Comparative analysis of oil flax varieties according to economically valuable traits in the Steppe zone of Ukraine
¹Zaporizhzhia National University (ZNU), Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 66 Zhukovskogo Str., UA69600 Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine
²Institute of Oilseed Crops, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Institutskaya Str., UA69093 Sonyachne village, Zaporizhzhia oblast, Ukraine
Interest in oil flax has been growing in recent decades. Linseed oil is a fast-drying oil and it is traditionally used in the production of linoleum, paints and coatings. Due to their content of essential polyunsaturated acids and vitamins, the growing use of flax seeds and oils in food and medicine has significantly increased the volume of its cultivation in different countries. This article presents the main research results for 2018−2020 of a large group of varieties of oil flax of Zaporizhzhia breeding for economically valuable traits. The purpose of research is to establish the genotypes that form the highest yields and oil content in arid conditions of the Steppe zone of Ukraine. It was found that the most productive year was 2020 due to more favorable temperatures and even distribution of precipitation during the growing season of oil flax. It was found that the yield of oil flax had a high correlation coefficient with weather conditions (r = 0.67) especially from precipitation in May-June (r = 0.60). A detailed study of the correlation between yield and habit traits and the main economically valuable traits revealed a close direct correlation between oil flax yield and seed weight per 1 plant (r = 0.99), yield and number of lateral stems per plant (r = 0.93), yield and number of bolls and seeds per 1 plant (r = 0.77), yield and weight of 1,000 seeds (r = 0.73), yield and duration of the growing season (r = 0.65). According to the results of three-year research, the highest yield was obtained from the variety Vodohrai 1.79 t ha-1. The highest oil content and oil yield per hectare were formed by varieties Vodohrai 50.1% and 0.80 t ha-1, Zolotystyi 49.7% and 0.76 t ha-1, Aisberh 48.3% and 0.72 t ha-1.