Tag Archives: grain quality

91-102 I.P. Diordiieva, L.O. Riabovol, Ya.S. Riabovol, O.P. Serzhuk, Iu.І. Nakloka, О.P. Nakloka and S.P. Karychkovska
Breeding and genetic improvement of soft winter wheat with the use of spelt wheat
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Breeding and genetic improvement of soft winter wheat with the use of spelt wheat

I.P. Diordiieva¹, L.O. Riabovol¹, Ya.S. Riabovol², O.P. Serzhuk¹, Iu.І. Nakloka³, О.P. Nakloka⁴ and S.P. Karychkovska⁵

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Limagrain Ukraine LLC, 55 Turgenevskaya Str., 04050 Kiev, Ukraine
³Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of General Agriculture, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
⁴Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Vegetable growing, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
⁵Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and foreign languages, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: diordieva201443@gmail.com

Abstract:

In the process of carrying out studies as a result of hybridization of soft wheat with spelt wheat, a number of new forms that differ in morphobiological and economically valuable features were obtained. The aim of the research was to expand the genetic diversity of soft wheat by hybridization with spelt wheat, analysis of the heterotic effect in hybrids in order to systematize the samples and obtain valuable original forms for the breeding process of creating high-yielding varieties.

As a result of research the breeding technology of creating high-yielding forms of soft winter wheat by cross-species hybridization of Triticum aestivum L. × Triticum spelta L. has been improved. It has been determined that the plant height and ear length in hybrids are inherited by type of intermediate inheritance or negative dominance, the number of grains in the ear – by type of intermediate inheritance or positive dominance; ear grain weight – by type of superdominance or positive dominance. In F2 hybrids there is a dihybrid cleavage into forms with speltoid, squarehead and typical ear with a quantitative predominance of speltoid plants, which indicates the control of the ‘ear shape’ indication by two non-allelic genes. The ear shape of the soft wheat original varieties in relation to speltoid varieties turned out to be a recessive trait, but at the same time it was dominant to a squarehead form. Regardless of the genotypes of soft wheat included in the combination of crossbreeding with spelt wheat, red color ear indication was determined by a monogenic type of inheritance. Varieties of soft winter wheat Artaplot, Umanska Tsarivna and Freya have been created, which are included in the State Registry of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine and recommended for cultivation in Polissia.

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500-509 L. Litke Z. Gaile and A. Ruža
Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality
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Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality

L. Litke¹²* Z. Gaile¹ and A. Ruža¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Lielā iela 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Study Farm "Pēterlauki", Lielā iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: linda.litke@llu.lv

Abstract:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most common cereal, which is grown in Latvia. Nowadays, farmers are trying to get high grain yields in line with food quality, at the same time trying to minimize production costs and to use environmentally friendly technologies. The objective of this experiment was to clarify the impact of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality under two soil tillage systems and after two forecrops. Trials were conducted at the Research and Study farm ‘Peterlauki’ of Latvia University of Agriculture (56° 30.658’ N and 23° 41.580’ E). Researched factors were (1) crop rotation (wheat/wheat and oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera)/wheat), (2) soil tillage (traditional soil tillage with mould-board ploughing at a depth of 22–24 cm and reduced soil tillage with disc harrowing at a depth below 10 cm), (3) nitrogen fertilizer rate (altogether eight rates: N0 or control, N60, N90, N120(90+30), N150(90+60), N180(90+60+30), N210(90+70+50), and N240(120+60+60)), and (4) conditions of the growing seasons 2014/2015, 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The results indicate that winter wheat yield has been significantly affected by soil tillage, nitrogen fertilizer rate (p < 0.001) and forecrop (p < 0.05). Three-year research confirmed significant yield increase until the nitrogen fertilizer rate N180. Significantly higher average grain yield was obtained under traditional soil tillage. Nitrogen fertilizer affected significantly all tested yield quality indicators (p < 0.001). Increase of nitrogen fertilizer rate secured significant increase of winter wheat grain quality indices, except starch content, after both forecrops and in both soil tillage variants. Values of yield quality indicators increased significantly enhancing N-rate from N150 up to N210

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749-759 S. Zute, Z. Vīcupe and M. Gruntiņa
Factors influencing oat grain yield and quality under growing conditions of West Latvia
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Factors influencing oat grain yield and quality under growing conditions of West Latvia

S. Zute, Z. Vīcupe and M. Gruntiņa

State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, Dižstende, Talsi region, Latvia, LV-3258;e-mail: sanita.zute@stendeselekcija.lv

Abstract:

Ecological comparison of oat varieties are set up every year at the State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, but five out of the test varieties were estimated in a longer period of time – from 1993 till 2009. For these varieties, productivity and quality indices were measured: grain yield, volume weight, 1000 grain weight, husk content, crude protein content. Meteorological conditions were characterized by two basic indices – the mean temperature and amount of precipitation in the vegetation period. Observations show that in the reporting period precipitation of the vegetation period (coefficient of variation for index variability between years was from 43.1% in June up to 55.3% in April) and mean temperature in April (coefficient of variation was 26.4%) varied most significantly. The average productivity of trial oats varied from 3.56 to 6.62 t ha-1. The most stable yields of grain in the reporting period were provided by the oat varieties Stmara and Laima (the average yields respectively 5.35 ± 0.89 and 5.83 ± 1.07 t ha-1, coefficient of variation respectively 14.9 and 17.0%). Significant, close to medium correlation was established between oat grain volume weight and mean daily temperature in May, July and August (respectively r = –0.468, 0.464 and 0.549 > r0.005 = 0.460). Relationships analyzed between oat grain yield, its quality characterizing indices and parameters characterizing meteorological conditions showed that grain yield and quality of oats in the Northwest region of Latvia were influenced mainly by rainfall in particular months of the vegetation period.

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