Tag Archives: grain yield

xxx É Horváth, B. Gombos and A. Széles
Evaluation phenology, yield and quality of maize genotypes in drought stress and non-stress environments
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Evaluation phenology, yield and quality of maize genotypes in drought stress and non-stress environments

É Horváth, B. Gombos and A. Széles*

Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, 138 Böszörményi Str., Hungary
*Correspondence: szelesa@agr.unideb.hu

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to examine the effect of agrometeorological indices (growing degree days, GDD; heliothermal unit, HTU; photothermal unit, PTU; hydrothermal unit, HYTU) on the phenology and yield (GY) of the Sushi (FAO 340) and Fornad (FAO 420) maize hybrids. Furthermore, it was also analysed how the amount of nitrogen and its application time affected the productivity and protein content (GP) of maize under drought stress (DS) and non-stress (NS) conditions. There were seven fertilizer treatments in the scope of the field experiment. Non-fertilized treatment (A0) spring basic treatment with 60 and 120 N ha-1 (A60, A120), and following the basic treatments, 30 kg N ha-1 top-dressing was applied in the V6 (V690, V6150) phenophase and then another 30 kg N ha-1 in the V12 (V12120, V12180) phenophase. Based on the GDD and PTU, length of the vegetation period of maize hybrids can be predicted. Under DS, the largest GY and GP was recorded in the same treatment for Sushi (V6150 kg N ha−1), and at different nutrient levels under NS: GY (A120) and GP (V6150). The highest GY of Fornad hybrid under DS was achieved with the A120 treatment while the highest GP with the V6150; in the case of NS V6150 kg N ha−1 was the most effective for both GY and GP. The + 30 kg ha-1 N fertilizer applied in the V12 phenophase did not improve GY and GP in either hybrid during the two growing seasons. The findings provide useful help for farmers to prepare for future environmental changes and to operate successfully.

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1388–1403 A. Panfilova,, A. Mohylnytska, V. Gamayunova, M. Fedorchuk, A. Drobitko and S. Tyshchenko
Modeling the impact of weather and climatic conditions and nutrition variants on the yield of spring barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.)
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Modeling the impact of weather and climatic conditions and nutrition variants on the yield of spring barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.)

A. Panfilova¹,*, A. Mohylnytska², V. Gamayunova¹, M. Fedorchuk¹, A. Drobitko¹ and S. Tyshchenko²

¹Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agricultural technologies,
73 Karpenko Str., UA54000 Mykolayiv, Ukraine
²Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, Faculty of Management, 9 George Gongadze Str., UA54020 Mykolayiv, Ukraine

Abstract:

Crop yield is a result of the interaction between plant genetic traits, soil properties, agrotechnology and climatic regimes. Low yield tend to be formed in regions where it is limited to the extent of water availability, heat stress and the short duration of the grain filling period. High temperature and drought stress are projected to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. The article presents the results of studies on the effectiveness of treatment of spring barley crops with modern growth-regulating drugs on the background of mineral fertilizers, carried out in different weather and climatic conditions in 2013–2017 yrs on the Southern chernozem in the conditions of Steppe of Ukraine. It was studied the influence of weather and climatic conditions, varietal characteristics of spring barley and nutrition variants on the formation of grain yield. It was determined that the cultivation of spring barley, the introduction of pre-sowing cultivation of mineral fertilizer at a dose of N30P30 (background) and the use of crop foliar fertilizing at the beginning of the phase of stooling and earing by the complex organo-mineral fertilizer Escort bio created favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants of the studied varieties, which in turn had a positive effect on grain yield. Thus, according to this variant of nutrition, on average, during the years of research, it was formed the yield of 3.25–3.61 t ha-1 grains depending on the studied variety.
Results of researches showed that weather conditions during the years of research significantly influenced on the productivity of spring barley varieties. In 2016 the amount of precipitation was the highest (174.0 mm), the temperature during vegetation of spring barley was +14.9 °C. In 2013 the amount of precipitation was the lowest (67.4 mm), the temperature was +18.5 °C. The lowest crop yield was formed in 2013, and the highest yield was formed in 2016. Studies showed that the influence of weather factors in various interfacial periods of growth and development of spring barley was significant enough for the manifestation of signs of yield and its elements and is more dependent on rainfall.

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1905–1917 L. Hlisnikovský, P. Čermák, E. Kunzová and P. Barłóg
The effect of application of potassium, magnesium and sulphur on wheat and barley grain yield and protein content
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The effect of application of potassium, magnesium and sulphur on wheat and barley grain yield and protein content

L. Hlisnikovský¹*, P. Čermák¹, E. Kunzová¹ and P. Barłóg²

¹Department of nutrition management, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Ruzyně, Czech Republic
²Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Environmental Biogeochemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71F, PL60-625 Poznan, Poland
*Correspondence: l.hlisnik@vurv.cz

Abstract:

The objective of our experiment was to study the effect of mineral fertilizers, rich mainly in the K, Mg and S content, and compare their effect on grain yield and protein content of winter wheat and winter barley with fertilizer treatments without these elements. The analyzed fertilizer treatments were 1) Control, 2) mineral nitrogen treatment (N), 3) mineral nitrogen with phosphorus (NP), 4) NP with potassium, magnesium, and sulphur (NP+KMgS), and 5) NP with magnesium, sulphur and minor part of manganese (4%) and zinc (1%) (NP+MgSMnZn). The experiment was established in Lukavec experimental station (the Czech Republic) in 2013 and lasted until 2017. The crop rotation consisted of four arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, rapeseed, and potatoes, but only winter wheat and winter barley are analyzed in this paper (grain yields and crude protein content).
In comparison with the Control, the application of mineral fertilizers significantly increased grain yield and protein content of both kinds of cereal. Comparing mineral fertilizers, no significant differences were recorded between N, NP, NP+KMgS and NP+MgSMnZn treatments, showing that nitrogen was the most limiting factor affecting yield and protein content, and initial concentrations of K and Mg were suitable and capable to cover cereal’s demands. However, application of fertilizers has increased the K and Mg soil content and thus prevents the soil from the element’s deficiency, which does not has to be recognized in the early stages by visual observation of arable plants. The effect of the year was also significant as two out of four seasons were characterized by high temperatures and drought.

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147-156 A. Linina and A. Ruza
The influence of cultivar, weather conditions and nitrogen fertilizer on winter wheat grain yield
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The influence of cultivar, weather conditions and nitrogen fertilizer on winter wheat grain yield

A. Linina* and A. Ruza

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Liela iela 2, Jelgava, LV3001, Latvia
*Correspondence: anda.linina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most productive and significant cereal species in Latvia used for food grain production. The aim of the research was to evaluate winter wheat grain yield depending on nitrogen fertilizer rate, crop-year (meteorological conditions) and cultivar and determine the impact and interaction of research factors on grain yield. Field experiments with winter wheat cultivars ‘Bussard’ and ‘Zentos’ were conducted at the Latvia University of Agriculture, Study and Research farm Peterlauki during a three year period (2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012). Nitrogen (N) was applied (N60, N90, N120, N150 kg ha-1) in spring after resumption of vegetative growth. Assessment of both winter wheat cultivars showed that crop-year, cultivar, nitrogen fertilizer, crop-year × cultivar had a significant (p < 0.05) impact on grain yield. Nitrogen fertilizer did significantly (p < 0.05) affect the grain yield of winter wheat, treatment with N90 showed of yield increase, compared to N60, while further use of increasing amounts of N fertilizer did not increase grain yields significantly. Results suggest, that winter wheat grain yield by 34% depended on cultivar, by 33% on crop-year (weather conditions), and by 13% on crop-year × cultivar. Influence of the nitrogen fertilizer effect was small – 3%. Medium strong positive correlation was found between HTC in the vegetation period from winter wheat heading to grain ripening.

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487-492 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke
Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield
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Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield

L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of LifeSciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

The trials were carried out during the 2006–08 growing seasons at the Department of Field Crop Husbandry in the Estonian University of Life Sciences. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of winter wheat. The total phytomass of leguminous green manures ploughed into soil in 2007 varied from 10.3 Mg ha–1 with the bird’s foot trefoil to 13.9 Mg ha–1 with the white sweet clover. The root mass of legumes comprised 37–54% of the total biomass. The amount of carbon applied into the soil with the green material and roots of legumes varied from 4.43 Mg ha-1 to 5.98 Mg ha–1. The amounts of nitrogen were up to 274 kg of N ha–1. The highest wheat yields were attained in treatments with lucerne and red clover as preceding crops. Compared to the N0 treatment, the extra yield reached 3.26 Mg ha–1 with green manures. Both green manures and mineral fertilizers enhanced the quality of the winter wheat yield, but the results did not vary among different green manures.

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125-132 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu and A. Astover
The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat
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The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, H. Roostalu² and A. Astover²

¹Department of Field Crops and Grasslands, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
²Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
E-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2004–2006 to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of spring wheat. In the experiment, different green manure crops were compared for amounts of N, C and organic matter applied into soil and their effect on the yield and yield quality of succeeding cereals. The amount of organic matter applied into soil was dependent on the cultivated crop. The highest amount of organic matter was applied with hybrid lucerne, the lowest, with unfertilised oats. With sowings of red clover, lucerne and hybrid lucerne, 4.91–7.70 Mg C ha-1 and 341.9–379.1 kg N ha-1 were added to soil with green material and roots. The yield of spring wheat on unfertilised soil was 2.12 Mg ha-1, but the treatment with hybrid lucerne as a preceding crop gave an extra yield of 1.45 Mg ha-1. Green manure crops did not have a unilateral effect on the quality of spring wheat. Grain yield grew with the increased norm of mineral nitrogen, but there was no significant improvement in quality indicators.

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517-529 I. Małecka and A. Blecharczyk
Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)
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Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)

I. Małecka¹ and A. Blecharczyk²

¹ Poznan University of Life Sciences, Plant and Soil Cultivation Department, Mazowiecka45/46, 60-623 Poznan, Poland; e-mail: malecka@up.poznan.pl
² Poznan University of Life Sciences, Plant and Soil Cultivation Department, Mazowiecka45/46, 60-623 Poznan, Poland; e-mail: blechar@up.poznan.pl

Abstract:

Yield, N uptake, weeds and diseases of spring barley were examined under five mulching practices (white mustard, phacelia, oat-pea mixture, straw mulch, and no mulch), three tillage systems (conventional, reduced and no-tillage) and three doses of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1). In general the grain yield of spring barley for cover crops was 10-31% higher compared with the no-mulch treatment. A mulch of straw provided a smaller barley grain yield than the no-mulch treatment. Compared to conventional tillage, grain yield under reduced tillage and no-tillage were 7 and 12% less, respectively. Spring barley sowing after a mixture of oat-pea led to decreased a negative response of reduced and no-tillage. Grain yield after treatment with legume cover crops and without N fertilization was similar compared as the rates 50 kg N ha-1 after white mustard or phacelia and as the rate 100 kg N ha-1 without mulches. There was no evidence of tillage x N fertilization interaction on grain yield, dry matter production and plant-N uptake. Cover crops and straw mulch significantly decreased total weed populations compared with the treatment without mulch. Total weed density increased from 108 plants per m2 in the no-tillage to 322 plants per m2 for reduced tillage, and to 416 plants per m2 for the conventional tillage over mulch. Higher infestation of spring barley with stem base and root diseases was observed in reduced and no-tillage in comparison with the conventional soil tillage and after straw mulch and no-mulch than after cover crops.

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379-383 R. Smatas
The occurrence and control of aphids and thrips in winter triticale
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The occurrence and control of aphids and thrips in winter triticale

R. Smatas

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto aleja 1, Akademija, Kedainiai dist., LT58344,Lithuania; remigijus@lzi.lt

Abstract:

Studies were carried out at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period 2002–2004. Contact and systemic insecticides were used for pest control in winter triticale. Pesticide application timing was determined according to the threshold of harmfulness of thrips and aphids. In our investigation we used as the threshold of thrips’ harmfulness, 1–2 pests per stem, and for aphids, 5–10 pests per stem. Our results suggest that thrips and aphids were the main pests occurring in winter triticale crops during the experimental years. The occurrence of thrips was more intensive in 2002 and 2003 than in 2004. The occurrence of aphids was the most intensive in 2002, less intensive in 2004. Almost no aphids were found in 2003. The appearance of aphids in 2004 was later compared with that in 2002. Both insecticides reduced the occurrence of thrips and aphids. The winter triticale grain yield was higher in the plots applied with insecticides.

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177–187 R. Põldaru, J. Roots and A.-H. Viira
Artificial neural network as an alternative to multiple regression analysis for estimating the parameters of econometric models
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Artificial neural network as an alternative to multiple regression analysis for estimating the parameters of econometric models

R. Põldaru¹, J. Roots¹ and A.-H. Viira²

¹Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: Reet.Poldaru@emu.ee, Jyri.Roots@emu.ee
²ARIB, Narva 3, 51009, Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: Ants.Viira@pria.ee

Abstract:

In recent years, neural networks have been used for a wide variety of applications where statistical methods are traditionally employed. Neural nets offer the opportunity to create a model by using technology similar to the learning patterns of the human brain. The structure of artificial neural networks (ANN) is based on the human brain’s biological neural processes. Artificial neural networks provide a new approach to the problem of parameter estimation of nonlinear econometric models. This paper presents a comparison between neural networks and econometric approaches for estimation of parameters of an econometric model of grain yield. The aim of this study is to show that neural nets are a convenient econometric tool. The parameters were estimated on the basis of alternative variants of models. The analysis shows that artificial neural network models may be used for parameter estimation of the econometric models.

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99–103 Ü. Tamm
The variation of agronomic characteristics of European malting barley varieties
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The variation of agronomic characteristics of European malting barley varieties

Ü. Tamm

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia; e-mail: Ylle.Tamm@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The field experiments were carried out in 1999_2002 at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute (PBI) in Estonia to investigate the genetic and environmental variation of agronomic characteristics of malting barley. 57 malting barley varieties were included in the trials. Grain yield, number of tillers per 1m², plant height, lodging resistance and growing time were measured in the trial with malting barley.
 Despite very different weather conditions, the grain yield stability of malting barley varieties was very high. Tillering  showed somewhat lower genetic variability compared to the variation of grain yield. The plant height indicates moderate genetic variability. Lodging resistance and growing time showed  low genetic variability.

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