Tag Archives: fuel consumption

873–882 J. Pavlu, V. Jurca, Z. Ales and M. Pexa
Comparison of methods for fuel consumption measuring of vehicles
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Comparison of methods for fuel consumption measuring of vehicles

J. Pavlu*, V. Jurca, Z. Ales and M. Pexa

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jindrichpavlu@seznam.cz

Abstract:

 Essential task for companies in these days is to reduce operating costs and optimization of workflow processes of machines, in order to increase the competitiveness and productivity. Telematics systems is relatively widespread and utilized for fleet management and enables collecting a wide range of operating parameters. One of the monitored parameters of operating costs is fuel consumption of machines. The collection of data on fuel consumption can be realized using various methods. By default, the fuel consumption data is transmitted from CAN–BUS which does not always coincide with the value of the real fuel consumption. Another possible way of fuel consumption monitoring is realized via installation of capacitance probe mounted directly into the fuel tank. The principle of measurement of these two methods is different, and each method has its own specifics. For instance, a capacitive probe enables detection of non-standard decreases of fuel level in the fuel tank. The aim of this paper is to compare the methods of fuel consumption measuring via the CAN–BUS and utilization of capacitive fuel probe. Measuring unit Gcom was used for collecting data which sends data of fuel consumption to the server in real–time. The purpose of this paper is to prove or disprove the hypothesis that measured fuel consumption is statistically significant between measuring via CAN-BUS compared to capacitance probe.

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540–546 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, F. Kumhála and R. Pražan
Estimation of mulching energy intensity
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Estimation of mulching energy intensity

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík,¹*, F. Kumhála² and R. Pražan³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and
Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural
Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ 161 01
Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Mulching is one of the energy-intensive activities in agriculture. The energy is gained from the consumed fuel. Besides the consumed fuel the combustion engine produces harmful and unharmful exhaust gases. The general trend is to reduce the production of harmful constituents of emissions as well as carbone dioxide. This can be achieved by various construction modifications or additional modifications of exhaust gases. It is possible to estimate the energy intensity in advance by several different ways. The paper presents the estimation based on measured complete characteristics of emissions production and the fuel consumption of used combustion engine and on the measured on-board data. The results show that the estimation of fuel consumption and thus also production of carbon dioxide can be relatively successful. The estimation differs quite significantly for other emissions components. During different transition modes of the combustion engine there is a change of emissions production which is hard to describe. The solution could lie in use of other parameters determining the operation mode of the engine in addition to the commonly used speed and torque of the combustion engine.

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167–173 B. Peterka, M. Pexa, J. Čedík and Z. Aleš
The influence of biobutanol on performance parameters of mobile generator
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The influence of biobutanol on performance parameters of mobile generator

B. Peterka, M. Pexa, J. Čedík* and Z. Aleš

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for
Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 165 21 Prague 6,
Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The expansion of biofuel also affects the area of using small internal combustion engines, which are widely used in municipal equipment such as minitractors,  chainsaws, mowers and brush cutters. These small engines have their specific  operation conditions, especially given by high operating speeds and high loads. Current legislation for fuel BA 95 prescribes the addition of ethanol. The percentage is however very small nearly not affecting the operation of combustion engines. The paper is focused on biobutanol since it is considered as more advanced type of alcohol based fuel than bioethanol. The measurement is focused on a small combustion engine of portable generator with maximum power of 2.5 kW. There is monitored influence of biobutanol on their performance parameters. As the mixing ratios are in the range of 100% fuel BA 95 (without ethanol) to 100% biobutanol.

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1332-1341 M. Kotek, P. Jindra and J. Mařík
Speed limits and their impact on emissions production and fuel consumption
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Speed limits and their impact on emissions production and fuel consumption

M. Kotek, P. Jindra* and J. Mařík

Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech republic
*Correspondence: jindrap@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article deals with emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in real traffic conditions. The aim of this study was to prove or disprove correctness of the decision of Prague city government to change the speed limits from 70 km h-1 to 50 km h-1 on the parts of one main road leading to/from Prague. For measurements in real traffic conditions was used 2 typical Czech cars Skoda with manual transmission (Fabia 1.2 MPI with petrol engine and Octavia 2.0 TDI with diesel engine). Measurements were performed on both of directions on defined road segment.

At speed 50 km h-1 the measurement was repeated 5 times at 3rd and 5 times on 4th gear. Similarly at speed 70 km h-1 the measurement was repeated 5 times at the 4th and 5th gear. The aim was to operate the vehicle in the normal engine loads.
The results demonstrate the fundamental assumption that at the higher allowed vehicle speed the engine is more loaded and therefore produces a higher amount of emissions, but according to a higher vehicle speed the emissions are produced on the defined segment for the shorter time. A similar trend is evident even in fuel consumption. The results also indicate the depending on the power reserve of specific vehicle. When the vehicle is more powerful, higher permitted speed is preferable.

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541-549 J. Čedík,, M. Pexa, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine
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Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine

J. Čedík¹,*, M. Pexa¹, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of butanol produced from organic products. The use of pure butanol in diesel engines is not possible. However, it may be used as an additive for fuels of petroleum origin or adding to oil for improving the operating conditions of the engine. Successively 10, 30 and 50% n-butanol was used as an additive. Turbocharged combustion engine of the tractor Zetor 8641 Foretrra was used to the test. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance parameters and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurements. Performance parameters of the engine decreases and fuel consumption increases due to the properties of butanol. Cleansing properties of butanol which restrict carbonization on functional surfaces of the engine seems advantageous.

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585-595 M. Lukeš, M. Kotek and M. Růžička
The energy consumption of public transit under rural and suburban conditions
Abstract |
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The energy consumption of public transit under rural and suburban conditions

M. Lukeš*, M. Kotek and M. Růžička

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: lukesm@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of paper is to investigate an energy consumption of public transit focused on regular commuting from suburban locations. Surveyed suburban settlements have become a part of ‘urban sprawl’ process in the suburbanized hinterland of Prague’s city. The transport links are strongly influenced by the catchment area of Prague’s city that has a dominant position in surveyed region and the most of the existing transport links are carried out in relation to the Prague’s city on radially oriented roads. The traffic intensities are often on a roads’ full capacity during peak hours or the roads are even congested alongside a ride to the city. The 10 suburban settlements were selected for the purpose of the fuel consumption investigation. Authors have focused on the journeys carried out during the morning peak hours of the ordinary working days when the transport demands are saturated. The fuel consumption investigation has involved the journeys by public transit (commuter bus) and by passenger car. Obtained results have proved possibilities of significant fuel consumption savings under condition that the bus transit preference would be effectively used. The energy efficiency of bus public transit allows to achieve the similar energy consumption per passenger as an ordinary passenger car has at a low occupancy rate of bus.

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613-620 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (772 KB)

Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík¹,*, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of oils from biological materials. The use of the oil in standard engines is not usually possible. The engine modification or the fuel modification is necessary. Esterification or hydrogenation of oils can be used as the fuel modification. Impact of these changes on the operational characteristics of a turbocharged internal combustion engine is observed in the paper. The internal combustion engine of the tractor Zetor Foretrra 8641 was used for testing. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurement. As fuels the 100% rapeseed methyl ester and 100% hydrogenated oil was elected. Based on the results we can say that the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine does not change significantly when using these fuels.

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541-549 J. Čedík,, M. Pexa, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine
Abstract |
Full text PDF (851 KB)

Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine

J. Čedík¹,*, M. Pexa¹, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of butanol produced from organic products. The use of pure butanol in diesel engines is not possible. However, it may be used as an additive for fuels of petroleum origin or adding to oil for improving the operating conditions of the engine. Successively 10, 30 and 50% n-butanol was used as an additive. Turbocharged combustion engine of the tractor Zetor 8641 Foretrra was used to the test. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance parameters and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurements. Performance parameters of the engine decreases and fuel consumption increases due to the properties of butanol. Cleansing properties of butanol which restrict carbonization on functional surfaces of the engine seems advantageous.

Key words:

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585-595 M. Lukeš, M. Kotek and M. Růžička
The energy consumption of public transit under rural and suburban conditions
Abstract |
Full text PDF (739 KB)

The energy consumption of public transit under rural and suburban conditions

M. Lukeš*, M. Kotek and M. Růžička

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: lukesm@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of paper is to investigate an energy consumption of public transit focused on regular commuting from suburban locations. Surveyed suburban settlements have become a part of ‘urban sprawl’ process in the suburbanized hinterland of Prague’s city. The transport links are strongly influenced by the catchment area of Prague’s city that has a dominant position in surveyed region and the most of the existing transport links are carried out in relation to the Prague’s city on radially oriented roads. The traffic intensities are often on a roads’ full capacity during peak hours or the roads are even congested alongside a ride to the city. The 10 suburban settlements were selected for the purpose of the fuel consumption investigation. Authors have focused on the journeys carried out during the morning peak hours of the ordinary working days when the transport demands are saturated. The fuel consumption investigation has involved the journeys by public transit (commuter bus) and by passenger car. Obtained results have proved possibilities of significant fuel consumption savings under condition that the bus transit preference would be effectively used. The energy efficiency of bus public transit allows to achieve the similar energy consumption per passenger as an ordinary passenger car has at a low occupancy rate of bus.

Key words:

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613-620 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (772 KB)

Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík¹,*, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of oils from biological materials. The use of the oil in standard engines is not usually possible. The engine modification or the fuel modification is necessary. Esterification or hydrogenation of oils can be used as the fuel modification. Impact of these changes on the operational characteristics of a turbocharged internal combustion engine is observed in the paper. The internal combustion engine of the tractor Zetor Foretrra 8641 was used for testing. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurement. As fuels the 100% rapeseed methyl ester and 100% hydrogenated oil was elected. Based on the results we can say that the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine does not change significantly when using these fuels.

Key words:

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