Tag Archives: heat transfer

xxx P. Kic
Electric infrared heating panels as an alternative source of heating for greenhouses
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Electric infrared heating panels as an alternative source of heating for greenhouses

P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic
Correspondence: kic@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to show the possibilities of supplementary heating of greenhouses. There was used for this research an electric infrared heating panel ITA 700. The average total power was 630.8 W in laboratory measurements, of which 504.3 W has been transferred by the front part of the panel, of which 267.2 W has been transmitted by radiation. The total radiation efficiency of the front part was 42.4%. Similar measurements have been carried out in an experimental greenhouse (length 24 m, width 3.5 m). Approximately 448 W of average total power 603.7 W has been transferred by the front part of the panel, of which 159 W has been transferred by radiation. The total radiation efficiency of the front part was 26.3%. Differences between measured surface temperatures confirmed the influence of panel radiation on the flower bed. The average temperature in the soil (9 °C) shows that the influence of heating is mainly on the surface of the flower bed, where it could protect cultivated plants during the lowest temperature period. The obtained results can be useful for choosing suitable panel parameters for the placement in small horticultural or hobby greenhouse.

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1031-1039 A. Pastukhov
Automatic control and maintaining of cooling process of bakery products
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Automatic control and maintaining of cooling process of bakery products

A. Pastukhov

ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia;
e-mail: artem.pastukhov¹⁹⁸⁴@gmail.com

Abstract:

During the development of automation control of the bakery products cooling process using a ‘cooler’ it is necessary to build an integrated control system, which allows to optimize the process parameters in case of a variety of work situations that may occur in the bakery enterprise. The main task for control of such multifactorial object is to reach a certain temperature in the center of the product by maintaining the temperature of the cooling air near the surface of the loaf set in the limits t ± Δt, its velocity v ± Δv and humidity φ ± Δφ, and maintain the speed of the conveyor within Vc ± ΔVc using the frequency converters. Simultaneous exposure to multiple channels of control allows selecting the optimal combination of the cooling process control commands, yielding the product with necessary temperature and mass. Automatic control and regulation of the cooling process is based on the fact that the current value of the adjustable parameters in mismatch block is compared with predetermined values of the corresponding parameters, and the mismatch signals are formed, which are amplified to a value sufficient to trigger actuators that provide executive regulators. Novelty of the paper consists in the development of the process control system based on the mathematical model which allows calculating the temperature at the center of freshly baked products by the surface temperature of the product at any time of location in the cooling zone. Experiments were carried out on the bread made in the laboratory and cooled after baking, by natural and forced convection. Baking was conducted in a special parallelepiped tins with lids. Thus, the output product had a parallelepiped shape. Process of cooling by natural convection was implemented in a cooling chamber, which allowed to measure temperature and relative humidity. Temperatures changing in the center of the loaf and weight loss were recorded during the experiments. Cooling time was determined by the time required to achieve the temperature in the center of the loaf 30°C. On the basis of the experimental data a mathematical model and the computer system, allowing calculating the parameters of cooling and in time to make a regulatory influence on one of the control channels and thus optimize the process parameters were built.

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