Tag Archives: grasses

xxx V. Gasiev, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev
Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops
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Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops

V. Gasiev*, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev

Vladikavkaz scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22 Markus street, RU362027 Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia
*Correspondence: gasiev77@mail.ru

Abstract:

The paper deals with the impact of binary mixtures of perennial grasses on the productivity and quality of forage crops that differ in their species composition. The studies have shown that mixed crops exceeded single-species crops in all indicators of forage crops productivity. In total over five years binary crops of Poterium polygamum exceeded single-species ones in all productivity indicators. The plants safety by the end of vegetation was also slightly lower than in single-species crops, which can be explained by greater competition for light, moisture and nutrients. So the safety of Medicago sativa L. was 81.8%, Onobrýchis – 83.6%, Galéga orientális L – 89.7%, Poterium polygamum – 74.6%, which is lower than that of legumes in single-species crops. In all years of herbage use, the binary crops exceeded single-species ones. On average, for 5 years of research, the yield of Poterium polygamum was 25.5 t ha-1, Medicago sativa L. – 22.5 t ha-1, Onobrýchis – 23.7 t ha-1. Among legumes, the maximum yield had Galéga orientális L agrocenosis – 26.1 t ha-1. Mixed crops of burnet with leguminous grasses were characterized for yielding the vegetative mass on average 28.5–30.9 t ha-1. Maximum values of binary Poterium polygamum crops characterized crops with the leguminous plant component of goat’s rue in all years of research. Mixed crops also showed maximum values of dry matter per unit area and amounted respectively 33.52–36.74 t ha-1. The same pattern continued in the yield of fodder units, digestible protein and metabolic energy, their maximum was obtained at the variant Poterium polygamum+ Galéga orientális L.

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532-535 T. Univer, K. Põrk and N. Univer
Living grass mulches in strawberry cultivation
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Living grass mulches in strawberry cultivation

T. Univer, K. Põrk and N. Univer

Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciencesof Estonian University of Life Sciences, Polli, 69108, Viljandimaa, Estonia;e-mail: toivo.univer@emu.ee

Abstract:

Strawberries grow best on soils with high organic matter content and high fertility levels. Green manure crops were used successfully as a substitute for farm manure. Another opportunity to increase organic matter content of soil is to grow groundcover crops, for example grass species, between strawberry rows. Proper management can reduce weeds, erosion on slopes, soil compaction, dust and mud. Potential disadvantages of using cover crops between rows include the consumption of nitrogen and other nutrients as well as water. The aim of this research was to elucidate the impact of various living mulches on plant vegetative growth and yield of cv. ‘Bounty’. Different living mulches were evaluated at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre during 2001–2003. The following living mulches were compared: natural grass cover, red fescue, Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, timothy, orchardgrass, and white clover.

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483-492 L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė
Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages
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Chemical composition of galega mixtures silages

L. Baležentienė and S. Mikulionienė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, LT-4324, Akademija, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania; e-mail: ligita.balezentiene@ lzuu.lt

Abstract:

A b s t r a c t . According to the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy data, the chemical composition of fodder galega (Galega orientalis Lam.) is more valuable forage than traditional fodder plants such as the red clover and timothy at budding-early flowering stage. Due to the high concentration of total protein (231 g kg-1) and some amino acids (asp, glu, phenylala), galega fresh mass could be used as a substitute for the soybean cake for 1.4–2.9 kg equivalent amounts. The mean of asp, glu and phenylala content in galega DM constitutes 68.22–56.37 % of their concentration in soybean cake. The high total protein concentration of fodder galega which was determined indicated that this crop could be used for increasing the protein content of livestock rations and successfully replace soybean cake, which is imported and expensive.For supplying livestock with succulent forage during the year and for producing highquality silage, galega mixtures with grasses containing many water-soluble carbohydrates could be ensiled. Possibilities of ensiling mixtures of early flowering stage fodder galega (1:1) with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), wheat grass (Elytrigia repens L.), milk stage maize and sugar beet leaves were studied at Research Station and Training Farm of Lithuanian University of Agriculture. The addition of 0.3% FPC to galega-maize silage had no significant influence on DM (225 and 214 g kg-1), mineral element concentration and pH value (4.7 and 4.4) as compared to galega-maize silage without preservatives. The results of ensiling indicate that the quality of pure galega and galega-wheat grass silage was poor quality due to an unbalanced ratio of protein and water-soluble carbohydrates. Fodder galega appears suitable for ensiling with a grass component (orchardgrass, timothy or maize) which accumulated not less than 30% DM.

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