Tag Archives: flavonoids

xxx R. Nurzyńska-Wierdak, H. Łabuda, H. Buczkowska and A. Sałata
Pericarp of colored-seeded common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties a potential source of polyphenolic compounds
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Pericarp of colored-seeded common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties a potential source of polyphenolic compounds

R. Nurzyńska-Wierdak, H. Łabuda, H. Buczkowska* and A. Sałata

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Department of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants, Akademicka 15, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
*Correspondence: halina.buczkowska@up.lublin.pl

Abstract:

Bioactive substances produced by plants are defined as secondary metabolites causing different pharmacological effects in human organism. Various plant raw materials, some known as vegetables or spices, are their source. Pericarp of white-seeded common bean varieties is a pharmacopoeial product traditionally used as an antidiabetic agent. The object of this study was to evaluate the biological value of pericarp of colored beans (cultivars: ‘Małopolanka’, ‘Nida’, ‘Rawela’, ‘Tip Top’, and ‘Nigeria’) compared to the reference white-seeded cultivar (‘Laponia’). Bean pericarp was characterized by a high level of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Its phenolic acid content (expressed as caffeic acid equivalents) was at a similar level, at least 0.1 mg g-1 (0.01%). The highest amount of flavonoids was accumulated by the cultivars with dark blue and black seeds, respectively 0.138 and 0.139 mg g-1 DW, as well as by the white-seeded cultivar (0.132 mg g-1 DW). The highest antioxidant activity (AA) was found for bean extracts of the cultivars ‘Laponia’ and ‘Małopolanka’, respectively 12.35 and 12.10%. Phenolic acid content was significantly positively correlated with AA of the bean extracts tested. This study indicates that pericarp of the colored-seeded bean cultivars is characterized by high biological value and can be used as a source of polyphenolic compounds.

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xxx D. Baranenko, V. Bespalov, L. Nadtochii, I. Shestopalova, A. Chechetkina, A. Lepeshkin and V. Ilina
Development of encapsulated extracts on the basis of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) in the composition of functional foods with oncoprotective properties
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Development of encapsulated extracts on the basis of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) in the composition of functional foods with oncoprotective properties

D. Baranenko¹*, V. Bespalov¹², L. Nadtochii¹, I. Shestopalova¹, A. Chechetkina¹, A. Lepeshkin¹ and V. Ilina¹

¹ITMO University, International research centre "Biotechnologies of the Third Millennium", Lomonosov street 9, RU191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²N.N Petrov National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Laboratory of Cancer Chemoprevention and Oncopharmacology, Leningradskaya street 68, RU197758 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: denis.baranenko@niuitmo.ru

Abstract:

Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) is a quite common plant throughout the European countries, including Russia. Therapeutic and prophylactic properties of the meadowsweet are mainly associated with the action of biologically active substances (BAS), in particularly tannins, phenolic compounds, phenolcarboxylic acids, catechins, flavonoids, essential oils etc. The main substances with proven clinical effects are salicylates and flavonoids, what allows to consider meadowsweet as an anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, nootropic, adaptogenic and antihypoxic agent.
The aim of this study was to analyze the content of BAS in water and 70% ethyl alcohol extract of F. ulmaria flowers from different regions of Russia and develop their encapsulated forms for further use as an ingredient for functional food products.
To increase the shelf life of meadowsweet extracts and create a stable form for their delivery to the human body with various food products, encapsulated forms of extracts in the form of micro- and nanosized capsules were developed. The method of encapsulation was carried out using a spray dryer. It was shown that encapsulated meadowsweet BAS can be added to a chicken pate without negative effect on the organoleptic properties of the finished product. The calculation of the cost of the meat product with the complex functional dry mixture showed a slight increase in the cost of the final product compared to the traditional analogue. This study shows that encapsulated meadowsweet BAS can be used for inclusion in various food products, to ensure the functional properties of food and optimize the population’s rations.

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xxx L. Dubova, A. Senberga, I. Alsina, L. Strauta and I. Cinkmanis
Development of symbiotic interactions in the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) roots
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Development of symbiotic interactions in the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) roots

L. Dubova¹*, A. Senberga¹, I. Alsina¹, L. Strauta² and I. Cinkmanis³

¹Institute of Plant and Soil sciences, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Laboratory of Biotechnology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Strazdu street 1, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
³Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Food Technology, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: Laila.Dubova@llu.lv

Abstract:

Double-inoculation of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) seeds before sowing with rhizobium bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi is a known agronomic practice. It improves symbiotic nitrogen fixation and enhances legume supply with mineral elements and water. Effective symbiosis makes it possible to replace some of the required mineral fertilizer needed for plant growth with symbiotically fixed. This will ensure more environmentally friendly agricultural production. The formation of an effective symbiosis depends on a number of biotic and abiotic factors affecting the biochemical signals released by the partners. The biochemical mediator for symbiosis formation is flavonoids. The aim of this experiment was to test the effects of rhizobial and mycorrhizal inocula on symbiosis formation under different temperatures. Beans are an important source of protein for animal feed and human consumption. Four cultivars of faba beans were used – two V. faba var. minor Beck. -‘Fuego’ and ‘Lielplatone’, and two V. faba var. major Harz. – ‘Bartek’ and ‘Karmazyn’. The combination of microorganisms for seed inoculation influenced the frequency of root mycorrhization and abundance of arbuscules. The content of flavonoids in seed exudates correlated (r = 0.93) with germination temperatures. The use of mycorrhizal fungi alone or in combination with rhizobia reduced the amount of flavonoids in the bean seed exudate. In the pot experiment the amount and size of nodules significantly differed between cultivars. Use of mycorrhizal preparation mitigated the effect of inadequate germination temperature. Higher degree of mycorrhization and more intense formation of arbusculs formation was observed in the bean roots grown in vegetation pots in comparison with field ones. Local bred ‘Lielplatone’ had significantly better compatibility with microsymbionts in local agroclimatic conditions.

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xxx V. Strizhevskaya, М. Pavlenkova, S. Nemkova, N. Nosachyova, I. Simakova and E. Wolf
Possibility and prospects of preservation of minor components in technology of fruit raw materials conservation
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Possibility and prospects of preservation of minor components in technology of fruit raw materials conservation

V. Strizhevskaya, М. Pavlenkova, S. Nemkova, N. Nosachyova, I. Simakova* and E. Wolf

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Saratov State
Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilov, Department of Veterinary Medicine,
Biotechnology and Food Technology, Sokolovaya street, 335, RU410000 Saratov,
Russian
Correspondence: simakovaiv@yandex.ru

Abstract:

According to modern research, traditional methods of preserving fruits and vegetables do not allow obtaining products identical to natural products for biological value. At the same time, there is a need to provide the population with minor components of food, including concentrated form. The aim of the study was to preserve the minor components in canned fruit raw materials for a long time. The study was carried out comparing the data of bioflavonoids and vitamin C in fresh oranges and dehydrated oranges (immediately after dehydration and storage for 12 months). The analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC on Dionex Ultimate 3,000 chromatograph (‘Thermo Scientific’, USA) using Luna 5U C18(2) 100A, 5 μm 4.6 mm × 150 mm column (‘Phenomenex’, USA), system number 125617-12. The identification of components was performed by comparison of retention times of standard flavonoid samples. Dehydration was done by means of resonant IR drying, gradually lowering the temperature from intense (67–75 °C) to soft (32–35 °C) temperature regimes. Analysis of chromatograms of fresh and dehydrated oranges shows that they all have a similar profile, but differ significantly in the content of certain components. The presence of vitamin C 1,926.9 mg per 1 g of dehydrated oranges was noted, which is identical to the content of 10 g of fresh orange. The following flavonoids have been found: prunus and a component related to the polymer form of naringin, the content in 1 g of dehydrated oranges is approximately seven times more than that for 1 g of fresh orange. The loss of vitamin C by 8% during storage of dehydrated orange for 12 months was noted, the amount of flavonoids varies insignificantly by 2–3%. Studies have shown that the technology of dehydration with the help of resonance IR drying allows to keep the minor components in the native state for a long time.

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892-899 D. Sergejeva, I. Alsina, M. Duma, L. Dubova, I. Augspole, I. Erdberga and K. Berzina
Evaluation of different lighting sources on the growth and chemical composition of lettuce
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Evaluation of different lighting sources on the growth and chemical composition of lettuce

D. Sergejeva¹, I. Alsina¹*, M. Duma², L. Dubova¹, I. Augspole², I. Erdberga¹ and K. Berzina³

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant and Soil Science, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Riga Technical University, Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Kalku street 1, LV-1050 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: ina.alsina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Experiment were carried out in Latvia University of Agriculture in plant growth room. Lettuce Lactuca sativa L. var foliosum cv. ‘Dubacek’ and L .sativa L. cv. ‘Michalina’ were grown under 4 types of lights (luminescence lamps, commercial light emitting diodes (LED) lamps (V-TAC premium series – for plant growing) and two different Lumigrow LED strips – dominant wavelength- blue or red with 14 h photoperiod and total photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) 100 μmol m-2 s-1 in all variants. Plant weight, length, amount of leaves were measured. Content of chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenols, flavonoids in lettuce was determined three times per vegetation period. In experiments were found that higher lettuce yield was under commercial LED (V-TAC premium series), but these plants contain less soluble sugars, pigments and phenols. Better plant quality was obtained with luminescence lamps. These lettuces have higher sugar, phenols and flavonoids content. Lettuce growth under blue dominate LED (LEDb) was delayed, but these plants contain higher chlorophylls content. The differences in plant growth, response to light and biochemical content between cultivars were detected.

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1425-1434 G. Krumina–Zemture, I. Beitane and I. Cinkmanis
Flavonoids and total phenolic content in extruded buckwheat products with sweet and salty taste
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Flavonoids and total phenolic content in extruded buckwheat products with sweet and salty taste

G. Krumina–Zemture¹*, I. Beitane¹ and I. Cinkmanis²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Nutrition, Riga street 22, LV–3004, Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, Liela street 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: gita.krumina@llu.lv

Abstract:

The aim of research was to evaluate the effect of added ingredients used for taste improvement on flavonoids and total phenolic content in extruded buckwheat products. The added ingredients were – sugar, vanilla sugar, stevia, agave syrup, cinnamon, caraway, garlic powder, sweet pepper powder and salt. Six extruded buckwheat products were analysed, where an extruded buckwheat product without added ingredients was a control sample, two extruded buckwheat products were with sweet taste and three products with salty taste. Total phenolic content was determined using the modified Folin–Ciocalteu method but flavonoid content according to LC-TOF-MS method.
The highest total phenolic content (p < 0.05) was determined in extruded buckwheat product with vanilla sugar + stevia (91.17 ± 0.67 GAE mg 100g-1DW). It was almost three times higher than in the control sample. The significant differences were observed in extruded buckwheat products with caraway + salt + agave syrup (41.5 ± 0.12 GAE mg 100g-1DW) and sweet pepper powder + salt + agave syrup (42.39 ± 0.80 GAE mg 100g-1DW) comparing to other extruded products (p < 0.05). The highest content of rutin and quercetin (p < 0.05) was established in extruded buckwheat product with garlic powder + salt + agave syrup, whereas the highest content of catechin and epicatechin – in extruded buckwheat product with vanilla sugar + stevia. The extruded buckwheat product with caraway + salt + agave syrup in addition contained luteolin, kaempferol and isoquercitrin. The results of research showed that some added ingredients used for taste improvement can significantly influence the total phenolic content and flavonoid content.

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1322-1330 I. Augšpole, M. Dūma and B. Ozola
Bioactive compounds in herbal infusions
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Bioactive compounds in herbal infusions

I. Augšpole*, M. Dūma and B. Ozola

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, Liela iela 2, LV-3000, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: ingrida.augspole@llu.lv

Abstract:

Herbal teas are very popular and known as important source of biologically active compounds. Some of popular Latvian herbal teas: Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.), Matricaria chamomilla (Matricaria chamomilla), Lady’s-mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris L.), Jasmine (Jasminum officinale L.), Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) and Linden flowers (Tilia spp.) were selected for analysis. This study was carried out with the aim to investigate the effect of extraction time (10, 15, 20 min) on the content of total flavonoids and total phenols as well as antioxidant activity of herbal tea extracts. The infusions were prepared by usual domestic preparation technique using ground air-dried plant materials and boiling deionized water (0.055 μS cm-1) for extraction. Content of total flavonoids, total phenols and antioxidant activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Dry matter content was determined in lyophilized herbal infusions. The obtained results indicated that extraction time did not affected the content of biologically active compounds in the herbal infusions significantly (P > 0.05). The highest level of flavonoids was found in Jasmine and Lady’s-mantle infusions (average 104.98 ± 9.21 mg quercetin equivalent 100 g-1 and 115.28 ± 5.25 QE mg 100 g-1 respectivelly), while the lowest was determined in Matricaria chamomilla extract – (average 70.10 ± 4.68 QE mg 100 g-1). Lady’s-mantle tea contained the largest amount of total phenols (average 4126.62 ± 26.24 mg gallic acid equivalents 100g-1), the lowest – Calendula tea 1828.04 ± 10.37 mg GAE 100 g-1). Data analysis showed a close linear positive correlation between the content of total flavonoids and total phenols in herbal infusions (R2 = 0.872; r = 0.934) with the probability of 99%. In general, all samples tested in this study, demonstrated high level of antioxidant activity (from 75.04 to 91.54 mmol Trolox equivalents 100 g-1). Results of the present experiments demonstrated that content of dry matter in analysed herbal teas was significantly different (P < 0.05).

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1316–1329 L. Klavins, J. Kviesis, M. Klavins
Comparison of methods of extraction of phenolic compounds from American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) press residues
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Comparison of methods of extraction of phenolic compounds from American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) press residues

L. Klavins, J. Kviesis, M. Klavins*

University of Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd., LV–1586, Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) contain significant quantities of
various phenolic compounds. Most of these compounds are recovered when berry juice is
produced. However, a considerable part of polyphenols remain in berry press residues and are
discarded as food industry waste. The aim of the study was to compare the methods of extraction
of polyphenols (ultrasound, microwave-assisted, Soxhlet) from press residues of American
cranberry. The impact of main extraction parameters (e.g., extraction time, solid/solvent ratio,
solvent type) on the yield of extracted polyphenols. Ultrasound-assisted extraction showed the
highest potential from all studied methods, given its fast, convenient use and low cost. Aqueous
ethanol and methanol in the presence of acid (anthocyanin extractions should be assisted with
trifluoroacetic acid, polyphenol extractions – with HCl) were assessed as the best solvents for
extraction. The obtained extracts were characterised using the Folin-Ciocaulteu method for
determination of total phenolics and the pH-differential method for determination of total
anthocyanins, and UPLC–PDA was used to determine the content of individual anthocyanins.
Cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside, peonidin-3-O-galactoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-
O-arabinoside were identified as the main anthocyanins in cranberry press residue extracts.

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