Tag Archives: heavy metals

310-317 Yu.A. Mazhayskiy, T.M. Guseva, S.M. Kurchevskiy and V.V. Vcherashnyaya
Agrochemical methods for reducing the translocation ability of heavy metals in sod-podzolic soil
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Agrochemical methods for reducing the translocation ability of heavy metals in sod-podzolic soil

Yu.A. Mazhayskiy¹, T.M. Guseva²*, S.M. Kurchevskiy³ and V.V. Vcherashnyaya⁴

¹Meshchersky branch of the all-Russian research Institute of hydraulic engineering and land reclamation n. A.N. Kostyakova, 1A Meshcherskaya str., RU390021 Ryazan, Russia
²Ryazan state medical University n. I.P. Pavlova, 22 Lenina Str., RU390000 Ryazan, Russia
³Belarusian National Technical University, 65 Prospekt Nezavisimosti, BE220013 Minsk, Belarus
⁴Belarusian State Order of the October Revolution and the Red Banner of Labor Agricultural Academy, 5 Michurina str., BE213410 Gorki, Belarus
*Correspondence: guseva.tm@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The impact of technogenesis on the agricultural landscape contributes to the contamination of all its components by heavy metals. The main measure to protect the environment from the input of heavy metals is the prevention of pollution, which is achieved by improving the technology of agricultural production. The development of methods for the agrochemical rehabilitation of technogenically polluted soil, which ensure the receipt of environmentally safe crop products, is an urgent task. The paper presents the results of a lysimetric experiment on the study of the use of fertilizer systems for the purpose of remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soddy-podzolic soil. It has been experimentally established that the translocation ability of heavy metals and, as a result, the accumulation of toxicants in grain and tilled crops is reduced when using an organomineral fertilizer system. All the studied fertilizer systems reduced the entry of dangerous ecotoxicants – lead and cadmium, into the infiltration water, and also caused the immobilization of Cu and Zn.

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1999-2012 S. Stankowski, E. Chajduk, B. Osińska and M. Gibczyńska
Biomass ash as a potential raw material for the production of mineral fertilisers
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Biomass ash as a potential raw material for the production of mineral fertilisers

S. Stankowski¹, E. Chajduk², B. Osińska³ and M. Gibczyńska⁴*

¹West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Agroengineering, Papieża Pawła VI street 3, PL 71-459 Szczecin, Poland
²Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Methods, Dorodna street 16, PL 03-195 Warsaw, Poland
³Research Institute of Animal Production PIB Kołbacz Sp. z o.o., Warcisława street 1, PL 74-106 Stare Czarnowo, Poland
⁴West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Bioengineering, Slowackiego street 17, PL 71-434 Szczecin, Poland
*Correspondence: marzena.gibczynska@zut.edu.pl

Abstract:

Ash obtained from biomass combustion could be a valuable product for fertilisation of soil or/and plant. It is connected with high reaction and potassium, calcium, magnesium content as well as low content of heavy metals. The analysed phyto-ash was obtained from Szczecin Power Plant Poland (12.2018–12.2019). The samples of phyto-ash, in the number of 24, were collected on subsequent dates at two-week intervals to determine the total content of the analysed elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, As, Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb, Hg). The differentiated percentage share of macro-elements both in total form as well as available form in ash from wood biomass and Agro-biomass is described as: calcium > potassium > magnesium > phosphorus. Phosphorus is characterised by a very low (10%) and highly variable availability. Ash from biomass is characterised by alkali pH (13.0). Biomass ash can be treated as a mineral fertiliser used for soil deacidification and as a substitute for calcium fertilisers. Biomass ash has a high content of potassium and magnesium, which could qualify this by-product as a source for fertiliser. Mean contents of heavy metals: lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in ash do not exceed the limit values for the mineral fertilisers. The variable percentage share of Agro-biomass did not result in significant changes in the amount of available form of macro-elements in ash. The obtained results indicate the pronounced variability, depending on the season in a year, of the content of available macro-elements in biomass ash.

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385–393 O. Chernikova,, Yu. Mazhayskiy and L. Ampleeva
Enzymatic activity of podzolized chernozem contaminated by pollutants during its detoxification
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Enzymatic activity of podzolized chernozem contaminated by pollutants during its detoxification

O. Chernikova¹,*, Yu. Mazhayskiy¹ and L. Ampleeva²

¹Academy of law management of the federal penal service of Russia, Sennaya street 1, RU390036 Ryazan, Russia
²Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev, Kostychev
street 1, RU390044 Ryazan, Russia

Abstract:

The soil is an indicator of the general technogenic situation. In terms of the scale of pollution, as well as the impact on biological objects, heavy metals occupy a special place among pollutants. One of the priority pollutants are Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu. In assessing the ecological state of the environment, the study of the soil cover plays an important role. The most informative integral characteristics of the biological activity of the soil is the activity of soil enzymes. In a lysimetric experiment with podzolized chernozem, we studied the change in the biological activity of soil in terms of dehydrogenase, catalase, urease, invertase and phosphatase enzymatic activity under the complex influence of heavy metals under conditions of the use of detoxification agents. The soil at the experimental site had the following characteristics: pHKCl 6.2; humus content – 3.2%, P2O5-229 mg kg-1, K2O-250 mg kg-1 of soil. Organic and mineral fertilizers in various combinations were used as detoxifiers. According to the obtained data, the redox enzyme – dehydrogenase and hydrolytic enzymes urease and phosphatase are the most sensitive to soil pollution. The best decontamination effect is obtained when using a system of organo-mineral fertilizers, what contributes to an increase in the activity of soil urease by 3.38 times, invertase – by 2.47 times, phosphatase – by 1.48 times, dehydrogenase – by 1.46 times, catalase – by 1.60 times. Changes in the activity of these enzymes can be used to diagnose the effectiveness of the use of various fertilizer systems on soil contaminated by heavy metals.

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92-99 E.E. Golia, A. Angelaki, K.D. Giannoulis, E. Skoufogianni, D. Bartzialis, Ch. Cavalaris and S. Vleioras
Evaluation of soil properties, irrigation and solid waste application levels on Cu and Zn uptake by industrial hemp
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Evaluation of soil properties, irrigation and solid waste application levels on Cu and Zn uptake by industrial hemp

E.E. Golia¹*, A. Angelaki¹, K.D. Giannoulis¹, E. Skoufogianni¹, D. Bartzialis¹, Ch. Cavalaris¹ and S. Vleioras²

¹University of Thessaly, School of Agriculture Crop Production and Agricultural Environment, Fytokou Street, N. Ionia, GR38 446 Magnesia, Greece
²Regional Centre of Quality Control and Plant Protection of Magnesia, Laboratory of Quality Control, Torousia & Nikolaidi, Pedion Areos, GR38334, Volos, Greece
*Correspondence: egol@uth.gr

Abstract:

Α three-year experiment was performed to study the alteration of copper and zinc levels in industrial hemp grown in different soils using elevated sewage slurry solid waste applications. Two soil samples, an acidic and an alkaline one, with different soil properties, such as percentage of CaCO3 and cation exchange capacity values, were used. Three treatments of waste solid with provided elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn were combined with two irrigation levels. The application of high doses of the solid residue as well as high irrigation level lead to an increase of the mobility of metals in hemp leaves in acidic soil in contrast to alkaline. On the contrary, in alkaline soil along with a reduced irrigation level, there is a decrease in the mobility of Cu and therefore its accumulation in the roots or stems was observed. Concluding, hemp seem to be a promising plant remediator, after the application of the proper irrigation level and taking into account the physico-chemical soil properties of moderately contaminated (with copper and zinc) soils.

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2677-2686 V.A. Zubarev, Yu.A. Mazhaysky and T.M. Guseva
The impact of drainage reclamation on the components of agricultural landscapes of small rivers
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The impact of drainage reclamation on the components of agricultural landscapes of small rivers

V.A. Zubarev¹, Yu.A. Mazhaysky² and T.M. Guseva³*

¹Institute of complex analysis of regional problems of the far Eastern branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Sholom Aleichem Str., RU607016 Birobidzhan, Russia
²Meshchersky branch of the all-Russian research Institute of hydraulic engineering and land reclamation n. A.N. Kostyakova, 1A Meshcherskaya Str., RU390021 Ryazan, Russia
³Ryazan state medical University n. I. P. Pavlova, 22 Lenina str., RU 390000 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: guseva.tm@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The traditional use of agricultural landscapes of small rivers is agricultural arable land, which requires a number of reclamations and agricultural work. Land drainage has a significant impact on the environment, but these activities were carried out almost without taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. Heavy metals have one of the most significant negative effects on the components of floodplain-channel complexes (floodplain soil, surface water, bottom sediments, macrophytes, hydrobionts). Studies have shown that drainage reclamation leads to a decrease in the content of humus in floodplain soil, collector-drainage runoff, changing the chemical composition of natural water, affects the processes of transit-accumulation of heavy metals from sediments to water. The integrated chemical and ecological assessment of the influence of drainage reclamation on the state of the floodplain soil – water-bottom sediments system showed a critical situation of pollution of agricultural landscapes of water basins with heavy metals. Drainage melioration also negatively affects the state of hydrobionts-aquatic vegetation and fish, heavy metals accumulate in their organisms, which leads to disruption of aquatic flora and fauna life processes.

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2185-2196 S. Palisoc, A.J. Gallardo, C.B. Laurito and M. Natividad
Determination of heavy metals in corn (Zea Mays L.) using silver nanoparticles/graphene/nafion modified glassy carbon electrode
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Determination of heavy metals in corn (Zea Mays L.) using silver nanoparticles/graphene/nafion modified glassy carbon electrode

S. Palisoc¹², A.J. Gallardo¹, C.B. Laurito¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, 922, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, 922, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP)/graphene/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrodes were fabricated for the determination of trace amounts of cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) via anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The electrode modifiers and the ASV parameters were optimized. The fabricated electrode was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. A linear relationship between anodic peak current and heavy metal concentration was obtained in the range of 25 parts per billion (ppb) to 250 ppb. The limit of detection of the modified electrode is 25 ppb for both Cd2+ and Pb2+, while the limits of quantitation are 155.7 ppb for Cd2+ and 159.5 ppb for Pb2+. Real sample analysis using corn plant and soil samples was performed to show the utility of the fabricated electrode in sensing applications. Trace amounts of Cd2+ and Pb2+ were found in the said samples.

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483–493 L.G. Muhamedyarova, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova
Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain
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Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain

L.G. Muhamedyarova*, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova

Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education ‘South-Urals State Agrarian University’, Department of natural Sciences, RU457100, Chelyabinsk region, Troitsk, Russia
*Correspondence: muhamedyarovaliliya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The influence of bio humus on chemical indicators of the arable layer of soil, productivity and ecological safety indicators of spring wheat of ‘Chelyaba – 75’ variety during the period of 2017–2019 were studied. The object of research was samples of the soil arable layer from the control and experimental field, the structure of wheat yield from control and experimental plots. Bio humus aqueous extract was introduced in the soil of the experimental field before wheat sowing and in the phase of spring tillering at the rate of 10 L/200 L /1 hm2 using the trailer sprayer ‘Zarya’ (Russia) during the dark hours of day.
In the study of soil and grain samples, generally accepted methods and techniques were used. It is established that regular chernozems under the conditions of technogenic impact of emissions of thermal power plants are characterized by low humus content (4.58–4.60%) and weak acid reaction of medium (pH = 6.1–6.5); imbalance between biochemically active (copper, zinc, cobalt) and toxic (lead, nickel, cadmium) elements, as confirmed by soil contamination coefficients: for copper (C0 = 1.50–1.58), zinc (C0 = 0.79–0.85). The introduction of bio humus in the tilth top soil before sowing and during tillering of spring wheat contributed to the increase in humus composition by 1.88 times, the change in acidity to pH = 6.9–7.0, reduction of lead and cadmium concentrations in 1.63 and 1.20 times against the background of increased zinc and cobalt levels by 15.62% and 7.98%; increase of field germination of spring wheat from 75.0 ± 0.4 to 82.0 ± 0.9%; quantity of developed stems to be harvested per 1 m2 by 10.15%, productive tilling capacity by 8.33%, average quantity of spikes per ear by 20.00%, average quantity of grain per ear by 7.69%, mass of 1,000 grains by 16.12%, and wheat yield increase by 10.2 hwt ha-1 and decrease in spring wheat grain concentration of lead and cadmium at 14.00 and 16.00%.

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1154–1162 M. Bertins, A. Bardule, L. Busa, A. Viksna, D. Lazdina and L. Ansone-Bertina
Impact of different fertilisers on elemental content in young hybrid aspen stem wood
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Impact of different fertilisers on elemental content in young hybrid aspen stem wood

M. Bertins¹*, A. Bardule², L. Busa¹, A. Viksna¹, D. Lazdina² and L. Ansone-Bertina³

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 1 Jelgavas street, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas street, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
³University of Latvia, Faculty of Geography and Earth Science, Department of Environmental Science, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.bertins@lu.lv

Abstract:

The biomass production using fast-growing tree species such as hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. x Populus tremula L.) has been recognized as an environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach. Growing these species can reduce the negative impact of earlier land mismanagement and at the same time provide additional biomass growth. The application of fertilisers may introduce not only the necessary macro elements (N, P, K) but also significant amounts of toxic heavy metals. Therefore, the knowledge about elemental flows from fertilised soil to the different parts of hybrid aspen trees is essential and especially meaningful for the evaluation of element content in specific environmental ecosystems. The impact of different fertilisers (sewage sludge, digestate and wood ash) on the concentrations of micro- and macro elements in the wood of six-year-old hybrid aspen stands grown on former agricultural land was studied. The determination of element concentrations in different tree rings of hybrid aspen trees was accomplished by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to determine the nitrogen and carbon content and isotope ratios in different parts of hybrid aspen trees. Stem disc samples from hybrid aspen trees were obtained from agricultural land in the central part of Latvia. Samples were taken from six-year-old hybrid aspen trees that at the moment of planting were fertilised with sewage sludge, a residue of biogas production (digestate) and wood ash. The obtained results indicated that the chemical element accumulation in hybrid aspen was affected by the applied fertiliser type. In this study, the use of wood ash, as well as digestate, affected the elemental content in hybrid aspen to a greater extent than the use of sewage sludge, relative to unfertilised (control) subplot. The analysed elements varied in the analysed stem plane (across the tree rings). The most significant changes between the rings were observed for the content of K and Ca.

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2029–2039 S. Palisoc, J. Leoncini and M. Natividad
Trace level determination of cadmium and lead in coffee (Coffea) using gold nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode
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Trace level determination of cadmium and lead in coffee (Coffea) using gold nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode

S. Palisoc¹², J. Leoncini¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH922 Manila, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH922 Manila, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) modified graphene paste electrodes (GPE) were fabricated using graphene powder, gold nanoparticles, and mineral oil. The fabricated electrodes were used as working electrode in anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) for the determination of trace concentrations of cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+). The modified GPE was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Optimization of the electrode’s AuNP content and the ASV parameters was performed. It was determined that the GPE modified with 0.5 mg AuNP obtained the highest anodic current peaks for both Cd2+ and Pb2+. The calibration curves obtained using the said electrode showed a linear relationship between heavy metal concentration and peak current and the detection limits were found to be 256 ppb for lead and 267 ppb cadmium. The modified electrode was successful in determining traces of Cd2+ and Pb2+ in coffee samples. The presence of the heavy metals in the samples were verified using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

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1261–1272 V. Alle, A. Osvalde, M. Vikmane and U. Kondratovics
The effect of cadmium and lead pollution on growth and physiological parameters of field beans (Vicia faba)
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The effect of cadmium and lead pollution on growth and physiological parameters of field beans (Vicia faba)

V. Alle¹*, A. Osvalde², M. Vikmane¹ and U. Kondratovics¹

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Biology, Department of Plant Physiology, 1 Jelgavas street, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, 3 Miera street, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: vita.alle@lu.lv

Abstract:

Research on the impact of soil contamination on crops is important as plants directly take up heavy metals from the soil through the roots, so heavy metals can enter the food chain. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) pollution on growth and physiological parameters of field beans. Plants in the vegetation experiment were grown under controlled conditions. Changes in growth and physiological parameters were studied at five levels of Cd (0–25 mg L-1) and at 6 levels of Pb in substrate: from (0–1,000 mg L-1) at the first day of the experiment, to (0–2,000 mg L-1) at the end of the experiment after gradual Pb additions after every sample collecting day. Methods used for analysing the plant material: the content of amino acid proline and photosynthetic pigments were determined by spectrophotometry; chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters – using continuous excitation chlorophyll fluorimeter. The fresh weight of plant above-ground parts and roots was detected. The growth and development of field beans was slightly influenced by increasing amount of Cd and Pb in substrate only at the end of the experiment. The highest Cd treatments (Cd20 and Cd25) caused 2.5 and 1.3 times increased proline concentration in bean leaves. The chlorophyll a + b content and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm changed differently throughout the experiment. In general, during the experiment, there was a tendency for the content of proline in leaves for Pb treatments to be increased compared to control. At the end of the experiment the content of proline in field bean leaves of the highest Pb treatments (Pb600 + 100 + 400 + 500, Pb800 + 100 + 400 + 500 and Pb 1,000 + 100 + 400 + 500) was 1.66, 1.44 and 1.55 times higher, respectively, than that of the control plant leaves. The negative impact of exposure to Pb on chlorophyll a + b, chlorophyll a fluorescence parameter PIndex and Fv/Fm in bean leaves was less pronounced compared to Cd. The obtained results confirm that field beans until their flowering stage can grow and develop in the presence of a large amount of Cd and Pb in substrate without significant growth inhibition and detrimental impact on physiological parameters, if optimal cultivation conditions are provided.

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