Tag Archives: fertilizer

xxx M. Dąbrowska, A. Świętochowski and A. Lisowski
Physicochemical properties and agglomeration parameters of biogas digestate with addition of calcium carbonate
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Physicochemical properties and agglomeration parameters of biogas digestate with addition of calcium carbonate

M. Dąbrowska*, A. Świętochowski and A. Lisowski

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Agricultural and Forestry Machinery,
Faculty of Production Engineering, Nowoursynowska 166, PL02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: magdalena_dabrowska@sggw.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the work was to determine the physical properties of digestate from biogas production – either with or without the addition of calcium carbonate and to determine the parameters of its compaction. The material for research was obtained from an agricultural biogas plant specialized in processing cattle manure, vegetable pomace, chicken manure and maize silage. The parameters of compaction of digestate were experimentally determined and its net calorific value was calculated based on the gross calorific value. Physical properties were determined according to standards. The moisture content of liquid digestate was 96%. Mechanical separation allowed to decrease the water content by 19% and addition of 20% of calcium carbonate by 30%. It was found that digestate with addition of calcium carbonate is not suitable to use for energy purposes, because of its low net calorific value (5.2–5.9 MJ kg-1), however it can be used for fertilizer purposes in relation to its chemical composition. Without  additives, the net calorific value was 14.9 MJ kg-1, but due to the high moisture content of the raw material it is unprofitable to dry it and burn. On the other hand, it was proved that it is possible to obtain pellets of appropriate density out of the digestate using 40 mm of the die height and 0.3 g of single portion of the material.

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822–832 I. Skudra and A. Ruza
Effect of nitrogen fertilization management on mineral nitrogen content in soil and winter wheat productivity
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Effect of nitrogen fertilization management on mineral nitrogen content in soil and winter wheat productivity

I. Skudra¹ and A. Ruza²

¹Latvian Rural Advisory and Training centre, Street Rigas 34, LV3018 Ozolnieki region, Ozolnieki parish, Ozolnieki, Latvia
²Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Street Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
E-mail: ilze.skudra@llkc.lv; antons.ruza@llu.lv

Abstract:

In recent years farmers must use integrated crop growing principles. One of the most important principle is to balance usage of mineral elements in crop cultivation, especially nitrogen management. Excessive and unbalanced usage of nitrogen fertilizer reduces nitrogen use efficiency and increases nitrate leaching in surface and groundwater. The dynamics of nitrogen forms in soil at different depths and different plant growth stages are studied to increase the productivity of winter wheat, promoting nitrogen uptake in plants and reducing nitrogen leaching during the vegetation period. Field experiments were carried out at the Research and Training Farm Vecauce of the Latvia University of Life Science and Technologies from 2012 till 2015. Researched factors were nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate: 0 – control, 85, 153, 187, and N rate determined by chlorophylmeter (Yara N-tester) 180 (2012/2013), 150 (2013/2014), 205 (2014/2015) N kg ha-1, nitrogen and sulphur (S) fertilizer rate – N175+S21 kg ha-1, and conditions of the growing seasons: 2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. The content of nitrate (NO3–N) nitrogen and ammonium (NH4–N) nitrogen was determined in the soil layers 0–20 cm, 20–40 cm and 40–60 cm at the growth stages (GS) 30–32, 49–51, 69 and 90–92. All trial years the amount of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in soil decreased during vegetation, but increased with increasing fertilization dose. Nitrate nitrogen content was significantly influenced by year in 0–40 cm soil layer (P < 0.01) and by nitrogen fertilizer in the 20–40 cm soil layer. Ammonium nitrogen content had significant influence only on nitrogen fertilizer at 20–40 cm soil layer (P < 0.05). Average grain yields did not show significant correlation with the nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in different soil layers and plant growth stages, except nitrate nitrogen content in soil layer 40–60 cm at GS 30–32 and ammonium nitrogen content in soil layer 40–60 cm at GS 69 and GS 90–92.

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143–149 R. Mieldažys, E. Jotautienė, A. Pocius and A. Jasinskas
Analysis of organic agricultural waste usage for fertilizer production
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Analysis of organic agricultural waste usage for fertilizer production

R. Mieldažys*, E. Jotautienė, A. Pocius and A. Jasinskas

Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Institute of
Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Studentu g. 15b, LT-53361, Akademija, Lithuania
*Correspondence: ramunas.mieldazys@asu.lt

Abstract:

Waste management, especially biodegradable (organic) waste, is highly relevant in agriculture. Increasing the intensity of agricultural production inevitably increases pollution of soil, water and air due to chemical, biological and other effects because of untidy agricultural waste. Currently there is a search for new and more rational ways to use waste for new forms of energy, making fertilizer, building materials and other products. One of the processes of biodegradable waste management is pelleting; i.e., the processing of recyclable materials into organic ecological products.
The SWOT analysis-expert, literature survey methods were used for the analysis of animal and plant origin organic agricultural waste’s suitability for production of fertilizer. The analysis has shown that the granulation of animal waste allows making better use of nutrients, significantly reduces the amount of fertilizer needed to be deposited into the soil and reduces the cost of storing, transportation and spreading into the soil. SWOT analysis motivated the need for further research of manure waste and its pelletizing.

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451-454 L. Narits
Effect of Top-fertilizing of Raw Protein and Glucosinolates Content of Winter Turnip Rape
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Effect of Top-fertilizing of Raw Protein and Glucosinolates Content of Winter Turnip Rape

L. Narits

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, J.Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia;
e-mail: Lea.Narits@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Rapeseed is a major oil–yielding crop, ranking third place after soybeans and oil palm in the world. Rapeseed contains as average 36–38% crude protein and content of anti–nutritional compounds, among which glucosinolates have received the major attention. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the nitrogen rate and different application times to the crude protein and glucosinolate content of winter turnip rape. The trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in the 2007–08, 2008–09 and 2009–10 growing seasons. Ammonium sulfate (nitrogen content 21%, sulphur 24%) was used as top–fertilizer. Three different nitrogen rates, 120, 140 and 160 kg N ha−1 and three different application times were used: A) once at the beginning of spring growth (oilseed rape growing code 26), B) A + when the main stalk was 10 cm (code 33), C) B + start of flowering (code 60) (a total of nine different variants) in equal portions. The results indicate that the quantity of the fertilizer has not as strong an impact as application time on the glucosinolate content. The lowest glucosinolate content was obtained from the variant of one N application. The highest protein content was obtained from the variant of three times split-N.

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191-197 L. Balezentiene and E. Klimas
Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers and land management on soil enzyme activities
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Effect of organic and mineral fertilizers and land management on soil enzyme activities

L. Balezentiene and E. Klimas

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Akademija LT– 53361, Kaunas distr.;e–mail: ligita.balezentiene@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Sustainable and rational management of agrophytocenoses depends on various bio-indices and methods of application, particularly the development and protection of soil resources (Lai et al., 2002). Among other indices, enzyme activity is proposed as a universal index of soil fertility and contamination (Dilly et al., 2003). To ascertain and to make a comparison of bioactivity variation during the vegetation period, soil (Endophypogleyi-Eutric Planasols-Ple-gln-w, artificial drainage) samples were collected from rotation fields of different fertilizing and farming systems (intensive (IF) and organic (OF)) at the Training farm of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture during 2007–2008. N application stimulated urease and saccharase activity in different farming systems (OF and IF) and fertilizing management (manure and mineral fertilizers). When comparing mean soil bioactivity values of 2 years the highest manure effect was detected in the application year (winter wheat treatment) and conditioned the highest urease (8.21 mg NH +–4N g-1) and saccharase (24.52 mg CG g-1 24 h-1)activity but gradually decreased later. The lowest mean of urease (3.62 mg NH +–4N g-1) andsaccharase (22.07 mg CG g-1 24 h-1) activity occurred in IF soil where mineral fertilizers were applied. Soil bioactivity properties (urease and saccharase activity) were positively correlated with soil nutrients (Corg., Ntotal). Urease and saccharase activity properties reflect changes of fertilizer type and management and thus can be used as bio-indicators of soil fertility.

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