Tag Archives: herbicides

430–437 G. Glatkova and Z. Pacanoski
Evaluating the effects of application modes and soil types on the herbicide efficacy and crop yield of pendimethalin and clomazone on transplanted pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
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Evaluating the effects of application modes and soil types on the herbicide efficacy and crop yield of pendimethalin and clomazone on transplanted pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

G. Glatkova¹* and Z. Pacanoski²

¹University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Agriculture Institute, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3A, MK1000 Skopje, Republic Macedonia
²University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty for Agricultural Sciences and Food, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3, MK1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
*Correspondence: gordana_glatkova@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Field experiment was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in two locations Kochani and Drachevo in Republic of Macedonia to evaluate the efficacy and crop safety of pendimethalin and clomazone on transplanted pepper according to mode of application, (pretransplant -PRE-T and pretransplant incorporated -PTI) and soil types (alluvial soil and vertisol). The weed population in both years and locations mainly consisted annual spring and summer grasses and broadleaf weeds. Weed competition significantly reduced pepper yield. There was no recorded difference between the efficacy of pendimethalin PRE-T and pendimethalin PTI. However, the efficacy of clomazone PTI was higher than that of clomazone PRE-T in both experimental years and locations, indicating incorporation into soil if critical for clamazone. Both pendimethalin and clomazone had low efficacy on Solanum nigrum L. Pepper plants were not visibly injured by any herbicides treatments. In summary, locations and soil types did not affect herbicide efficacy and pepper selectivity. Pepper yield was markedly affected by herbicide efficacy in both years and locations.

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400-405 H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür
The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements
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The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements

H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür

Department of Plant Sciences , Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture,13 Teaduse St.,75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

Abstract Different sowing rates, row spacing, optimal and reasonable mixtures of herbicides were investigated for the seed production of the Estonian fodder galega Gale (Galega orientalis Lam.). The control of dicotyledonous weeds with herbicides is well justified in the year of sowing because the control remains insufficient in the years of seed production. However, the control of weeds in the years of seed production diminishes the expenditures for seed gathering, drying and cleaning. The control of couch grass is necessary to avoid ergot sclerotia in seed production and gives good results in the years of seed harvesting. The average seed yield of fodder galega was 259 kg ha-1 Desicant Basta 150 SL (glyfosinate-ammonium 158 g l-1) with rate of 1.0 l ha-1 was used before seed harvesting in order to dry the green parts of plants, to favour uniform ripening and to diminish the losses in seed harvesting, which gave an extra yield of 35%. Due to a higher competative ability of weeds, it is expedient to use a bigger sowing rate in the ecological farming, i.e. 10 kg ha-1.

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159-162 I. Deveikyte and V. Seibutis
Broadleaf weeds and sugar beet response to phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate and triflusulfuron-methyl
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Broadleaf weeds and sugar beet response to phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate and triflusulfuron-methyl

I. Deveikyte and V. Seibutis

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Department of Soil and Crop management, Instituto aleja 1,Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT-58344, Lithuania; e-mail: irenad@lzi.lt, vytautas@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The sugar beet plant is a poor competitor against weeds. Uncontrolled weeds that emerge with the crop typically cause from 50 to 100% yield loss. Field studies were conducted from 2002-2004 to investigate the effects of different rates (1/1, ¾, ½) of herbicides on broadleaf weed control and yield of sugar beet. Phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate, triflusulfuron, metamitron, chloridazon, chloridazon + quimerac and oil-seed rape oil (1.0 l ha-1) were applied three times at 10 to 15 days intervals starting at the cotyledon growth stage of weeds at 91+71+112, 15, 700, 650, 540+90 g a.i. ha-1 dosage (full rate). All rates of herbicides phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate had a low efficacy. The addition of triflusulfuron to this herbicide reduced the amount of Tripleurospermum perforatum, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis and Polygonum aviculare, but didn’t affect Chenopodium album, Lamium purpureum. Weed control by applying phenmedipham, desmedipham, ethofumesate and triflusulfuron had increased from 5.5 to 58% by the addition of metamitron, chloridazon and chloridazon+quimerac. The dry-weight of weeds varied significantly depending on the herbicide rates used. Using ½ of full (1/1) rates of the herbicide phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate had a low efficacy. All herbicide treatments produced higher sugar beet root and sugar yields than did phenmedipham + desmedipham + ethofumesate. Non-sugars were not affected by the herbicide treatments.

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155-158 L. Buskienė, N. Uselis and J. Lanauskas
Possibilities of weed control with herbicide Basta 150 SL in a young apple tree orchard
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Possibilities of weed control with herbicide Basta 150 SL in a young apple tree orchard

L. Buskienė¹, N. Uselis² and J. Lanauskas²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT–54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e–mail: l.buskiene@lsdi.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Kauno 30, LT–54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e–mail: institutas@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The effect of herbicide Basta 150 SL (a.i. ammonium glufosinate) on weed control in a 3–4 year–old apple tree orchard was investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture in 2004–2005. Basta 150 SL was applied at the rates 3.0 l ha-1 and 6.0 l ha-1, standard herbicide Roundup 360 SL – at the rate 3.0 l ha-1. Herbicides were applied twice over the growing season: the first application, until beginning of flowering, the second , when weeds had grown to 10–15 cm. Control plots were not treated with herbicides. Apple tree growth, weed species composition, weed number and weed fresh weight were measured.The most effective for weed control were 6.0 l ha-1 of Basta 150 SL and 3.0 l ha-1 ofRoundup 360 SL. They killed respectively 80.4–95.3% and 84.7–87.7% of weeds. Dandelions, (Taraxacum officinale L.), the prevailing weeds , were killed successfully with both herbicides. The lowest weed fresh weight was after 6.0 l ha-1 of Basta 150 SL application – 3.2%. Phytotoxic effect of herbicide Basta 150 SL on apple trees was not observed. When herbicides were applied apple tree shoot length increased by 1.4–1.9 times. Weed fresh weight had higher impact on shoot length than the total number of weeds.

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