Tag Archives: infiltration

xxx M. Stehlík, A. Czako, M. Mayerová and M. Madaras
Influence of organic and inorganic fertilization on soil properties and water infiltration
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Influence of organic and inorganic fertilization on soil properties and water infiltration

M. Stehlík¹²*, A. Czako¹, M. Mayerová¹ and M. Madaras¹

¹Division of Crop Management Systems, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, CZ 16106 Prague, Czech Republic
²Department of Agricultural Machines, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: martin.stehlik@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Soil aggregate stability (SAS) belongs to the most important parameters determining the quality of soil and fertilizer influence on soil aggregation. We evaluated the relationship between SAS, hydro–physical soil properties and infiltration rates in three long–term field experiments founded in 1956 on different soils. Soil properties under three fertilization regimes–no fertilization, farmyard manure, farmyard manure and mineral fertilization–were evaluated at silty loam Chernozem, silty loam Phaeozem and sandy loam–loam Cambisol. A significant impact of fertilization on SAS was found, even though the differences in SAS were rather low. The lowest SAS was recorded at plots with manure and mineral fertilization (25.1%) compared with plots without fertilization (28.7%) and plots with manure–only fertilization (28.2%). The highest SAS (36.5%) and the highest semi–capillary porosity (SP; 11%) were observed at sandy loam–loam soil. Hydro–physical soil properties were more favourable at fertilized plots (SP 9.6% and bulk density ρb 1.31 g cm-3) compared with unfertilized ones (SP 8.8% and ρb 1.35 g cm-3). The lowest SP (8.32%) and the highest ρb (1.37 g cm-3) were recorded at Phaeozem, which corresponded with the lowest SAS (19.4%). Chernozem had similar soil texture to Phaeozem, but SAS (24.7%), SP (9%) and ρb (1.27 g cm-3) were more favourable. Despite the low level of statistical significance due to the large variation of infiltration measurements, a higher infiltration rate was recorded at fertilized plots (45 mm hour-1) compared to unfertilized ones (35 mm hour-1).

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2197-2210 O. Urbanovičová, K. Krištof, P. Findura, M. Mráz, J. Jobbágy and M. Križan
The effect of soil conditioner on the spatial variability of soil environment
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The effect of soil conditioner on the spatial variability of soil environment

O. Urbanovičová, K. Krištof*, P. Findura, M. Mráz, J. Jobbágy and M. Križan

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to assess and evaluate the effect of soil conditioner on the spatial variability of soil environment. Activator PRP-SOL conditioning soil properties was selected as a field of study. Assessment of soil environment was done through the evaluation of selected soil properties, namely, tensile resistance of the soil and soil infiltration ability. Two dose of PRP-SOL application was done twice in year 2015 (Autumn and Spring) and once in 2016 (Spring) with application rates 150 kg ha-1 and 140 kg ha-1, respectively. The area was divided into blocks where stimulators were applied and none treated as a control. The evaluation of recorded values showed that treatability and tillage itself was significantly better on the area which was treated by application of PRP-SOL activators. In addition, tensile resistance was decreased by 5.71% in comparison with non-treated area of experimental field. Since the infiltration ability is among the very important soil properties which have an effect on soil moisture regime as well as surface runoff and therefore soil erosion. The evaluation of recorded values has revealed the effect of treatment by PRP-SOL activators on soil infiltration ability and therefore it results in increases infiltration of precipitation as well. Overall increase of infiltration was recorded at value 2 mm h-1. It can be concluded that application of soil activators may increase the soil conditions and therefore not only conserve soil fertility but even increase it from the long term perspective.

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25-30 J. Chyba, M. Kroulík, J. Lev and F. Kumhála
Influence of soil cultivation and farm machinery passes on water preferential flow using brilliant blue dye tracer
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Influence of soil cultivation and farm machinery passes on water preferential flow using brilliant blue dye tracer

J. Chyba*, M. Kroulík, J. Lev and F. Kumhála

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká129, Prague 6 – Suchdol, 16521, *Correspondence: chyba@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Objective of this study was the investigation of water preferential flow into the soilby brilliant blue dye tracer, under different soil tillage treatment and different soil compactioncaused by farm machinery passes. Brilliant blue dye tracer measurement was supported by coneindex measurement. Measurement was carried out on land divided into several options:a) controlled traffic farming (CTF) with loosening, b) CTF with deep loosening before plotestablishment, c) ploughing, d) ploughing with deep loosening before plot establishment. Forthe mentioned measurement options the measurements were performed inside and outside of thetrack lines of agricultural machinery. Representation of the brilliant blue dye tracer inside of thetrack lines significantly decreases at a depth of 5–10 cm for all variants. This trend is stabilisedbetween depths of 0.10 m to 0.4 m with colour coverage ranging between 10 and 20%. Aninteresting fact was that the colour coverage outside of the tracks without deep loosening beforeplot establishment was higher than measurement with deep loosening. The largest statisticallysignificant differences occurred at a depth of 0.3 m, while the most homogeneous groups (froma total of four groups) were found at depths of 0.05 to 0.1 m and 0.25 to 0.3 m. Cone indexmeasurement confirmed almost 100% increase in penetration resistance inside of traffic lines(2. MPa) in comparison with measurements outside of the traffic lines (1. MPa) in the range ofdepth from 0–0.16 m.

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385-396 G. Várallyay
The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management
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The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management

G. Várallyay

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (RISSAC) of theHungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; e-mail: g.varallyay@rissac.hu

Abstract:

Human activities result in changes in the global environment, sometimes with severe consequences for our future life. Changes in the gas composition of the atmosphere – partly due to CO2 and ‘greenhouse gases’ emission – may lead to a rise in temperature with high spatial and temporal variability, to alterations in the global circulation processes, and to a serious rearrangement of atmospheric precipitation, increasing aridity in some locations. These modifications are reflected sensitively by ecosystems (natural vegetation and land use pattern) and by considerable alterations in soil formation and degradation processes, in soil properties and soil functions.The potential impacts of the forecasted climate change reservoirs are briefly summarizedin the present paper with special regard to soil water management, soil moisture regime and their influences on the main soil degradation processes. Based on this analysis, conclusions are drawn regarding the possibilities of sustainable soil moisture and the required measures of rational control: increasing water use efficiency; reducing evaporation, surface runoff, seepage and filtration losses; increasing water storage capacity and available moisture range of soils.

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