Tag Archives: Genetic diversity

xxx V. Šķipars, D. Ruņģis, I. Ločmele, S. Seile, I. Mežaka and L. Legzdiņa
Evaluation of morphological traits, genetic diversity and major resistance genes in barley subpopulations cultivated under organic and conventional farming systems
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Evaluation of morphological traits, genetic diversity and major resistance genes in barley subpopulations cultivated under organic and conventional farming systems

V. Šķipars¹²*, D. Ruņģis², I. Ločmele¹, S. Seile¹, I. Mežaka¹ and L. Legzdiņa¹

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, 2 Zinatnes Str., LV-4126 Priekuli, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Genetic Resources Centre, 111 Rigas Str., LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilnis.skipars@silava.lv

Abstract:

Most crop varieties currently grown in organic conditions have been bred for conventional farming, and are not adapted to increased environmental variability under organic farming conditions and unpredictable environmental fluctuations due to climate change. This can be mitigated by the use of heterogeneous material, increasing genetic diversity and enabling adaptation to local conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of several generations of cultivation in parallel under organic and conventional farming systems on the genetic diversity, morphological traits and frequency of major disease resistance genes as indicators of adaptation to the farming system in heterogeneous spring barley populations with differing levels of diversity. Populations in differing generations originating from crosses between two, three, 10 and 15 parental genotypes were cultivated in organic and conventional farming systems for three, four or 10 generations, thus forming subpopulations in each environment. These subpopulations were genotyped, and tested for morphological traits in both farming systems. A significant effect of cultivation environment on tillering capacity (p < 0.05) was found for all tested populations and in several cases for plant height, ear length and grain number per spike, indicating some adaptation trends. In the short term, genetic diversity parameters were not decreased in the later generation populations in comparison to the initial populations with the exception of observed heterozygosity, as expected for a self-pollinating species. No clear differences in genetic diversity parameters between populations cultivated under either organic or conventional condition for several generations were identified.

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1649-1659 C.H. Galeano Mendoza, I. Cerón-Souza and L.V. Arango
Agronomic evaluation of a Colombian passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) germplasm collection
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Agronomic evaluation of a Colombian passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) germplasm collection

C.H. Galeano Mendoza¹*, I. Cerón-Souza² and L.V. Arango¹

¹Centro de Investigación Palmira, Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria – AGROSAVIA. Diagonal a la intersección de la Carrera 36A con Calle 23, Palmira, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
²Centro de Investigación Tibaitatá, Corporación Colombiana de investigación Agropecuaria – AGROSAVIA. Km 14 vía Bogotá-Mosquera, Cundinamarca, Colombia
*Correspondence: cgaleano@corpoica.org.co

Abstract:

Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) is one of the most promissory crops in Colombia with approximately 7,400 ha cultivated, an average production of 89,000 t and an average yield of 15 t ha-1. However, low yields as well as harvest problems including fruit quality, generate important losses, mainly due to lack of improved cultivars with particular characteristics for each market (fresh consumption, agroindustry) and specific adaptations to biotic and abiotic stress factors in producer areas. Therefore, as a pre-breeding phase, this study aimed at characterizing preliminary the production and physiochemical characteristics of 60 passion fruit germplasm accessions maintained in Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (AGROSAVIA). We cultivated these accessions in the field for 22 months between 2014 and 2015, measuring 17 variables associated to both yield production and fruit quality. We analysed data using phenetic and multivariate methods to establish levels of genetic diversity. Additionally, we constructed a selection index (SI) with the most informative variables to select individuals according to fruit weight, shape and colour, as well as juice percentage. Results of genetic grouping and principal components showed a broad genetic diversity across the working collection, without any population substructure. Fruit volume, pulp and seed weight were the variables that explained 80% of the phenotypic variation. Finally, we identified 30 promissory accessions as parental for the first cycle of recurrent selection using the SI. We conclude that this core collection represents the diversity included in the working collection with promissory accessions to initiate an intra-population recurrent selection program.

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2217–2225 M. Zargar, E. Romanova, A. Trifonova, E. Shmelkova and P. Kezimana
AFLP-analysis of genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (l.) Merr.] cultivars Russian and foreign selection
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AFLP-analysis of genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (l.) Merr.] cultivars Russian and foreign selection

M. Zargar¹*, E. Romanova¹, A. Trifonova², E. Shmelkova¹ and P. Kezimana¹

¹Department of AgroBiotechnology, Institute of Agriculture, RUDN University, RU117198 Moscow, Russia
²Laboratory of Plant Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, RU119333 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: zargar_m@pfur.ru

Abstract:

Genetic diversity of 11 cultivars of soybean (Glycine max) from a VIR (N.I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources) collection was analyzed by the AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique. From 18 tested primer combinations, both of them were selected for further analysis. From these two primer combinations (E32/M60 and E32/M59), 90 DNA fragments were obtained, 39 (43%) of them were polymorphic. Unique DNA fragments were found in accessions SibNIISHoz 6, Soer-4, Determinant. The Jaccard’s similarity indices varied from 0.79 (between Sonata and Ugra) to 0.94 (between Ugra and Garmoniya) with an average of 0.775. Cluster analysis placed the cultivars into the several groups but separation in groups was not related to their origin or biological characteristics, even though cultivars Nordik and Soer-4 (cultivars recommended for Central Black Earth region of Russia) clustered together on the dendrogram. The obtained high values of Jaccard genetic similarity index and low level of polymorphism and differentiation illustrated a relatively low genetic diversity in our studied cultivars, which correlated with different other studies on soybean genetic diversity with AFLP-analysis.

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