quality formation in perennial ryegrass cv. ‘Spidola’ under agro-climatic conditions of Latvia. It is concluded that N fertilizer mostly influenced herbage yield and quality characteristics of perennial ryegrass where both, crude protein (CP) content of dry matter and total yield of CP per hectare increased. In the treatments N60 and N120, the CP content in grass dry matter increased by 0.14 and 2.66%, and CP yield per hectare by 98 and 226%, respectively, compared with N0 (at P60 K80 background).

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595-602 T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm
Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley
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Effect of fertilization and conditions of year on some characteristics of spring wheat and barley

T. Kangor, A. Ingver, Ü. Tamm and I. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 J. Aamisepa St., 48309, Jõgeva alevik, Estonia;e-mail: Tiia.Kangor@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Spring wheat and barley are the most cultivated spring cereals in Estonian farming. Six-year (2003–2008) field trial was conducted at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to estimate the effect of fertilization and weather conditions of the tested years on characteristics of spring wheat and barley. Four levels of fertilization (N0 – untreated control N0P0K0 kg ha-1; N1 – N60P13K23; N2 – N100P22K39; N3 – N140P31K54) were applied using the complex fertilizer Kemira Power (N18P4K7). The weather data during the tested years were variable. Year as factor influenced the length of growing period of both cereals the most (wheat 98.0%; barley 98.5%). Wheat had longer growing period than barley (difference 11 days). Spring wheat was more sensitive to environmental conditions; its yield was more affected by year (32.3%) than barley (3.3%). Moreover, from variation of yield of barley 82.0% was explained by fertilization and the same for wheat was 52.9%. The lodging resistance of both crops was influenced by fertilization, year conditions and their interaction (Y x F). The year conditions and Y x F interaction influenced 1000 kernel weight of both cereals, but fertilization had only a marginal effect on this parameter. The protein content of both crops depended on the fertilization and year as factor. Wheat showed higher level of this characteristic in all the years and fertilizer doses.

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427-432 T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja
Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?
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Do different tillage and fertilization methods influence weather risks on potato yield?

T. Saue, P. Viil, J. Kadaja

Estonian Research institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia;e-mail: triin.saue@eria.ee, peeter.viil@eria.ee, jyri.kadaja@eria.ee

Abstract:

The influence of weather variability on potato yield was assessed with an aim to address different soil tillage and fertilization regimes by their weather sensibility. The strong effect of an experimental year on potato yields was proved for the experimental period; the effect of fertilization proved significant only between the highest and the lowest fertilization rates; the effect of tillage tested insignificant. If synthesized statistically over the population (over an untested period of time), significant interactions occur between years and tillage/fertilization treatments, verifying that the effect of both tillage and fertilization is dependent on year-to-year weather differences. Yields of all examined variants were found to be significantly correlated to spring weather – positively to temperatures and negatively to precipitation. Negative correlation exists between yields and temperatures summed from emergence to flowering, positive between yields and precipitation from flowering to harvest.

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