Anatomical changes in the epidermis of winter pea stipules and their area under usage of herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation
Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protectoin, Deparment of Biology, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
The use and search for new methods and ways to reduce negative herbicidal effect on crops is a key factor in increasing the level of yield and quality in modern agricultural conditions, including cultivation of crops such as winter peas. One of the factors that reflects the depth of the effect of herbicides on the plant organism may be the anatomical structure of the leaf, thus, the aim of the research was to study the characteristics of epidermis and size of stipules of winter peas with the complex use of stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation in herbicide cultivation technology.
To determine the optimal combination of preparations and rates of their introduction, a field experiment was established in the Department of Biology of Uman National University of Horticulture (2018–2019), which included options: without herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and pre-sowing seed treatment with microbial preparation (control); treatment of plants with MaxiMox herbicide during the growing season in the rates of 0.8, 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1 L ha-1 separately and in mixtures with stimulator of plant growth Agriflex Amino in the rate of 1.0 kg ha-1 without and against the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with microbial preparation Optimize Pulse in the rate of 3.28 L t-1 (background). The experiment was repeated 3 times. Treatment of winter pea plants with preparations was carried out in the phase of 3–4 developed tendrils (BBCH 13–14). During the experiment it was found that treatment of winter pea plants with MaxiMox herbicide, especially with increasing level of the preparation to 1.1 L ha-1 led to anatomical and morphological changes in plant stipules and affected the stipule size of winter pea crops. The number of epidermal cells on average decreased by 14–53 pcs (6–22%) at LSD05 9.8 pcs, but their size increased by 28.42–394.52 μm2 (2–35%) at LSD05 71.7 μm2, while the size of the stipulate apparatus of crops increased on average by 2.7–4.6 thousand m2 ha-1 (13–22%) at LSD05 1.3 thousand m2 ha-1. The complex application of the herbicide with stimulator of plant growth, especially against the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with the microbial preparation Optimize Pulse in the rate of 3.28 L t-1, caused a decrease in the number of epidermal cells per unit of stipules surface on average by 50–84 pcs (21–35%) at LSD05 9.8 pcs and with an increase in the stipule size by 9–12 thousand m2 ha-1 (44–59%) at LSD05 1.3 thousand m2 ha-1, this may indicate the optimal effect of these mixtures of preparations on metabolic processes in plants against the background of reducing negative impact of the herbicide.