Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain
Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education ‘South-Urals State Agrarian University’, Department of natural Sciences, RU457100, Chelyabinsk region, Troitsk, Russia
The influence of bio humus on chemical indicators of the arable layer of soil, productivity and ecological safety indicators of spring wheat of ‘Chelyaba – 75’ variety during the period of 2017–2019 were studied. The object of research was samples of the soil arable layer from the control and experimental field, the structure of wheat yield from control and experimental plots. Bio humus aqueous extract was introduced in the soil of the experimental field before wheat sowing and in the phase of spring tillering at the rate of 10 L/200 L /1 hm2 using the trailer sprayer ‘Zarya’ (Russia) during the dark hours of day.
In the study of soil and grain samples, generally accepted methods and techniques were used. It is established that regular chernozems under the conditions of technogenic impact of emissions of thermal power plants are characterized by low humus content (4.58–4.60%) and weak acid reaction of medium (pH = 6.1–6.5); imbalance between biochemically active (copper, zinc, cobalt) and toxic (lead, nickel, cadmium) elements, as confirmed by soil contamination coefficients: for copper (C0 = 1.50–1.58), zinc (C0 = 0.79–0.85). The introduction of bio humus in the tilth top soil before sowing and during tillering of spring wheat contributed to the increase in humus composition by 1.88 times, the change in acidity to pH = 6.9–7.0, reduction of lead and cadmium concentrations in 1.63 and 1.20 times against the background of increased zinc and cobalt levels by 15.62% and 7.98%; increase of field germination of spring wheat from 75.0 ± 0.4 to 82.0 ± 0.9%; quantity of developed stems to be harvested per 1 m2 by 10.15%, productive tilling capacity by 8.33%, average quantity of spikes per ear by 20.00%, average quantity of grain per ear by 7.69%, mass of 1,000 grains by 16.12%, and wheat yield increase by 10.2 hwt ha-1 and decrease in spring wheat grain concentration of lead and cadmium at 14.00 and 16.00%.