Tag Archives: heavy metals

xxx V.A. Zubarev, Yu.A. Mazhaysky and T.M. Guseva
The impact of drainage reclamation on the components of agricultural landscapes of small rivers
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The impact of drainage reclamation on the components of agricultural landscapes of small rivers

V.A. Zubarev¹, Yu.A. Mazhaysky² and T.M. Guseva³*

¹Institute of complex analysis of regional problems of the far Eastern branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Sholom Aleichem Str., RU607016 Birobidzhan, Russia
²Meshchersky branch of the all-Russian research Institute of hydraulic engineering and land reclamation n. A.N. Kostyakova, 1A Meshcherskaya Str., RU390021 Ryazan, Russia
³Ryazan state medical University n. I. P. Pavlova, 22 Lenina str., RU 390000 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: guseva.tm@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The traditional use of agricultural landscapes of small rivers is agricultural arable land, which requires a number of reclamations and agricultural work. Land drainage has a significant impact on the environment, but these activities were carried out almost without taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. Heavy metals have one of the most significant negative effects on the components of floodplain-channel complexes (floodplain soil, surface water, bottom sediments, macrophytes, hydrobionts). Studies have shown that drainage reclamation leads to a decrease in the content of humus in floodplain soil, collector-drainage runoff, changing the chemical composition of natural water, affects the processes of transit-accumulation of heavy metals from sediments to water. The integrated chemical and ecological assessment of the influence of drainage reclamation on the state of the floodplain soil – water-bottom sediments system showed a critical situation of pollution of agricultural landscapes of water basins with heavy metals. Drainage melioration also negatively affects the state of hydrobionts-aquatic vegetation and fish, heavy metals accumulate in their organisms, which leads to disruption of aquatic flora and fauna life processes.

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2185-2196 S. Palisoc, A.J. Gallardo, C.B. Laurito and M. Natividad
Determination of heavy metals in corn (Zea Mays L.) using silver nanoparticles/graphene/nafion modified glassy carbon electrode
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Determination of heavy metals in corn (Zea Mays L.) using silver nanoparticles/graphene/nafion modified glassy carbon electrode

S. Palisoc¹², A.J. Gallardo¹, C.B. Laurito¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, 922, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, 922, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP)/graphene/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrodes were fabricated for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) via anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The electrode modifiers and the ASV parameters were optimized. The fabricated electrode was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. A linear relationship between anodic peak current and heavy metal concentration was obtained in the range of 25 parts per billion (ppb) to 250 ppb. The limit of detection of the modified electrode is 25 ppb for both Cd2+ and Pb2+, while the limits of quantitation are 155.7 ppb for Cd2+ and 159.5 ppb for Pb2+. Real sample analysis using corn plant and soil samples was performed to show the utility of the fabricated electrode in sensing applications. Trace amounts of Cd2+ and Pb2+ were found in the said samples.

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483–493 L.G. Muhamedyarova, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova
Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain
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Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain

L.G. Muhamedyarova*, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova

Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education ‘South-Urals State Agrarian University’, Department of natural Sciences, RU457100, Chelyabinsk region, Troitsk, Russia
*Correspondence: muhamedyarovaliliya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The influence of bio humus on chemical indicators of the arable layer of soil, productivity and ecological safety indicators of spring wheat of ‘Chelyaba – 75’ variety during the period of 2017–2019 were studied. The object of research was samples of the soil arable layer from the control and experimental field, the structure of wheat yield from control and experimental plots. Bio humus aqueous extract was introduced in the soil of the experimental field before wheat sowing and in the phase of spring tillering at the rate of 10 L/200 L /1 hm2 using the trailer sprayer ‘Zarya’ (Russia) during the dark hours of day.
In the study of soil and grain samples, generally accepted methods and techniques were used. It is established that regular chernozems under the conditions of technogenic impact of emissions of thermal power plants are characterized by low humus content (4.58–4.60%) and weak acid reaction of medium (pH = 6.1–6.5); imbalance between biochemically active (copper, zinc, cobalt) and toxic (lead, nickel, cadmium) elements, as confirmed by soil contamination coefficients: for copper (C0 = 1.50–1.58), zinc (C0 = 0.79–0.85). The introduction of bio humus in the tilth top soil before sowing and during tillering of spring wheat contributed to the increase in humus composition by 1.88 times, the change in acidity to pH = 6.9–7.0, reduction of lead and cadmium concentrations in 1.63 and 1.20 times against the background of increased zinc and cobalt levels by 15.62% and 7.98%; increase of field germination of spring wheat from 75.0 ± 0.4 to 82.0 ± 0.9%; quantity of developed stems to be harvested per 1 m2 by 10.15%, productive tilling capacity by 8.33%, average quantity of spikes per ear by 20.00%, average quantity of grain per ear by 7.69%, mass of 1,000 grains by 16.12%, and wheat yield increase by 10.2 hwt ha-1 and decrease in spring wheat grain concentration of lead and cadmium at 14.00 and 16.00%.

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1154–1162 M. Bertins, A. Bardule, L. Busa, A. Viksna, D. Lazdina and L. Ansone-Bertina
Impact of different fertilisers on elemental content in young hybrid aspen stem wood
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Impact of different fertilisers on elemental content in young hybrid aspen stem wood

M. Bertins¹*, A. Bardule², L. Busa¹, A. Viksna¹, D. Lazdina² and L. Ansone-Bertina³

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 1 Jelgavas street, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas street, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
³University of Latvia, Faculty of Geography and Earth Science, Department of Environmental Science, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.bertins@lu.lv

Abstract:

The biomass production using fast-growing tree species such as hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. x Populus tremula L.) has been recognized as an environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach. Growing these species can reduce the negative impact of earlier land mismanagement and at the same time provide additional biomass growth. The application of fertilisers may introduce not only the necessary macro elements (N, P, K) but also significant amounts of toxic heavy metals. Therefore, the knowledge about elemental flows from fertilised soil to the different parts of hybrid aspen trees is essential and especially meaningful for the evaluation of element content in specific environmental ecosystems. The impact of different fertilisers (sewage sludge, digestate and wood ash) on the concentrations of micro- and macro elements in the wood of six-year-old hybrid aspen stands grown on former agricultural land was studied. The determination of element concentrations in different tree rings of hybrid aspen trees was accomplished by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to determine the nitrogen and carbon content and isotope ratios in different parts of hybrid aspen trees. Stem disc samples from hybrid aspen trees were obtained from agricultural land in the central part of Latvia. Samples were taken from six-year-old hybrid aspen trees that at the moment of planting were fertilised with sewage sludge, a residue of biogas production (digestate) and wood ash. The obtained results indicated that the chemical element accumulation in hybrid aspen was affected by the applied fertiliser type. In this study, the use of wood ash, as well as digestate, affected the elemental content in hybrid aspen to a greater extent than the use of sewage sludge, relative to unfertilised (control) subplot. The analysed elements varied in the analysed stem plane (across the tree rings). The most significant changes between the rings were observed for the content of K and Ca.

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2029–2039 S. Palisoc, J. Leoncini and M. Natividad
Trace level determination of cadmium and lead in coffee (Coffea) using gold nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode
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Trace level determination of cadmium and lead in coffee (Coffea) using gold nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode

S. Palisoc¹², J. Leoncini¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH922 Manila, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH922 Manila, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) modified graphene paste electrodes (GPE) were fabricated using graphene powder, gold nanoparticles, and mineral oil. The fabricated electrodes were used as working electrode in anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) for the determination of trace concentrations of cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+). The modified GPE was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Optimization of the electrode’s AuNP content and the ASV parameters was performed. It was determined that the GPE modified with 0.5 mg AuNP obtained the highest anodic current peaks for both Cd2+ and Pb2+. The calibration curves obtained using the said electrode showed a linear relationship between heavy metal concentration and peak current and the detection limits were found to be 256 ppb for lead and 267 ppb cadmium. The modified electrode was successful in determining traces of Cd2+ and Pb2+ in coffee samples. The presence of the heavy metals in the samples were verified using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

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1261–1272 V. Alle, A. Osvalde, M. Vikmane and U. Kondratovics
The effect of cadmium and lead pollution on growth and physiological parameters of field beans (Vicia faba)
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The effect of cadmium and lead pollution on growth and physiological parameters of field beans (Vicia faba)

V. Alle¹*, A. Osvalde², M. Vikmane¹ and U. Kondratovics¹

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Biology, Department of Plant Physiology, 1 Jelgavas street, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, 3 Miera street, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: vita.alle@lu.lv

Abstract:

Research on the impact of soil contamination on crops is important as plants directly take up heavy metals from the soil through the roots, so heavy metals can enter the food chain. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pollution on growth and physiological parameters of field beans. Plants in the vegetation experiment were grown under controlled conditions. Changes in growth and physiological parameters were studied at five levels of Cd (0–25 mg L-1) and at 6 levels of Pb in substrate: from (0–1,000 mg L-1) at the first day of the experiment, to (0–2,000 mg L-1) at the end of the experiment after gradual Pb additions after every sample collecting day. Methods used for analysing the plant material: the content of amino acid proline and photosynthetic pigments were determined by spectrophotometry; chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters – using continuous excitation chlorophyll fluorimeter. The fresh weight of plant above-ground parts and roots was detected. The growth and development of field beans was slightly influenced by increasing amount of Cd and Pb in substrate only at the end of the experiment. The highest Cd treatments (Cd20 and Cd25) caused 2.5 and 1.3 times increased proline concentration in bean leaves. The chlorophyll a + b content and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm changed differently throughout the experiment. In general, during the experiment, there was a tendency for the content of proline in leaves for Pb treatments to be increased compared to control. At the end of the experiment the content of proline in field bean leaves of the highest Pb treatments (Pb600 + 100 + 400 + 500, Pb800 + 100 + 400 + 500 and Pb 1,000 + 100 + 400 + 500) was 1.66, 1.44 and 1.55 times higher, respectively, than that of the control plant leaves. The negative impact of exposure to Pb on chlorophyll a + b, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter PIndex and Fv/Fm in bean leaves was less pronounced compared to Cd. The obtained results confirm that field beans until their flowering stage can grow and develop in the presence of a large amount of Cd and Pb in substrate without significant growth inhibition and detrimental impact on physiological parameters, if optimal cultivation conditions are provided.

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245–260 S. Palisoc, Y.A. Malabuyo, R.C. Pereja and M. Natividad
Determination of heavy metals in root crops using bismuth nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode
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Determination of heavy metals in root crops using bismuth nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode

S. Palisoc¹², Y.A. Malabuyo¹, R.C. Pereja¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH 922 Manila, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH 922 Manila, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Electrochemical detection of lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+) was accomplished via anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) using bismuth nanoparticle (BiNP) modified graphene paste electrode (GPE). The electrode was fabricated by mixing bismuth nanoparticles, graphene, and mineral oil and the mixture was packed in a Teflon syringe. The best electrode was determined by varying the amount of BiNP while the amount of graphene and mineral oil were kept constant at 0.21 g and 0.80 μL, respectively. The highest peak currents were obtained using 1.5 mg BiNP modified GPE. The ASV parameters, namely accumulation time, deposition time, and accumulation potential, were optimized. The calibration curve, analytical sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the optimized electrode were determined. The correlation values for Pb2+ (R2 = 0.9409) and Cd2+ (R2 = 0.9086) in the calibration curves showed a positive linear relationship between the anodic peak current and heavy metal concentration. The LOD for both Pb2+ and Cd2+ is found to be 100 ppb. The application of the modified electrode on real sample analysis was performed using root crops purchased from local supermarkets. According to ASV and AAS analyses, most of the samples contained Cd2+ while only a few contained Pb2+. Other metals, such as Fe2+ and Cu2+, were also detected via ASV.

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234–244 S. Murtic, J. Jurkovic, E. Basic and E. Hekic
Assessment of wild plants for phytoremediation of heavy metals in soils surrounding the thermal power station
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Assessment of wild plants for phytoremediation of heavy metals in soils surrounding the thermal power station

S. Murtic¹*, J. Jurkovic², E. Basic¹ and E. Hekic¹

¹University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Physiology, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71 000, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
²University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Chemistry, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71 000, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*Correspondence: murticsenad@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of three main wild plant species: annual nettle (Urtica urens L.), daisy fleabane (Stenactis annua (L.) Ness.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) that grow spontaneously in heavy metal contaminated areas near the thermal power station in Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Analyses of the heavy metal content (Ni, Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn) in soil and plant samples taken from the examined area were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained revealed that the examined soils are polluted by Ni and Pb and contain relatively high value of Cr and Fe. Annual nettle, daisy fleabane and yarrow have not shown high efficiency in the absorption and accumulation of heavy metals from polluted soils, and therefore these plants are not be considered as potential phytoremediators of soils on the examined area. Furthermore, the results of the study undoubtedly confirm the fact that the total content of heavy metals in soils is not a sufficient parameter for estimating the toxicity of heavy metals in soils and consequently for their transfer and accumulation in plants.

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781-795 P. Felix-Henningsen, T. Urushadze, D. Steffens, B. Kalandadze, E. Narimanidze
Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia
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Uptake of heavy metals by food crops from highly-polluted Chernozem-like soils in an irrigation district south of Tbilisi, eastern Georgia

P. Felix-Henningsen¹, T. Urushadze², D. Steffens³, B. Kalandadze², E. Narimanidze⁴

¹Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University Giessen,
Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen, e-mail: Peter.Felix-H@umwelt.unigiessen.de
²Tbilisi State University, Ilia Chavchavadze Ave.3, 0128, Tbilisi, Georgia, e-mail:
t_urushadze@yahoo.com; kalandabeso@gmx.net
³Institute of Plant Nutrition, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26,
35392 Giessen, Germany, e-mail: Diedrich.Steffens@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de
⁴Centre for International Development and Environmental Research, Justus Liebig
University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, 35392 Giessen, Germany e-mail:
nareli@gmx.net

Abstract:

In the middle and lower reaches of the Mashavera valley in SE Georgia, most of the
irrigated soils under different agricultural land use display a strong enrichment of heavy metals
(HM) that can be traced back to irrigation with water polluted by mining wastes contributed
over a period of several decades. The concentrations of total amounts of Cu, Zn and Cd increase
with intensity of land use and amount of irrigation in the following sequence: arable fields < occasionally submerged meadows < vegetable gardens < wine gardens and orchards with mixed cropping of vegetables. A high proportion of HM belongs to the supply fraction, which displays the (un-)specifically adsorbed HM, dissolvable in ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA). The narrow correlation of this fraction with the mobile and plant-available fraction of HM indicates a high long-term risk potential for the food chain. Due to the recent high adsorption capacity of the soils for HM, only a small amount of HM in the mobile fraction was found with proportions less than 1 % of the total amounts for Cu and Zn, and a maximum of 1.5 % for Cd. On the other hand, initial investigations of cereals and vegetable species indicate a high uptake of Cu, Zn and Cd, which for Cu and Cd causes concentrations in plants exceeding the tolerance thresholds for plants, animals and human beings. A field experiment established the strong uptake of heavy metals by spinach, which was unexpected due to the weakly alkaline pH as well as the high contents of clay and organic matter of the soils. This result indicates the high risk of soil pollution by heavy metals for the food chain and consumers.

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131–137 B. Kalandadze
Influence of the Ore Mining and Processing Enterprise on soil types in adjoining areas
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Influence of the Ore Mining and Processing Enterprise on soil types in adjoining areas

B. Kalandadze

Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Chavchavadze ave. 1, 0128 Tbilisi, Georgia; e-mail: kalandabeso@gmx.net

Abstract:

Anthropogenic influence on surroundings has induced anthropogenic or technogenic biogeochemical anomalies, where sharp a increase in the content of chemical elements has been  established. Due to technogenic contamination, the amount of microelements in soils comes close to the level of macroelements that negatively affect plants, soil qualities and biota.
Appearance of technogenic biogeochemical anomalies depends on such activities as mining and manufacturing, exploitation of mines, metallurgical and chemical industries, which,  through the air and sewage, contaminate soils, the atmosphere, storage pools, the vegetational cover and other components of nature. The extent of technogenic pollution depends on industrial capacities of contaminating enterprises, the time of their exploitation and the working effectiveness of purifying constructions.
Regions considerably contaminated with chemical elements have been found to cover the area within a radius of 10–15 km, whereas in the direction of the dominating winds it has even reached 20–30 km. The zone is referred to as a technologically vastly polluted area where dominating chemical contaminants in  the soil threaten the entire soil biota as well as its agrophysical and agrochemical properties.
Our observations revealed that heavy metals from open-cast mines of the Ore Mining and Processing Enterprise were scattered by the prevailing winds throughout the environment within a radius of 8–12 km, and transferred, via irrigating waters, to agricultural arables dozens of kilometers away.

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