Tag Archives: grain

xxx L. Buša, M. Bērtiņš, A. Vīksna, L. Legzdiņa and D. Kobzarevs
Evaluation of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratio measurement data for characterization of organically and conventionally cultivated spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain
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Evaluation of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratio measurement data for characterization of organically and conventionally cultivated spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain

L. Buša¹*, M. Bērtiņš¹, A. Vīksna¹, L. Legzdiņa² and D. Kobzarevs¹

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, 2 Zinatnes street, LV-4126 Priekuli, Latvia
*Correspondence: lauma.busa@lu.lv

Abstract:

With the growing interest of public in the quality of their consumed food, organic produce has been steadily gaining an important place in everyday menus of our society. The growing demand has boosted organic farming and we have also seen the price difference between organic products and their conventional counterparts. It is important to the public to have security, that the food labelled ‘organic’ has really been grown according to the good practices of organic farming and that it has not received any chemical pesticides, herbicides, and synthetic fertilizers. Stable isotope ratios of crops from different crop management systems can help to answer these questions, as these values depend on the growing conditions, fertilizers used etc. In this study, 10 barley grain samples from conventional and organic crop management systems have been studied. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios have been determined and the element content in the samples has been calculated. Student’s t-test has been performed to evaluate whether the differences between various parameters are significant. For potential clustering and discrimination of organic and conventional grains principal component analysis has been carried out. The PCA showed that no significant clustering can be observed, however the Student’s t-test for δ15N values confirmed that barley grown with green-manure fertilizers are significantly (p < 0.01) enriched with the heavier nitrogen isotope. Furthermore, it has been concluded that the total element content of carbon and nitrogen in barley grains does not correlate with the stable isotope ratios and cannot help with discriminating of these samples.

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393–403 D. Derevjanko, I. Holovach, V. Bulgakov, V. Kuvachev and, J. Olt
Theoretical and experimental research into impact of threshing tools in combine grain harvesters on quality of cereal crop seeds
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Theoretical and experimental research into impact of threshing tools in combine grain harvesters on quality of cereal crop seeds

D. Derevjanko¹, I. Holovach², V. Bulgakov², V. Kuvachev³ and, J. Olt⁴*

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, 7, Staryi Blvd, UA 10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony street, UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE 51006 Tartu, , Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The theoretical and experimental research into the micro-damaging of cereal crop seeds in the process of their harvesting by combine grain harvesters in relation to the strains, forces and stresses imparted to them by the threshing tools has been carried out. The propagation of deformations and cracks in the seeds as well as the nature of their strength and the damage that is sustained, when the critical load is applied, have been investigated. It has been established that the onset of cracks, the direction of their propagation and their quantity in the bodies of grain seeds depends in the majority of cases on the direction of action of the external forces and the specifics of the seeds’ internal biological properties. It has been established that the strength of the grain seed is, apart from the arisen cracks, also under the significant effect of the microtraumas in the germ, endosperm as well as the seed coat and shell. Theoretical calculations have been carried out on the PC and the effect that the drum and rotor threshing apparatus have on the deformation and damage sustained by cereal crop seeds has been substantiated. The said calculations and the obtained graphic relations support the results of the experimental investigations and prove that the macro- and especially micro-damage sustained by the seeds of winter wheat and rye is different, when they are threshed with the use of different types of threshing apparatus, which has a considerable impact on the final quality of the harvested cereal crop seeds. The results obtained in the experimental investigations, field and laboratory tests on the topic of the effect of mechanical loading on the sustained damage and quality of seeds indicate that the damage rate accounted for the work processes of the reaping and postharvest treatment of the cereal crop heaps of different winter wheat varieties with the use of rotor threshing apparatus is 3.1% as compared to the drum threshing apparatus – 6.4%, that is, 2 times lower. The total amount of the seeds with microtraumas collected in the hopper after threshing amounts to 23.0% and 54.0%, respectively, which is a significant difference. Similar results have been obtained in the experimental investigations on the effect of the equipment on the sustained damage and quality of seeds in the cleaning, chemical treatment and sowing of cereal crops.

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360-375 V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, S. Kiurchev, S. Pascuzzi, M. Arak, F. Santoro, A.S. Anifantis and J. Olt
The theory of vibrational wave movement in drying grain mixture
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The theory of vibrational wave movement in drying grain mixture

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, S. Kiurchev², S. Pascuzzi³, M. Arak⁴, F. Santoro³, A.S. Anifantis³ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv UA 03041, Ukraine
²Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT70125 Bari, Italy
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper outlines a theory that involves the vibrational wave transportation of bulk grain during the course of passing that grain under an infrared radiation source, in a working thermal radiation drying chamber, and using a vibrational wave transporter belt that has been developed by the authors of this paper. The main outstanding feature of the proposed design is the presence of mechanical off-centre vibration drives which generate the vibration in the working rollers at a preset amplitude and frequency, thereby generating a mechanical wave on the surface of the flexible transporter belt which ensures the movement of bulk grain along the processing zone which itself is being subjected to infrared radiation. A calculation method was developed for the oscillation system that is used in conjunction with the vibrational transportation of the grain mass, in order to be able to determine the forces that may be present in the vibrational system and to prepare the differential calculations for the movement of the vibrational drive’s actuators, utilising for this purpose Type II Lagrange equations. The solving of the aforementioned integral equations on a PC yielded a number of graphical dependencies in terms of kinetic and dynamic parameters for the vibrational system described above; the analysis of those dependencies provided a rational structural, along with kinetic and dynamic indicators. According to the results that were taken from theoretical and experimental studies on the functioning of the developed infrared grain dryer combined with a vibrational exciter, stable movement for its working roller takes place if the angular velocity of a drive shaft is changed within the range of between 50–80 rads–1, whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. It has been discovered that a rational speed when transporting soy seeds during infrared drying falls between the range of between 0.15–0.60 cm s-1, whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. An increase of this parameter within the stated limits increases the time that it takes to achieve the stage in which a constant drying soy speed is reached by more than 2.5 times (from 205 seconds to 520 seconds), stabilising the figure at a level of 520 seconds, which makes it possible to recommend a range of transport speeds of between 0.15–0.40 cm s–1 under infrared radiation for the seeds in order to achieve the required moisture content with a single pass of the produce on the wave transporter.
With that in mind, the power consumption levels for the vibrational exciter do not exceed 50W, while the angular velocity of the drive shaft’s rotation falls within the range of between 100–120 rads–1. The results of the experimental study that has been conducted indicated that a rational transportation speed for the soy seeds on the wave transporter under infrared radiation is between 0.15–0.40 cm s–1.

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1299–1305 D. Herak
Image analysis of the shapes and dimensions of Teff seeds (Eragrostis tef)
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Image analysis of the shapes and dimensions of Teff seeds (Eragrostis tef)

D. Herak

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech Republic e-mail: herak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 With aid of the image analysis using trio ocular microscope the dimensions, circumferences and areas in two perpendicular planes of Teff seeds were measured and based on this information the new ellipsoid model of the seed’s shape was derived and compared with measured values. From statistical analysis implies that this model on probability 0.95 is significantly identical with measured values of the Teff seeds. Determined model can help more accurately set up and developed accurate mathematical model for describing mechanical behaviour of individual seeds as well as bulk seeds.

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433-438 A. M. Méndez, D. Castillo , A. del Pozo, I. Matus, R. Morcuende
Differences in Stem Soluble Carbohydrate Contents among Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) of Barley under Drought in a Mediterranean–type Environment
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Differences in Stem Soluble Carbohydrate Contents among Recombinant Chromosome Substitution Lines (RCSLs) of Barley under Drought in a Mediterranean–type Environment

A. M. Méndez¹, D. Castillo² ³, A. del Pozo², I. Matus³, R. Morcuende¹

¹Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e–mail: rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es
²Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Talca, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile
³Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias CRI-Quilamapu, Casilla 426, Chillán, Chile

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that dramatically threaten the global food supply and it is becoming an increasingly severe problem in many regions of the world, mainly in Mediterranean areas and/or climates. This study investigates the effect of drought on the stem soluble carbohydrate content and its role in grain filling in different barley genotypes –four recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) and the recurrent parent cv. Harrington, which had been growing in two contrasting Mediterranean environments in central Chile. At anthesis, drought stress increased the stem glucose and fructose contents in lines 76 and 78 and fructans in all the genotypes. At maturity, in non-stressed plants the soluble carbohydrate content in the stem decreased, suggesting a mobilization of carbohydrates from the stem into the grain. Drought increased the stem content of fructose, sucrose and fructans in all genotypes. The accumulation of fructans was higher in RCSLs as compared to Harrington, providing evidence that the introgression of the wild ancestor (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) into cv. Harrington increases the terminal drought tolerance of barley. Line 89 showed the maximal content of fructans and it could be considered as the most tolerant to terminal drought of all RCSLs. However, this genotype showed the lowest grain weight and yield, indicating that is the most susceptible line of those referred to as grain yield.

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55-65 G. Pupinis
Grain drying by use of changeable air flow method
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Grain drying by use of changeable air flow method

G. Pupinis

Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Lithuanian University of Agriculture Raudondvaris,LT-51132 Kaunas, Lithuania; e-mail: pupinis@mei.lt

Abstract:

The article describes a new energy saving method for drying grain. The idea of the method is that once moisture released from grain decreases, air discharge going through the grain is reduced as well. ´Roland´ variety of barley with 25% and 30% moisture content was used in the trial. It was dried with a changeable air discharge in order to maintain absorption qualities. After the drying process has begun, air flow to the grain is reduced in the process of drying as the relative moisture content of air passing through decreases. It has been established that the optimum initial air discharge is 800 m3 (t h)-1. During grain drying air discharge is reduced and it can be described by equation0,0114969.85xye−=, R2 = 0.8088.The scheme for a designed and manufactured trial device is presented. Intensity of airdischarge and dynamics of moisture absorption in a layer of dried grain have been established.

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195–205 H. Lõiveke, E. Ilumäe and H. Laitamm
Microfungi in grain and grain feeds and their potential toxicity
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Microfungi in grain and grain feeds and their potential toxicity

H. Lõiveke¹, E. Ilumäe¹ and H. Laitamm²

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, 75501, Harjumaa, Estonia;
e-mail: heino.loiveke@mail.ee; ene.ilumae@mail.ee
²Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse 4/6, Saku, 75501, Harjumaa, Estonia;
e-mail: helgi.laitamm@pmk.agri.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the research work was to study microfungi in grain (spring and winter wheat) and grain feeds of domestic origin and determine their composition with special attention on toxigenic and allergenic species.
The total number of fungi was estimated on wort agar or on the nutrient substratum of Czapek. The species and number of Fusarium were defined on the selective medium of Nash & Snyder. For a mycological survey of grain samples, the moist chamber method was used in the year of 1992. The fungi were determined by microscopy, using corresponding nominators (Raper et al., 1949; Raper et al., 1965; Arx, 1970; Bilai et al., 1988). The classification of Fusarium has been made according to Gerlach & Nirenberg (1982). The toxicity of isolated fungi was defined by means of a test organism, Bacillus stearothermophilus (Watson & Lindsay, 1982). Spring wheat of the years 1992, 1993, 1994 and winter wheat of the years 1992, 2002 and 2003, and spoilt grain feeds of the years 1997–2002 were investigated.
About half of the identified 63 fungi species are either potentially toxigenic or allergenic. In 1992–1994; on average Alternaria spp. occurred on 72% of spring wheat seeds and on 45% of winter wheat seeds, Cladosporium spp. on 20% and 8% of the seeds, Aspergillus spp. on 6% and 9% of the seeds, Verticillium spp. on 13% and 23% of the seeds, Fusarium spp. on 23% and 64% of the seeds, respectively. Penicillium spp. was represented very differently: in 1992 and 1994 on 10%, in 1993 on 80–90% of the seeds. The species known as toxicants were also from the genera Chaetomium, Cochliobolus, Gliocladium, Mortierella, Mucor, Rhizopus, Stachybotrys, and Trichothecium. In spoilt grain feeds the potential toxicants were represented from the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, andTrichothecium. Allergenic species were represented by the genera Epicoccum, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Ulocladium. The toxicity of fungi isolated from grain, on the basis of the growth inhibition zone of B. stearothermophilus, was 0–7 mm, whereas on fungi isolated from spoilt feeds it was 0–18 mm. The most toxic fungi werePenicillium cyclopium, Penicillium sp., Trichothecium roseum, Aspergillus terreus, Paecilomyces varioti, Rhizopus nigricans, and Acremonium sp.

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