Tag Archives: fruit quality

2727–2742 N. Krasova,, L. Ikase and D. Dēķena
Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia
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Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia

N. Krasova¹,*, L. Ikase² and D. Dēķena²

¹All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding, VNIISPK, Zhilina, Orel district, RU302530 Orel oblast, Russia
²Institute of Horticulture, Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Apple selections of Latvian breeding were evaluated in the Central zone of Russia since 1980, in total 32 cultivars and hybrids. After long-term evaluation, the following can be recommended for use in breeding of scab resistant cultivars with high quality fruits – ‘Dace’ (gene Rvi6), ‘Arona’, and good storage – ‘Edite’ (Rvi6), ‘Forele’, ‘Olga’, ‘Маdоna’, for breeding of early cultivars – ‘Roberts’ and DI-93-4-8, both resistant to scab (gene Rvi6) and fruit rots. Cultivars and hybrids with the best cold resistance of vital tissues were selected by artificially modelling winter-hardiness components − early colds (1st component) and mid-winter colds up to -38 °C (2nd component), showing reversible damages not exceeding 2.0 points: ‘Daina’, ‘Ella’, ‘Atmoda’, ‘Gita’, ‘Saiva’, of which the last 3 maintained high hardiness of bark, cambium and xylem with slight increase of bud damages also at -40 °C. Cultivars ‘Daina’ and ‘Ella’ showed resistance of buds and vital tissues on the level of ‘Antonovka’ after modelling a thaw with following freezing to -25 °С (3rd component), which suggests tolerance to fluctuating winter temperatures. These cultivars demonstrated good adaptation to different environment conditions and may be considered in breeding of new adaptive apple cultivars with high fruit quality.

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2715–2726 A. Kikas,, R. Rätsep,, H. Kaldmäe, A. Aluvee and A.-V. Libek
Comparison of Polyphenols and Anthocyanin Content of Different Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) Cultivars at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre in Estonia
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Comparison of Polyphenols and Anthocyanin Content of Different Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) Cultivars at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre in Estonia

A. Kikas¹,*, R. Rätsep¹,², H. Kaldmäe¹, A. Aluvee¹ and A.-V. Libek¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Polli Horticultural Research Centre, Uus 2, Polli, EE69108 Viljandi county, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, ERA Chair for Food (By-) Products Valorisation Technologies, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The evaluation of blackcurrant cultivars and their fruit properties at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre has been active since 1945. In addition to the assessment of biological and economic properties of cultivars, it is essential to pay attention to fruit quality. In 2014, the laboratory building of Polli Horticultural Research Centre was reconstructed within the PlantValor competence centre project, enabling to introduce HPLC methods for the determination of polyphenolic compounds in fruit quality analysis. In 2017 and 2018, the fruit quality of 37 blackcurrant cultivars of different geographical origin (Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Scotland, Sweden and Ukraine) was analysed. All cultivars were grown in the genetic resources collection (2008–2019) located at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre. The main aim of the study was to analyse the content of polyphenols and anthocyanins for selecting suitable blackcurrant genotypes for breeding programmes, fruit production and possible product development. In two consecutive years of the study, the total polyphenols content in the fruits of different cultivars varied 290–634 mg 100 g-1 fresh weight (fw) and the anthocyanins 183–471 mg 100 g-1 fw.

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2701–2714 L. Ikase and E. Rubauskis
Evaluation of Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids in Latvia
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Evaluation of Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids in Latvia

L. Ikase* and E. Rubauskis

Institute of Horticulture (LatHort), Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Estonian apples have always been popular in Latvia. At present, ‘Tiina’ is widely grown commercially as well as in home gardens, and ‘Liivika’ is promising for organic and home orchards. A number of new Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids have been screened in 1990–2020. Several new selections by breeder Kalju Kask (Polli) are included in field trials at Institute of Horticulture – ‘Aule’, ‘Kastar’ and KK 201-2 (‘Karlote’) since 2011, ‘Kersti’ since 2014, KK 5-16 (‘Kelin’) with scab resistance gene Rvi6 and KK 2812 since 2015. Their trees were planted on dwarfing rootstock B.9 as one-year-old whips at distances 1.5×4 m, in 3 to 5 replications with 2 or 1 trees. Commercial cultivars ‘Auksis’, ‘Antei’ and ‘Zarya Alatau’ were used as controls. The highest productivity had ‘Aule’ and ‘Kastar’, the best fruit quality – ‘Aule’ and ‘Kelin’. ‘Aule’ has been highly esteemed also by some Latvian farmers. Fruits of ‘Kelin’ had the best storage, which is crucial for a cultivar’s commercial success in Latvia. On the other side, ‘Kersti’ proved to be unsuitable for Latvian conditions, having very strong tree vigour and low yields. ‘Kastar’ showed a high tendency to fruit cracking at calyx, while KK 201-2 and KK 2812 had irregular or low yields. Of newer acquisitions, scab resistant (gene Rvi6) ‘Virve’ and KK 4-11 show good preliminary results and have been propagated for trials on dwarfing rootstocks. Productivity, tree characteristics, fruit quality traits and taste panel evaluation of Estonian apples in Latvia are discussed.

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872-883 T.K. Sajyan, N. Shaban, J. Rizkallah and Y.N. Sassine
Effects of Monopotassium-phosphate, Nano-calcium fertilizer, Acetyl salicylic acid and Glycinebetaine application on growth and production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crop under salt stress
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Effects of Monopotassium-phosphate, Nano-calcium fertilizer, Acetyl salicylic acid and Glycinebetaine application on growth and production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crop under salt stress

T.K. Sajyan¹*, N. Shaban¹, J. Rizkallah² and Y.N. Sassine³

¹University of Forestry, 10 Kliment Ohridski blvd, BG1797 Sofia, Bulgaria
²Lebanese University, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Technology, Dekwaneh, Beirut, Lebanon
³Lebanese University, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Department of Horticulture, Dekwaneh, Beirut, Lebanon
*Correspondance: Tony.sajyan@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Salinity problem is increasingly affecting tomato production in Lebanon leading to economic losses. The study investigated the potential effects of nano-Calcium (LITHOVIT®), monopotassium-phosphate (MKP: 0-52-34) fertilizers, Acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin) and the osmoregulator glycinebetaine (GB) on salt tolerance of potted determinate tomato (variety Sila) plants in open-field. Salt stress was induced by irrigation solutions of EC = 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mS cm-1 and MKP (2, 3 and 3.5 g L-1), Aspirin (50, 75 and 100 mg L-1), LITHOVIT® (0.5, 0.75 and 1 g L-1) and GB (4.5, 6 and 7.5 g L-1) were applied through foliar application or fertigation. Comparisons between treated and non-treated plants at each salinity level (control) showed that LITHOVIT® decreased the salinity-induced reductions in stem diameter, leaf area and chlorophyll content. Medium concentrations of LITHOVIT® and Aspirin improved stem diameter and all products except Glycinebetaine improved flower number compared to control. Root dry weight and Root Mass Fraction were mostly enhanced in MKP and Aspirin-treated plants. Best improvement in plant yield (76%) was obtained with low concentrations of MKP and LITHOVIT® at EC = 8 mS cm-1 due to improvement in fruit number rather than fruit weight. Consequently, LITHOVIT® and MKP showed superior effects under salt stress compared to Aspirin and Glycinebtaine.

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1878–1889 V. Farina, G. Gianguzzi, A. Mazzaglia and G. Sortino
Instrumental and sensory evaluation of seven apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars under organic cultivation in Sicily
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Instrumental and sensory evaluation of seven apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars under organic cultivation in Sicily

V. Farina¹, G. Gianguzzi¹, A. Mazzaglia² and G. Sortino¹*

¹University of Palermo, Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences – Viale delle Scienze, ed.4 ingresso H-90128 Palermo, Italy
²University of Catania, Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Alimentazione e Ambiente (Di3A), via Santa Sofia 98, Catania, Italy
*Correspondence: giuseppe.sortino@unipa.it

Abstract:

In this trial we examined the quality of 7 clones belonging to more diffused apple polyclonal varietal groups, using chemical/physical and sensory analyses during two consecutive years. Galaxy, and their ameliorative clones Gala Annaglò® and Dalitoga (Gala clones) that ripen in summer, Erovan* Early Red One® and Scarlet Spur*-Evasni® (Red Delicious clone), Corail Pinova and its ameliorative clone RoHo 3615 * Evelina® that ripen in autumn were studied. Gala Annaglò® is interesting for the fruit size and peel color, Dalitoga for the early ripening and Galaxy for the crunchiness and consistency. All the Gala clones reached very high total solid soluble content confirmed by the panel judgment of the sweetness and acidity descriptors. The Red Delicious clones confirm the larger size and the high colorimetric standard of all covered red fruits; the new clone Scarlet Spur*-Evasni® reached an interesting fruit size and peel colour intensity and uniformity, and the best total solid soluble content to total acidity ratio confirmed by the sensory descriptors of acidity and sweetness. Moreover, it reached very high values of crunchiness, consistency and interesting values of apple flavour, honey flavour and fruit flavour. The ameliorative clone RoHo 3615*Evelina® was characterized by well uniform and intense coloured fruits and a more balanced total solid soluble content to total acidity ratio, and interesting values of crunchiness, consistency, apple flavour, honey flavour and fruit flavour. This study confirms the relationship between instrumental and sensory analysis.

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37–44 H. Jänes and A. Pae
First results of a dwarfing plum rootstocks trial
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First results of a dwarfing plum rootstocks trial

H. Jänes¹ and A. Pae²

¹Polli Horticultural Institute of the Estonian Agricultural University, 69104 Karksi-Nuia, Viljandimaa, Estonia; e-mail: heljo11@hot.ee
²Department of Horticulture of the Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

For many years, Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. seedlings of high vigour have been the most widespread seedling rootstock in Estonia. Plum growers are interested in less vigorous plum rootstocks which are productive with good fruit quality, easily harvested, early fruiting and less expensive to manage. In a new experiment (a collaborative project together with Latvian, Lithuanian and Byelorussian scientists), two plum cultivars, Queen Victoria and Kubanskaya Kometa, grafted onto 16 different rootstocks:Prunus Ackermann, Prunus Brompton, Prunus Brompton S, Prunus G 5–22, Prunus marianna GF 8–1, Prunus St. Julien A, Prunus St. Julien GF 655/2, Prunus St. Julien INRA 2, Prunus St. Julien Noir, Prunus St. Julien d’Orleans, Prunus St. Julien Wädenswill, Prunus Pixy, Prunus domestica Wangenheims, Prunus cerasifera ‘Hamyra’, P. cerasifera (local) and P. cerasifera myrobalana, were planted in an orchard in spring 2001. The objectives of these trials were to give an assessment of newly introduced plum rootstocks and to find out their compatibility with the studied plum cultivars. According to the results obtained in the first growing season, 45 (11.7%) of the 384 trees planted in 2001 died. The lowest tree dimensions both of ‘Queen Victoria’ and ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ were noted on Prunus St. Julien Wädenswill. Trees of ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ on different rootstocks started to bear fruit in the 2nd year after planting (except P. cerasifera Hamyra). ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ trees grown on Prunus St. Julien INRA 2 and Prunus St. Julien Noir produced significantly better first yield than on control rootstocks. ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ on Prunus St. Julien A and Prunus Pixy gave the largest fruits (41 g and 40.5 g, respectively).

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