Tag Archives: fungicides

407-411 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, V. Vasar and H. Roostalu
The effect of pests on the yield and economical value of cereals
Abstract |

The effect of pests on the yield and economical value of cereals

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, V. Vasar² and H. Roostalu¹

¹ Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; tel. +372-7-313522, e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee
² Research Centre EVIKA Tallinn University of Technology,Teaduse 6a, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

Abstract: One of the most serious factors that limit the yield of cereal crops is fungal diseases. In the Estonian University of Life Sciences field trials with various spray programs of fungicides were conducted to determine the efficacy and economical value of different pesticide combinations. The spray programs with full dose rates of fungicides were not always economically justified nor were the multiple application systems. Yield increase up to 35% in spring wheat and up to 33% in barley was achieved when the timing of pesticide application was optimal and the crop stand was good and had high yield potential. The dominating disease in spring wheat on both trial years was Septoria spp. The best control was provided by fungicide Opera (active ingredients pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole). Barley was infected mostly by Pyrenophora teres. The economical efficiency of disease control depended primarily on the weather conditions, crop stand and the quality of cereals. Application of pesticides was economically more effective in spring wheat. Therefore multiple application programs with more expensive pesticides can be recommended. The dense crop stand and an environment favorable for distribution of diseases increased the efficacy of fungicides on barley.

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237-240 M. Kopacki and A. Wagner
Effect of some fungicides on mycelium growth of Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. pathogenic to chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev)
Abstract |

Effect of some fungicides on mycelium growth of Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc. pathogenic to chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev)

M. Kopacki and A. Wagner

Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Agricultural University,Leszczynskiego 7, 20-069 Lublin, Poland; e-mail: marek.kopacki@ar.lublin.pl

Abstract:

Ten fungicides were tested in vitro for their effectiveness to inhibit the linear growth of three isolates of Fusarium avenaceum of proven pathogenicity to chrysanthemum. The measurements were taken after 4 and 8 days of fungus growth in the presence of fungicides in three concentrations. The most effective in vitro proved to be the fungicides containing difenaconazole, carbendazim and flusilazol while the least effective were mancozeb, chlorothalonil and captan. The isolates of F. avenaceum differed in their susceptibility to tested fungicides.

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363-366 R. Semaškienė, A. Mankevičienė, Z. Dabkevičius and S. Supronienė
Effect of fungicides on Fusarium infection and production of deoxynivalenol in spring cereals
Abstract |

Effect of fungicides on Fusarium infection and production of deoxynivalenol in spring cereals

R. Semaškienė, A. Mankevičienė, Z. Dabkevičius and S. Supronienė

Department of Plant Pathology and Protection, Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture,Instituto 1, LT 58344 Akademija, Kedainiu distr., Lithuania; e-mail: roma@lzi.lt, audre@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Field trials in spring wheat and spring barley were carried out over two years in Dotnuva, in the center of Lithuania. Different fungicidal spray programs were used in 2004-2005 to determine their efficacy in controlling Fusarium infection and toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation in the grain. Azoxystrobin alone, and in a tank mixture with tebucanozole, a commercial mixture of prothioconazole and tebuconazole were used in spring barley. Epoxiconazole commercial mixture with pyraclostrobin and fenpropimorph, and tebuconazole alone were used in spring wheat. Fungicides were used at booting and heading or flowering stages. Naturally contaminated freshly harvested grain was analyzed. The Fusarium fungi infection level in grain was very high in both experimental years: in 2004 the level was 38.5–50.0%, and in 2005,45.0–70.8%. A lower percent of infected grains was found in spring wheat compared with spring barley. During 2004 there was identified 16.8–28.3% infection level; in 2005, 28.3–49.3%. Only in 2005 did fungicide treatments at heading or flowering slightly reduce the Fusarium infection. The level of mycotoxin DON detected in the grain samples was generally low and varied from 21 to 168 µg kg-1.

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389-392 P. Sooväli, M. Koppel and H. Nurmekivi
Optimization of chemical disease control in spring wheat
Abstract |

Optimization of chemical disease control in spring wheat

P. Sooväli, M. Koppel and H. Nurmekivi

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia; e-mail: pille.soovali@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Septoria leaf blotch complex (Septoria tritici and Septoria nodorum) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) are common foliar diseases of spring wheat in Estonia. This paper reports results of multi-site field experiments performed on spring wheat varieties Tjalve and Munk during 2003–2004 in Estonia. Fungicides Falcon 460 EC and Opera were used in full and reduced doses of one or split applications. The aim of the current study was to obtain efficient disease control and to identify the impact of fungicide application on yield at the time of fungicide application. The biological efficiency of fungicides was assessed based on disease scorings made until growing stages 75–77. The trial results show that biologically and economically effective control of wheat diseases could be achieved with timely use of lowered fungicide doses. Spraying at growing stages 41–55 will often be enough to achieve good control of serious attacks by Septoria.

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403-406 E. Survilienė and E. Dambrauskienė
Effect of different active ingredients of fungicides on Alternaria spp. growth in vitro
Abstract |

Effect of different active ingredients of fungicides on Alternaria spp. growth in vitro

E. Survilienė and E. Dambrauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: e.surviliene@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The impact of different active ingredients of fungicides on the development of Alternaria species in vitro was estimated by using Amistar 250 SC (azoxystrobin), Signum 334 WG (boscalid, pyraclostrobin), Zato 50 WG (trifloxystrobin) and Folicur 250 EW (tebuconazol). The growth colonies of micromycetes Alternaria alternata (isolated from Thymus vulgaris, Levisticum officinale), Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae (isolated from Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. alba) and Alternaria dauci (isolated from Daucus carota) were tested on the potato dextrose agar medium with additions of fungicides. All tested fungicides showed sufficient inhibitory activity on the growth Alternaria spp. colonies, , which decreased on average from 94-25% over 21 days in comparison with the control.

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