Tag Archives: harvesting

358–370 V. Bulgakov, S. Pascuzzi, M. Arak, F. Santoro, A.S. Anifantis, Y. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
An experimental investigation of performance levels in a new root crown cleaner
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An experimental investigation of performance levels in a new root crown cleaner

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Pascuzzi², M. Arak³, F. Santoro², A.S. Anifantis², Y. Ihnatiev⁴ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony street, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT70125 Bari, Italy
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
⁴Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18 B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72310 Melitopol, Ukraine
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

For the purposes of carrying out field experiments using the vertical-type cleaner with its elastic cleaning blades to remove haulm residues from the crowns of standing roots, the programme for this process and the technique behind it have both been developed by basing the process on the measurement of the volume of haulm residues that are left on the root crowns after they have been cleaned by a cleaning tool that operates at pre-set values in terms of its translational velocity, its height above the soil surface, and its rate of revolution. In addition, the cleaner’s energy-and-force performance has also been determined. In this process, the new laboratory and the field experimental unit have been put together. The unit comprises a rear-mounted root crown cleaner of the rotary type with a vertical axis of rotation. During the field experiments, the general-purpose tractor which carries it moves at a pre-set velocity as registered by the track measuring wheel; the general height of the cleaning tool’s position is set within the specified range by the use of two pneumatic feeler wheels that are equipped with adjustment mechanisms. The results of the completed investigations have been statistically processed with the use of the regression analysis and correlation analysis methods. On the basis of the developed multiple-factor experiment technique, empirical mathematical models have been generated in the form of regression equations for the process of cleaning the crown’s of sugar beet roots. In accordance with the results of the calculations, it has been established that the translational velocity of the implement has the greatest level of impact on the volume of haulm residue that remains on the spherical surfaces of root crowns after cleaning. The rate of rotation for the vertical cleaning rotor and its height above the soil surface which are controlled by the two pneumatic feeler wheels have a lesser effect on the process under consideration.

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1931-1949 V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, M. Arak and J. Olt
The theory of cleaning the crowns of standing beet roots with the use of elastic blades
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The theory of cleaning the crowns of standing beet roots with the use of elastic blades

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Adamchuk², M. Arak³ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,
15 Heroyiv Oborony street, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification,
11 Vokzalna street, UA08631 Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi street,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

A standing beet root crown cleaner has been designed. The design comprises the vertical drive shaft that carries two flat elastic cleaning blades installed on axes and connected through the articulated connection. The aim of the study was to develop the new theory of cleaning the crowns of standing roots with the use of an elastic blade installed on the vertical drive shaft in order to determine its optimal design and kinematic parameters. The first step was to design an equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the elastic cleaning blade installed on the vertical drive shaft and the spherical surface of the beet root fixed in the soil. The interaction between the blade and the root’s crown took place at the point, where all the forces that can arise during such interaction are applied. A three-dimensional coordinate system was set and the design and kinematic parameters of the considered interaction were designated. Using the original differential equations projected on the set coordinate axes, the system of four nonlinear differential equations of the three-dimensional motion of the elastic cleaning blade on the spherical surface of the root crown was set up, then it was transformed into the system of two differential equations in the normal form. Further, to determine the force that strips off the remaining haulm, which is part of the obtained system of differential equations, the problem of its analytical determination was solved separately. Also, the additional equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the elastic blade as a cantilever beam and the root’s crown was designed, the differential equation of the beam’s deflection curve (taking into account the beam’s simultaneous bending and twisting) was set up and, on the basis of it, the projections of the stripping force on the coordinate axes were found. The values of the force were substituted in the earlier obtained system of differential equations.

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1960-1965 V. Bulgakov, S. Ivanovs, J. Nowak, V. Bandura, A. Nesvidomin and Ye. Ihnatiev
Experimental study of an improved root crop cleaner from admixtures
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Experimental study of an improved root crop cleaner from admixtures

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Ivanovs²*, J. Nowak³, V. Bandura⁴, A. Nesvidomin¹ and Ye. Ihnatiev⁵

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Obrony 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, PL20–618 Lublin, Poland
⁴Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
⁵Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18 B. Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporizhia obl., Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

One of the ways to raise the quality of sugar beet harvesting is the use of improved digging tools that are able to dig out root crops from the soil without any loss and considerable damage, as well as cleaners of the heap from admixtures. Perspective are the root crop harvesting machines, built according to the modular principle, where, depending on the state of the beet plantation, the composition of the cleaning tools, and the kinematic and technological modes of their operation are determined. To carry out experimental studies, experimental equipment was made which, under laboratory and field conditions, made it possible to obtain qualitative separation indicators of the heaps of sugar beet roots with wide variation in the range of kinematic and design parameters of the improved cleaner. As the results of the laboratory and field experimental studies showed, in each of the two stages of cleaning the beet heap, a sufficiently high degree of removal of the soil admixtures and plant residues is ensured. Thus, at the first, preliminary stage of cleaning, the removal of admixtures amounted to 65.5–75.8%. After the second, basic stage of cleaning, the transported heap contained no more than 1.9% of admixtures. The results of the laboratory and field tests indicate that the proposed design of an improved sugar beet root cleaner from admixtures is prospective.

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1209-1217 K. Pužuls, T. Štāls, A. Zimelis and A. Lazdiņš
Preliminary conclusions on application of ultrasonic sensors in evaluation of distribution and depth of ruts in forest thinning
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Preliminary conclusions on application of ultrasonic sensors in evaluation of distribution and depth of ruts in forest thinning

K. Pužuls, T. Štāls, A. Zimelis and A. Lazdiņš*

Latvian State forest Research Institute 'Silava', Rīgas street 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: andis.lazdins@silava.lv

Abstract:

The scope of the study is to elaborate equipment for measurement of ruts during log forwarding. The system is supposed to be used in practical forestry to replace manual measurement of length of deep ruts and to provide spatially explicated information on soil bearing capacity, which can be used in planning of forest operations.
A set of 4 pairs of ultrasonic sensors were installed on front and rear bunks to measure distance to the ground at 90o angle (in front and behind the wheels in each side of forwarder) and at certain angle to measure distance to the ground outside strip-road. Measurement data are sent to the logger, where they are stored in .csv files. Wired connection between the sensors and the logger was used in earlier version, but later replaced with wireless connection. Depth of rut is calculated using formula for calculation of length of cathetus of a right-angled triangle. Data processing in spreadsheet includes initial identification of error values and calculation of depth of ruts. Further spatial data analysis is done in GIS software.
According to the study results ultrasonic sensors provides sufficient accuracy to characterize depth of ruts in 1…5 m long segments of strip-roads, including dynamic data on depth and length of ruts after each pass. However, the accuracy is insufficient to compare measurements from sensors mounted on front and rear bunks, as well as on left and right side of machine, therefore it is enough to have 2 pairs on sensors on rear bunks.

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044–054 V. Bulgakov, S. Ivanovs, V. Adamchuk and Y. Ihnatiev
Investigation of the influence of the parameters of the experimental spiral potato heap separator on the quality of work
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Investigation of the influence of the parameters of the experimental spiral potato heap separator on the quality of work

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Ivanovs²*, V. Adamchuk³ and Y. Ihnatiev⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Obrony str., UK 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Latvia University of Agriculture, 2, Liela str., LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³National Scientific Centre ‘Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification’ of Ukraine, 11, Vokzalna str., Glevaha-1, UK 08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
⁴Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18, Khmelnytskoho pr., Melitopol, UK 72312 Zaporozhye region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The known designs of potato heap cleaners have a series of disadvantages, particularly on sticky soils. In the newly developed and patented potato heap cleaner of a spiral type there is used the vibration effect and other technical solutions which ensure efficient self-cleaning of the rollers. Laboratory-field equipment was worked out and made for the investigations which had a spiral potato heap cleaner of a new design mounted on it. Under the field conditions the real technological process of digging and cleaning of the potato tubers from the soil admixtures was simulated in one row of the potato plantation. By using the developed methodology of a multi-factor experiment dependencies were obtained characterising the impact of the design and kinematic parameters of the cleaner itself upon the quality indicators of its operation (the soil separation efficiency, the cleanness of the heap, the damage and losses of the tubers), allowing optimisation of the design.

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33-40 J. Barwicki, S. Gach, K. Koprysz, S. Ivanovs, A. Adamovicsand O. Valainis
Technical and economical analysis of harvesting and ensilaging of corn grain
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Technical and economical analysis of harvesting and ensilaging of corn grain

J. Barwicki¹, S. Gach², K. Koprysz², S. Ivanovs³⋅*, A. Adamovics³and O. Valainis³

¹Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty, Warsaw Branch, Warsaw, Poland 2Department of Production Engineering, Warsaw Agricultural University – SGGW, Warsaw, Poland 3Latvia University of Agriculture, Research Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Ulbroka, Latvia; *Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Elaborated test results concerning two technologies of corn grain harvesting using grain harvesters. One technology called ZKP was using a mill crusher unit with direct filling system of a plastic bag and the other one was using a mill crusher connected to a silo press and was called ZKG. Provided research and calculations enabled evaluation of the values of critical coefficients, which were the following: unitary fuel consumption and unitary labour cost requirement. Because of different corn grain yields, these values referred to a unitary area of crop and also unitary mass of corn grain. It has been proved that the total costs of harvesting and conservation of corn grain with the technology ZKP equalled 321.83 € ha-1, but the same costs with the technology ZKG equalled 245.69 € ha-1. However, when taking into consideration the unitary mass of harvested grain, lower costs appeared with the technology ZKP at the value 21.89 € t–1 compared to the 31.02 € t–1 for the technology ZKG.

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149-154 A. Lisowski, T. Nowakowski, A. Struzyk and J. Klonowski
Design Project of Row-independent Harvesting Machine for Energetic Plants
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Design Project of Row-independent Harvesting Machine for Energetic Plants

A. Lisowski, T. Nowakowski, A. Struzyk and J. Klonowski

Department of Agricultural and Forest Machinery,
WULS in Warsaw, Nowoursynowska 164, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland
e-mail: aleksander.lisowski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

This is a description of an all-purpose, row-independent machine prototype for harvesting energetic plants in the form of chips or chaff. Patent claim P 385 536 was submitted to the patent office, regarding two versions of cutting adapters: the feeding unit equipped with elastic fingers, or equipped with worm rolls. The machine has modular structure allowing its easy modification, while a hydraulic drive with electro-hydraulic control enables to select the optimal operation parameters of working elements and units under various field conditions. The machine can cut plants with shoot diameter up to 70 mm at the height up to 100 mm, and break them up into particles of 20–60 mm.

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191-198 R. Domeika, A. Jasinskas, D. Steponavičius, E. Vaiciukevičius and V. Butkus
The estimation methods of oilseed rape harvesting losses
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The estimation methods of oilseed rape harvesting losses

R. Domeika, A. Jasinskas, D. Steponavičius, E. Vaiciukevičius and V. Butkus

Department of Agricultural Machinery, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, LT-53361 Kaunas, Lithuania; e-mail: Rolandas.Domeika@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Oilseed rape harvesting losses, which occur during cutting, separation and cleaning and shaking, reach 5–10%; cutting and separation processes account for 80–90% of the total harvesting losses. A special test stand was prepared for the research of oilseed rape cutting and separation losses. It was established that the active twin-blade knife separator and the passive triangular separator on the header of a harvester have influence on the separation losses in 0.5 m on both sides of the separator motion line. Separation losses using the active twin-blade knife separator were twice less than using the passive triangular separator. The optimal active twin- blade knife separator moving speed is 5 km h-1. The analysis of the research results has revealed that traditional estimation methods of oilseed rape harvesting losses are not correct and it is necessary to use a 0.1×0.1 m wire frame for the estimation of cutting losses and a 0.1×0.5 m wire frame for the estimation of separation losses.

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