Tag Archives: herbicide

xxx V. Karpenko, Y. Boiko, R. Prytulіak, A. Datsenko, S. Shutko and T. Novikova
Anatomical changes in the epidermis of winter pea stipules and their area under usage of herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation
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Anatomical changes in the epidermis of winter pea stipules and their area under usage of herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation

V. Karpenko*, Y. Boiko, R. Prytulіak, A. Datsenko, S. Shutko and T. Novikova

Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protectoin, Deparment of Biology, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: unuh1844@gmail.com

Abstract:

The use and search for new methods and ways to reduce negative herbicidal effect on crops is a key factor in increasing the level of yield and quality in modern agricultural conditions, including cultivation of crops such as winter peas. One of the factors that reflects the depth of the effect of herbicides on the plant organism may be the anatomical structure of the leaf, thus, the aim of the research was to study the characteristics of epidermis and size of stipules of winter peas with the complex use of stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation in herbicide cultivation technology.
To determine the optimal combination of preparations and rates of their introduction, a field experiment was established in the Department of Biology of Uman National University of Horticulture (2018–2019), which included options: without herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and pre-sowing seed treatment with microbial preparation (control); treatment of plants with MaxiMox herbicide during the growing season in the rates of 0.8, 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1 L ha-1 separately and in mixtures with stimulator of plant growth Agriflex Amino in the rate of 1.0 kg ha-1 without and against the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with microbial preparation Optimize Pulse in the rate of 3.28 L t-1 (background). The experiment was repeated 3 times. Treatment of winter pea plants with preparations was carried out in the phase of 3–4 developed tendrils (BBCH 13–14). During the experiment it was found that treatment of winter pea plants with MaxiMox herbicide, especially with increasing level of the preparation to 1.1 L ha-1 led to anatomical and morphological changes in plant stipules and affected the stipule size of winter pea crops. The number of epidermal cells on average decreased by 14–53 pcs (6–22%) at LSD05 9.8 pcs, but their size increased by 28.42–394.52 μm2 (2–35%) at LSD05 71.7 μm2, while the size of the stipulate apparatus of crops increased on average by 2.7–4.6 thousand m2 ha-1 (13–22%) at LSD05 1.3 thousand m2 ha-1. The complex application of the herbicide with stimulator of plant growth, especially against the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with the microbial preparation Optimize Pulse in the rate of 3.28 L t-1, caused a decrease in the number of epidermal cells per unit of stipules surface on average by 50–84 pcs (21–35%) at LSD05 9.8 pcs and with an increase in the stipule size by 9–12 thousand m2 ha-1 (44–59%) at LSD05 1.3 thousand m2 ha-1, this may indicate the optimal effect of these mixtures of preparations on metabolic processes in plants against the background of reducing negative impact of the herbicide.

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163–176 I.Yu. Kuznetsov, R.R. Alimgafarov, B.G. Akhiyarov, F.F. Safin and A.R. Nafikova
Effect of different pesticides combined with Melafen on grain yield and quality of winter wheat
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Effect of different pesticides combined with Melafen on grain yield and quality of winter wheat

I.Yu. Kuznetsov*, R.R. Alimgafarov, B.G. Akhiyarov, F.F. Safin and A.R. Nafikova

University Federal state budgetary educational institution of higher education “Bashkir state agrarian university”, Department of plant growing, plant breeding and biotechnology, 50 anniversary of October St., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
*Correspondence: kuznetsov_i1@rambler.ru

Abstract:

The use and search for new pesticides ensuring high and stable yields is one of the topical issues in winter wheat growing. The aim of the study was to develop theoretical foundations and farming practices for highly productive winter wheat through the use of pesticides of different groups in the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. An experiment (2016–2019) with 4 main blocks was conducted to determine the optimal combination of pesticides in cultivation of winter wheat. The pesticides were used at the tillering ((ZGS) 25) and heading stages ((ZGS) 59) of wheat growth. The experiment was replicated 4 times. The study results show that pesticides used to treat winter wheat increased grain yield and improved grain quality characteristics. The best results were reached in the block where treatment included Melafen plant growth promoter combined with the insecticide, herbicide and fungicide at different stages of winter wheat growth. The pesticides used in the experiment confirmed their efficiency. On the whole, the block of variants that used seed treatment produced a yield of 3.33–6.37 t ha-1. The new plant growth promoter Melafen worked well in the experiments on winter wheat, especially in combination with pesticides in different variations. It produced the highest grain yield (6.36–7.41 t ha-1). All experiment variants demonstrated positive economic efficiency. The study results may be useful in developing winter wheat cultivation practices aimed at increasing yields and improving grain quality.

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144–154 V. Karpenko, S. Pavlyshyn, R. Prytulіak and D. Naherniuk
Content of malondialdehyde and activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase in the leaves of emmer wheat under the action of herbicide and plant growth regulator
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Content of malondialdehyde and activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase in the leaves of emmer wheat under the action of herbicide and plant growth regulator

V. Karpenko¹*, S. Pavlyshyn¹, R. Prytulіak¹ and D. Naherniuk²

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Biology, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Management, Department of Management, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: unuh1844@gmail.com

Abstract:

The article presents the results of vegetation experiment on the influence of different rates of herbicide Prima Forte 195 – 2-ethylhexyl ether 2.4-D + aminopyralid + florasulam (0.5; 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1) under different application methods of plant growth regulator of a natural origin Wuxal BIO Vita (Ascophyllum nodosum extract + microelements) on the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) as an important indicator of the intensity of peroxide oxidation of lipids in plants and on the activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the leaves of emmer wheat.
Experimental scheme included 16 experimental variants: 1 – without application of preparations and pre-sowing treatment of seeds (control); 2, 3, 4 – Prima Forte 195, applied to vegetative plants at the rates 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1; 5 – Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha-1, applied to vegetative plants; 6, 7, 8 – Prima Forte 195 at the rates of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1 in tank mixtures with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha-1, sprayed on vegetative plants; 9 – pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L t-1 (background); 10, 11, 12 – Prima forte 195, applied to vegetative plants at the rates of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1 at the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L t-1; 13 – Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha-1 (applied to vegetative plants, treated before sowing with Wuxal BIO Vita at the rate of 1.0 L t-1); 14, 15, 16 – Prima Forte 195 at the rates of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 L ha-1 respectively, in tank mixture with Wuxal BІО Vita at the rate of 1.0 L ha -1 – spraying of plants and pre-sowing treatment of seeds with Wuxal BІО Vita 1.0 L t-1.
It has been found that under the application of Prima Forte 195 the redox state in the leaves of emmer wheat increased considerably in the direction of increasing the content of MDA. It has also been proved that herbicide Prima Forte 195 and its mixtures with plant growth regulator (PGR) Wuxal BIO Vita caused the changes in the activity of enzyme glutathione-S-transferase, which slightly increased in the initial period in the variants of integrated application of herbicide and plant growth regulator. However, later the GST activity in the variants of integrated application of herbicide and PGR decreased, which indicates stabilization and a positive influence of integrated application of preparations on the detoxification processes in the crops of emmer wheat.

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1796-1808 Z. Pacanoski and A. Mehmeti
POST herbicide programme for effective weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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POST herbicide programme for effective weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Z. Pacanoski¹ and A. Mehmeti²*

¹University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty for Agricultural Sciences and Food, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3, MK1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
²University of Prishtina, Department of Plant Protection, Bill Clinton p.n., XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspondence: arben.mehmeti@uni-pr.edu

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted during two winter wheat-growing seasons to evaluate the efficacy of some new POST herbicides and herbicide combinations for those effective controls of weeds in winter wheat crops in the Republic of Macedonia. The weed population consisted mainly of annual winter and spring and some perennial weeds. Weediness comprised 116 and 208 plants m-2 in 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, respectively, in the Skopje region, and 93 and 114 plants m-2 in 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, respectively, in the Probištip region. All POST herbicides effectively reduced dominant weeds density (> 93%) in the Skopje region in both years, as well as in the Probištip region in 2012–2013, but not in 2013–2014. In this year, lower temperature directly following application decreased efficacy of POST applied herbicides, which provided control of Lolium perenne that was between 76 and 84%; control of A. ludoviciana was less than 85%; control of B. radians was no more than 83% and no one treatment controlled P. convolvulus more than 82%. Wheat yields in the Skopje region were not significant among years for the different POST herbicide applications and ranged between 3,580 and 3,720 kg ha-1 in 2012–2013, and between 3,760 and 3,910 kg ha-1 in 2013–2014. A significant treatment by year interaction resulted in two distinct years for wheat yields in the Probištip region with POST herbicides. In 2012–2013, wheat yields were between 3,230 and 3,390 kg ha-1, but in 2013–2014, wheat yields ranged from 3,060 to 3,490 kg ha-1 and weed-free control showed a significant higher wheat yield compared to all evaluated herbicides.

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287-292 S. Maļecka and G. Bremanis
Effectivity of reduced dosages of herbicides to weed constitution of spring barley I
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Effectivity of reduced dosages of herbicides to weed constitution of spring barley I

S. Maļecka and G. Bremanis

State Stende Plant Breeding Station, Dizstende, LV 3258, Talsi district, Latvia;e–mail: stende.selekcija@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The barley variety ‘Ansis’ was cultivated in the field at the State Stende Plant Breeding station, 2001–2004, in sod podzolic and sod–gleysolic sand loamy soil with neutral soil response. Average annual dicotyledonous weed infestation level in trial years differed: 106.9 weed plants per m2 in the year 2001; 213 in 2002; 22.7 in 2003, and 216 in 2004. Thlaspi arvense (L.) was the most widespread weed in 2001, 2002 and 2004 trial years, but Chenopodium spp. was dominant in 2003–2004, and Polygonum convolvulus (L) in 2004. Lamium spp. was also widespread in all-trial years, Viola arvensis (Murray) in 2001, 2002 and 2004; Stellaria media (L.) in 2002 and 2003, and Capsella bursa–pastoris (L.) in 2002 and 2004.The effect of herbicides is usually calculated as decrease in weed number and as decreaseof fresh weight of weeds (% to control or % to initial amount). In this article the ratio of one weed’s weight after herbicide use to one weed’s weight in control is recommended for comparing effectiveness of the doses of herbicides to weeds. The effectiveness of herbicides is estimated as a special factor EfKo. The reduction of herbicide doses to one half or one fourth of recommended dosage usually had no significant effects on weed control.

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433-436 I. Vanaga, J. Gurkina, O. Treikale, I. Priekule and J. Pugacova
Influence of Heracleum sosnowskyi control measures on weed diversity in agricultural fields in Latvia
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Influence of Heracleum sosnowskyi control measures on weed diversity in agricultural fields in Latvia

I. Vanaga, J. Gurkina, O. Treikale, I. Priekule and J. Pugacova

Latvian Plant Protection Research Centre, Lielvardes iela 36/38, Riga, LV1006, Latvia;e-mail: ineta.vanaga@laapc.lv

Abstract:

Abstract: In a field infested with Heracleum sosnowskyi, plots were cultivated by disc harrow or ploughed in 2003 and then sown with one of two grass mixtures. Half of the grass plots were sprayed once with a herbicide containing MCPA, fluroxypyr and chlorpyralid; the other half were cut 3 times with a hand mower. In 2004 a similar trial was established after an early season application of glyphosate to control Elymus repens and the soil had been deep ploughed. The most effective control of H. sosnowskyi and E. repens was obtained by glyphosate application after spring regrowth followed by deep ploughing. This treatment did not adversely affect either numbers of dicotyledonous species or numbers of dicotyledonous plants that grew in the sown grass swards. Ploughing gave better control of H. sosnowskyi and E. repens than disc harrowing and provided better seedbeds for sward establishment. Ploughing also increased the numbers of dicotyledonous species and plants compared to disc harrowing. Chemical weed control reduced diversity and plant numbers, but weed control by cutting did not.

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