Tag Archives: humus

xxx P. Šařec, O. Látal, P. Novák, J. Holátko, V. Novák, T. Dokulilová and M. Brtnický
Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils
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Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils

P. Šařec¹*, O. Látal², P. Novák³, J. Holátko⁴, V. Novák¹, T. Dokulilová⁴⁵ and M. Brtnický⁴⁵

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Agrovýzkum Rapotín Ltd., Rapotín, Výzkumníků 267, CZ788 13 Vikýřovice, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
⁴Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Geology and Pedology, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
⁵Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: psarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study aims at verifying the effect of farmyard manure (FYM) and of selected activators (Z’fix and NeoSol) on changes of soil properties. Their application should lead to improvement of soil physical properties and of organic matter fixation, to reduction of environmental risks, e.g. of tillage energy requirements. Experimental variants (0.7 ha each) were as follows: I (FYM with Z’fix); II (FYM with Z’fix + NeoSol); III (FYM); IV (Control NPK only). FYM was applied at rates: 50 t ha-1 (2014); 30 t ha-1 (2016). Additional NPK fertilizer (I–IV) was applied according to annual crop nutrient normative. The agent Z’fix was used as an activator of FYM biological transformation (5.5 kg t-1). The agent NeoSol was used as soil activator (200 kg ha-1; annually). In order to verify the effect, cone index, bulk density, tillage implement draft and chemical soil components (Humus, C/N ration and Ntot) were measured annually. Compared to the control, the application of FYM combined with the mentioned agents (I–III) increased Ntot more than two times. Moreover, it decreased (I–III) bulk density by 8.7%. Tillage implement draft decreased by 3% after the application of FYM with Z’fix (I, II). The study confirmed that FYM application combined with utilization of activators positively influenced soil fertility and helped to reduce environmental risks.

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483–493 L.G. Muhamedyarova, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova
Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain
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Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain

L.G. Muhamedyarova*, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova

Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education ‘South-Urals State Agrarian University’, Department of natural Sciences, RU457100, Chelyabinsk region, Troitsk, Russia
*Correspondence: muhamedyarovaliliya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The influence of bio humus on chemical indicators of the arable layer of soil, productivity and ecological safety indicators of spring wheat of ‘Chelyaba – 75’ variety during the period of 2017–2019 were studied. The object of research was samples of the soil arable layer from the control and experimental field, the structure of wheat yield from control and experimental plots. Bio humus aqueous extract was introduced in the soil of the experimental field before wheat sowing and in the phase of spring tillering at the rate of 10 L/200 L /1 hm2 using the trailer sprayer ‘Zarya’ (Russia) during the dark hours of day.
In the study of soil and grain samples, generally accepted methods and techniques were used. It is established that regular chernozems under the conditions of technogenic impact of emissions of thermal power plants are characterized by low humus content (4.58–4.60%) and weak acid reaction of medium (pH = 6.1–6.5); imbalance between biochemically active (copper, zinc, cobalt) and toxic (lead, nickel, cadmium) elements, as confirmed by soil contamination coefficients: for copper (C0 = 1.50–1.58), zinc (C0 = 0.79–0.85). The introduction of bio humus in the tilth top soil before sowing and during tillering of spring wheat contributed to the increase in humus composition by 1.88 times, the change in acidity to pH = 6.9–7.0, reduction of lead and cadmium concentrations in 1.63 and 1.20 times against the background of increased zinc and cobalt levels by 15.62% and 7.98%; increase of field germination of spring wheat from 75.0 ± 0.4 to 82.0 ± 0.9%; quantity of developed stems to be harvested per 1 m2 by 10.15%, productive tilling capacity by 8.33%, average quantity of spikes per ear by 20.00%, average quantity of grain per ear by 7.69%, mass of 1,000 grains by 16.12%, and wheat yield increase by 10.2 hwt ha-1 and decrease in spring wheat grain concentration of lead and cadmium at 14.00 and 16.00%.

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728-736 H. Hospodarenko, I. Prokopchuk, S. Prokopchuk and А. Trus
Humus content in a podzolized chernozem after a long-term application of fertilizers in a field crop rotation
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Humus content in a podzolized chernozem after a long-term application of fertilizers in a field crop rotation

H. Hospodarenko¹, I. Prokopchuk¹*, S. Prokopchuk¹ and А. Trus²

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, 1 Instytutska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Applied Engineering and Labor Protection, 1 Instytutska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: pivotbi@ukr.net

Abstract:

The article presents the results of the research into influence of a long-term (50 years) application of different fertilizer rates and fertilizer systems in the field crop rotation on the humus composition and optical parameters of humic acids of a heavy- loamy podzolized chernozem of the Right Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.
It was found that application of fertilizers significantly affects the dominance of humic acids over fulvic acids in the composition of soil, which indicates humate type of soil. Chroma index of humic acids is within 3.56–3.75 depending on a fertilizer. Indicators of the optical properties of humic acids of a podzolized chernozem have a high degree of humification.

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45–54 Irena Kristaponyte
Effect of fertilisation systems on the balance of plant nutrients and soil agrochemical properties
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Effect of fertilisation systems on the balance of plant nutrients and soil agrochemical properties

Irena Kristaponyte

Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture Joniskelis LT-39301 Pasvalys district. Lithuania; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net
Fax: 370-71-38224

Abstract:

Clay loam soils are rich in available potassium, however, they contain a low or moderate content of phosphorus. At the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture’s Joniskelis Research Station trials were carried out over the period of 1960–2000 on a Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (Cmg-n-w-can) – a clay loam soil in a five-course crop rotation, in which we investigated mineral, organic and organic-mineral fertilisation systems. Results of the sixth rotation showed that the annual application of mineral N56P48K60 fertilisers resulted in an increase of the content of available phosphorus in 5 mg kg-1 of the soil, and the reduction of potassium content in 3 mg kg-1 of the soil, compared with the initial level. In the organic fertilisation system, the application of only 80 t ha‑1 of farmyard resulted, compared with the mineral fertilisation system, in a humus content increase in the plough layer by 0.12 percentage units and that in the phosphorus content by 26.0 mg kg-1 and potassium content by 31.0 mg kg‑1. In this system the crop productivity, compared with unfertilised crops, increased by 34.1%, however, compared with the mineral fertilisation system, it declined by 14.1%. In the organic-mineral fertilisation system, the application of 40, 60 and 80 t ha‑1 of farmyard manure and NPK fertilisers in the same amount as in the mineral fertilisation system resulted in the following increases – soil humus content by 0.18; 0.24 and 0.21 percentage units, phosphorus content by 41.0, 61.0 and 61.0 mg kg-1, potassium content by 36.0; 46.0 and 54.0 mg kg-1, and crop rotation productivity by 6.2, 7.6 and 7.8, respectively, compared with the mineral fertilisation system.

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87–97 S. Maiksteniene and A. Arlauskiene
Effect of preceding crops and green manure on the fertility of clay loam soil
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Effect of preceding crops and green manure on the fertility of clay loam soil

S. Maiksteniene and A. Arlauskiene

Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Joniskelis, LT-5240 Pasvalys District, Lithuania; tel.fax.: 370-71-38224; e-mail: joniskelio_lzi@post.omnitel.net

Abstract:

Influence of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), sown lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), vetch and oat mixture (Vicia sativa L., Avena sativa L.) and green material of these legume crops used as green manure on the build up of biological N variation of soil properties and productivity of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated on Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can), according to the texture – clay loam on silty clay. Experiments were carried out at the Joniskelis Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture over the period 1996–2000. It was revealed that lucerne and clover left the highest content of plant residues in the soil (13.7 t ha-1 and 9.2 t ha-1 of dry matter, respectively) which was 2.7 and 1.8 times more as compared to annual vetch and oat mixture. These perennial plants also determined accumulation of the highest content of biological N in roots and residues. According to N content applied with green manure, only lucerne aftermath was comparable to farmyard manure. Lucerne determined accumulation of the highest contents of total nitrogen (0.138%), humus (2.18%) and available phosphorus and potassium (130 and 279 mg kg-1 of soil, respectively) in the soil. Analysis of humus composition showed that its content in clay loam soil was rather stable, however, a slightly higher content of mobile humic acids was found after lucerne as a preceding crop when green manure or farmyard manure had been applied. When winter wheat was grown after lucerne as a preceding crop, the highest grain yield (on average 5.58 t ha-1) was obtained, which was 18.5 and 28.3% higher than that after clover or vetch and oat mixture. Protein content in winter wheat grain was to a greater extent determined by legume crops rather than organic manure.

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