Tag Archives: manure

1398-1418 S. Villegas, L. Rocha-Meneses, M. Luna-delRisco, C. Arroyave, C. Arrieta and C. Arredondo
Bioenergy transition as a strategic mechanism to diversify energy sources in rural areas in Colombia
Abstract |
Full text PDF (659 KB)

Bioenergy transition as a strategic mechanism to diversify energy sources in rural areas in Colombia

S. Villegas¹*, L. Rocha-Meneses²*, M. Luna-delRisco¹, C. Arroyave¹, C. Arrieta¹ and C. Arredondo¹

¹University of Medellín, Faculty of engineering, Carrera 87 #30-65, postal code 050026, Medellín, Colombia
²Technology Innovation Institute, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Research Center, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 9639, United Arab Emirates
*Correspondence: svillegas@udemedellin.edu.co; Lisandra.Meneses@tii.ae

Abstract:

The growth in population has resulted in an increase in the consumption of goods and services, which has led to a surge in waste generation and the use of fossil fuels. To mitigate the envi-ronmental issues associated with improper waste management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, residual organic matter can be used to produce bioenergy in the form of biogas and biomethane through anaerobic digestion (AD). These biofuels can act as substitutes for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas (NG) and can be utilized for power and heat generation. In Colombia, the current production of biogas is 4 MW, and the government aims to increase its utilization by promoting the inclusion of biogas and biomethane in the energy matrix through a supportive regulatory framework. Studies suggest that the theoretical energy potential of livestock waste in Colombia is estimated to be 2,673 MW, but the current technological conditions allow for the utilization of only 198 MW, with the pork sector contributing 34%. This study examines the legal context and the present state of biogas in the Colombian energy matrix, while exploring the potential of the Colombian pig farming sector for biogas production. The social, economic, and environmental barriers and opportunities faced by this sector in becoming an energy producer during the transition period are also identified. The findings suggest that biogas presents a sustainable energy solution for rural areas of Colombia where pig farming is a prominent economic activity. Biogas can replace traditional fuels like LPG and firewood for cooking purposes or serve as a complementary source for electricity and thermal energy
production in non-interconnected zones. This could mitigate environmental issues and reduce the prevalence of respiratory diseases associated with the use of firewood.

Key words:

, , , ,




1015–1022 S. Eglite, A. Ilgaza and M. Butka
Reduction of ammonia emissions by applying probiotics on litter in a commercial breeding poultry house
Abstract |
Full text PDF (121 KB)

Reduction of ammonia emissions by applying probiotics on litter in a commercial breeding poultry house

S. Eglite¹*, A. Ilgaza¹ and M. Butka²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, K.Helmaņa Street 8, LV-3004, Jelgava, Latvia
²WPSA Latvia branch, A/S Balticovo - administrative building, LV-3913, Iecavas district, Latvia
*Correspondence: sabiine.eglite@gmail.com

Abstract:

Agricultural sectors account for a part of total ammonia emissions, including poultry. This is especially true in breeding poultry houses, where birds live on litter for several months. The purpose of the research was to reduce ammonia emission and to improve birds living environment. The study was performed in two breeding poultry houses: the test house (ProLG) and the control house (ConLG). The study starts when young breeding birds (Ross 308) are housed at 19 weeks of age until the birds are eradicated at 60 weeks of age. At the test house the probiotic mixture in a powder form was manually spread 10 g per m2 before the birds were placed, and it was spread manually once a week on litter and over manure pits throughout the lifetime 5 g per m2 of probiotic mixture. The amount of ammonia in ProLG and ConLG houses was measured in the fifth week after the start of the study and afterwards every four weeks at the same 6 points each time and the condition of the litter was assessed on a 5-point scale. As the age of the poultry increases, the number of measurements also increases. Electricity consumption was calculated every month for the test housing and for the control housing. The trial is still ongoing, initial results showed that amount of ammonia has decreased compared to the control house, indicating that the probiotics can be used efficiently to reduce ammonia in the manure of the birds and improving the microclimate in poultry houses, but subsequent results did not give the expected results – the efficacy of probiotics had not been yet approved.

Key words:

, , , ,




1179–1187 E. Timofeev and A. Erk
Perspectives for biogas generation from manure on the farms in the Leningrad Region of the Russian Federation
Abstract |

Perspectives for biogas generation from manure on the farms in the Leningrad Region of the Russian Federation

E. Timofeev* and A. Erk

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution ‘Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM’, branch in Saint Petersburg, Filtrovskoje shosse, 3 p.o. Tiarlevo, RU 196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: timofeev_ev84@mail.ru

Abstract:

The interest in biogas in the Leningrad Region is consistently growing. Biogas can replace fossil fuels in different applications and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The study aimed to demonstrate the perspectives for its generation from livestock waste and further farm application. The farm energy audits identified the pattern of fuel and energy consumption. Computational and statistical methods were applied to estimate the biogas generation. First, the study considered a cattle farm with 1,800 head and manure output of 43,300 t year-1. According to calculations, the farm can fully meet its own needs for electricity or motor fuel by converting the manure into biogas. Meanwhile, the fuel use of biogas can reduce pollutant emissions by almost 30% against conventional fuel. Secondly, the study estimated the biogas production potential from the farm organic waste in the whole Leningrad Region with the total cattle stock of 165,000 head, pig stock of 184,000 head, and poultry stock of 29,180,000 head, producing about 8 million t year-1 of animal/poultry manure. According to calculations, the livestock waste processing will yield up to 500 million m3 of biogas. This is enough to fully cover the energy inputs of the farms in this region. However, the payback period for biogas plants is above eight years. The positive aspects of biogas application are introducing biogas in the farm energy balance as an energy resource; reducing the hazardous emissions owing to the improved processing of organic farm waste; obtaining high-quality fertilisers to consequently increase crop yields.

Key words:

, , ,




1000–1009 L. Šenfelde, D. Kairiša and D. Bārzdiņa
Effect of concentrate feeding technology on nutrient digestibility in Latvian Dark-Head lambs
Abstract |
Full text PDF (297 KB)

Effect of concentrate feeding technology on nutrient digestibility in Latvian Dark-Head lambs

L. Šenfelde, D. Kairiša and D. Bārzdiņa

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of
Animal Science, Street Liela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia

Abstract:

Research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of concentrate feeding technology on nutrient digestibility in Latvian Dark-Head lambs. Twenty-four purebred Latvian Dark-Head lambs (rams) were divided into three study groups (four lambs in each group). Concentrate was offered with different feeding technologies: group 1 – ad libitum once per day (ADL); group 2 – five times per day (5TD); group 3 – three times per day (3TD). Lamb live weight at the start of research was 24.6 kg (ADL), 24.1 kg (5TD) and 25.6 kg (3TD), the average age – 83 ± 1.4 days (ADL; p < 0.05), 75 ± 1.4 days (5TD) and 75 ± 1.6 days (3TD). Research data were collected over three periods and two repetitions during lamb fattening in July, August and September, 2019. During the data collection period lambs were transferred to cages with slatted wooden floor and a container with a grid under it. The highest concentrate intake in all data collection periods was found in ADL lambs (1.25 ± 0.106 kg – 1.75 ± 0.092 kg on average per lamb). Hay intake was not equal (90–350 g in average per lamb).The highest average faecal production was found in 3TD and 5TD lambs (F – 0.98 ± 0.102 kg (3TD), S – 1.13 ± 0.060 kg (5TD) and T – 0.99 ± 0.070 kg (5TD)).The least urinal production was found in 3TD lambs (0.24 ± 0.038 kg (F), 0.61 ± 0.078 kg (S) and 0.47 ± 0.033 kg (T)). Dry matter digestibility was 66.54–80.39%. Faecal consistency was soft for ADL and 5TD lambs and solid for 3TD lambs.

Key words:

, , , ,




1213–1219 F.A. Damasceno, J.L. Monge, J.A.C. Nascimento, R.R. Andrade, M. Barbari, J.A.O. Saraz and G.A.S. Ferraz
Estimate of manure present in compost dairy barn systems for sizing of manure storage
Abstract |
Full text PDF (213 KB)

Estimate of manure present in compost dairy barn systems for sizing of manure storage

F.A. Damasceno¹*, J.L. Monge², J.A.C. Nascimento¹, R.R. Andrade³, M. Barbari⁴, J.A.O. Saraz⁵ and G.A.S. Ferraz¹

¹Federal University of Lavras, Department of Engineering, BR37200-000 Lavras -Minas Gerais, Brazil
²Univeridad Nacional de Villa María, Institute of Basic and Applied Sciences, Agronomic Engineering, Córdoba, Argentina
³Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, BR36570-000 Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
⁴University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
⁵Univeridad Nacional de Colombia, Agrarians Faculty, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Medellin, Colombia
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@ufla.br

Abstract:

Milk production is increasingly modernized as a result of the growing demand for food around the world. Improvements in livestock facilities are observed, with a large increase in the use of feedlot systems such as the Compost Dairy Barn. Increasing milk production in confinement systems has also raised concerns such as the management of wastes (water, faeces and urine) from the system, which has become one of the most important issues in the intensive dairy farms. The aim of this work was to estimate the amount of manure present in compost dairy barn systems in order to size the manure storage. The study was conducted at four compost dairy barns in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. These compost barns had different bedding materials and dimensions. In each farm, data on milk yield and quality (daily production, fat and protein content), animal weight and amount of feed ingested by the animals were collected. Total-day manure delivered by the cows in the feeding alley and milking parlour was piled up together and weighed. Based on the results, it was observed that, in the compost dairy barns, only part of the total manure produced per day was delivered in the milking parlour (1.6 and 2.0%) and in the feed alley (27.6 to 49.3%). These results are very important for designers for the proper manure management system design of the dairy farms.

Key words:

, , , ,




1090–1098 V. Vtoryi, S. Vtoryi and V. Gordeev
Hydrogen sulfide emissions from cattle manure: experimental study
Abstract |
Full text PDF (415 KB)

Hydrogen sulfide emissions from cattle manure: experimental study

V. Vtoryi*, S. Vtoryi and V. Gordeev

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution ‘Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM’, Filtrovskoje shosse, 3 p.o. Tiarlevo, Saint Petersburg, RU196625, Russia
*Correspondence: vvtoryj@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Animal waste products, manure, in particular, are the sources of gases harmful to human and animal health. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is produced from the breakdown of organic matter in animal faeces, is one of them. Its concentration in the cow barn air should not exceed 5 mg m−3. A special laboratory setup was designed and the level of hydrogen sulfide emissions from the cow manure was determined depending on the time and manure temperature and moisture content. The most intensive emission of hydrogen sulfide from manure was in the first 24 hours – the increment of H2S concentration was 0.168 mg m−3 per hour average. During the next 24 hours, it was 0.021 mg m−3 per hour. When the manure temperature increased, H2S concentration increased also; when the temperature manure decreased, H2S concentration decreased also. In 48 hours, the hydrogen sulfide concentration was 1.1 mg m−3 at the manure temperature of +3.0 °C. At the manure temperature of +23.4 °C and 21.3 °C, H2S concentration was 6.53 mg m−3 and 4.97 mg m−3, respectively. The higher was the manure moisture content, the lower was the emission of hydrogen sulfide into the environment. After 24 hours under the manure moisture content of 88.5% and 92.5% and its temperature of 21 °С ± 0.3 °С, the difference in the hydrogen sulfide concentration was 1.18 times depending on the manure moisture content. The selected regression equations described the dependence of the hydrogen sulfide concentration on the considered factors. The determination coefficients and Student’s criteria proved the reliability of the results obtained at the significance level P ≤ 0.05.

Key words:

, , , ,




708-716 G. Hampejs, A. Jäger, S. Steiner and K. Steiner
Odour reduction of manure through addition of boracic charcoal
Abstract |
Full text PDF (544 KB)

Odour reduction of manure through addition of boracic charcoal

G. Hampejs¹*, A. Jäger¹, S. Steiner¹ and K. Steiner²

¹University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Bio & Environmental Technology, Stelzhamerstr. 23, AT4600 Wels, Austria
²HBLA Ursprung, Ursprungstraße 4, AT5161 Salzburg Austria
*Correspondence: g.hampejs@fh-wels.at

Abstract:

Odours released during the land application of manure results from different gases released from the liquid phase. These gases do create objectionable odours in the vicinity of the land-applied manure. In order to reduce the intensity of odour during manure application, we investigated the effectiveness of combining Borkohle with manure during land application.
Boracic acid is widely used as a flame retardant in cellulose insulation. During demolition of existing buildings, this insulation is sorted into its own residual waste fraction. The cellulose fibres are extracted and pelletized on site. Subsequently, the pellets are charred in a pyrolysis furnace. The resulting Borkohle – charcoal containing boron in various compounds – can be used as a soil enhancer and provides the trace element Boron to the fields. Furthermore, Borkohle provides long-term storage of carbon in the soil. Initial trials of combining boracic charcoal with manure additionally showed that odour emissions seemed to be significantly lower when manure was combined with Borkohle.
This work presents methods to quantify the odour reductions resulting from the addition of Borkohle to manure as well as first results. Parameters like the influence of the amount of charcoal added and exposure time have been investigated.
Charcoal was added at concentrations between 5 and 250 g L-1. While applying typical amounts of charcoal, a reduction of odour concentration of up to 85% was observed. A positive correlation between odour reduction and the amount of charcoal added was observed. Charcoal has a negligible effect when exposure times are less than 30 minutes.

Key words:

, , , ,




443-453 M.A. Kamberi, S. Muji, A. Kryeziu, R. Kastrati and N. Mestani
The excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu via excreta of laying hens fed low phosphorus diets and phytase
Abstract |
Full text PDF (532 KB)

The excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu via excreta of laying hens fed low phosphorus diets and phytase

M.A. Kamberi, S. Muji*, A. Kryeziu**, R. Kastrati and N. Mestani

University of Prishtina, ‘Hasan Prishtina’, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Department of Biotechnology in Zootechnics, Tahir Zajmi 34, XK10000 Prishtinë, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspdence: skender.muji@uni–pr.edu
**This author contributed equally to this work

Abstract:

An 8–week experiment was conducted to study the effect of adding phytase (Natuphos® 5000 BASF) to low and normal available phosphorus diets of laying hens on the excreta content and excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu. A total of 144 Hisex Brown laying hens that were 22 weeks old at the start of the experiment were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments. Treatments included three replicates (12 hens each) or 36 hens per treatment in total. Four corn-soybean meal-based diets were formulated to contain two levels of available phosphorus (AP; 0.12 and 0.46%) and two phytase levels (0 and 600 FTU kg–1). The results showed that there was no significant effect of added phytase on excreta Ca and Mg content (P > 0.05), but there was a significant effect of the dietary treatment on the content of Zn (P = 0.0075) and Cu (P = 0.0002). In terms of the excretion of these minerals, the dietary treatment had no effect on Ca and Zn excretion and a borderline effect (P = 0.0522) on Mg excretion measured as the amount of the mineral excreted per egg mass produced is observed. The results however showed a very strong effect of all three factors (available phosphorus, phytase and their interaction) on Cu excretion. The results indicate that adding 600 FTU to the corn-soybean meal laying hen diet with 0.12% or 0.46% AP beneficially affects the content and the excretion of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu. Therefore, we can conclude that a laying hen diet containing 0.12% available phosphorus and 600 FTU during the first production cycle may not only satisfactorily support hens’ performance but will also beneficially affect the environment.

Key words:

, , ,




1822–1830 A. Aboltins, J. Priekulis, B. Aboltina and L. Melece
Effect of slurry lagoon redesign on reduction of ammonia emission during livestock manure storage
Abstract |
Full text PDF (360 KB)

Effect of slurry lagoon redesign on reduction of ammonia emission during livestock manure storage

A. Aboltins¹*, J. Priekulis¹, B. Aboltina² and L. Melece³

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agriculture Machinery, Cakstes blvd. 5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, Zellu str. 25, LV-1002 Riga, Latvia
³Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Struktoru str. 14, LV-1039 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: aivars.aboltins@llu.lv

Abstract:

In accordance with the international and EU aims to reduce emissions of ammonia and other air pollution substances farm manure management, including its storage, especially for the animal breeding sector, is one of the most essential stages. One of the preventing steps is covering of the slurry lagoons. The most effective – hard covering can be provided only after the lagoon is constructed. The aim of the research: to develop methodology for calculations of emission reducing lagoon design volume and surface area. In the result of the theoretical research the possibilities of reducing the reflection surfaces at the same capacity of the lagoon have been discovered, as well as the changes of the reflection surface area, if instead of one lagoon several lagoons with less volume are installed and sequential filling of these lagoons is ensured. The article presents the calculation algorithms obtained during the research and recommendations for construction of low emission lagoons.

Key words:

, ,




396-404 J. Priekulis, A. Aboltins and A. Laurs
Amount of manure used for biogas production
Abstract |
Full text PDF (205 KB)

Amount of manure used for biogas production

J. Priekulis, A. Aboltins* and A. Laurs

Latvia University of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd. 5, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia; *Correspondence: aivars.aboltins@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Methods for calculation of the amount of manure from every agricultural animal species and subgroup for production of biogas have been developed in compliance with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. These methods can be applied for future forecasts if the amount of biogas produced in the country increases. It has been stated that in 2013 in Latvia for production of biogas mostly chicken and pig manure was used – correspondingly 33.7% and 26.7% from the amount of manure obtained from these animals. In the forecast for 2020, in turn, it is expected that the consumption of manure will be 31.9% of chicken manure and 31.5% of pig manure, from the amount of manure obtained from the corresponding group of animals.

Key words:

, ,