Tag Archives: morphology

xxx D.G. Churilov, S.D. Polischuk, G.I. Churilov, V.V. Churilova and D.N. Byshova
Investigation of the long-term toxic effect of nanoparticles of different physical-chemical characteristics
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Investigation of the long-term toxic effect of nanoparticles of different physical-chemical characteristics

D.G. Churilov¹, S.D. Polischuk²*, G.I. Churilov³, V.V. Churilova² and D.N. Byshova⁴

¹Ryazan State Agrotechnological University, Road Transport Faculty, Department of Metal Technology and Machine Repair, Kostychev street 1, 390044 Ryazan, Russia
²Ryazan State Agrotechnological University, Technological Faculty, Department of Breeding and Seed Production, Agricultural Chemistry, Forestry and Ecology, Kostychev street 1, 390044, Ryazan, Russia
³Ryazan State Medical University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Chemistry, Vysokovoltnaya street 9, 390026 Ryazan, Russia
⁴Ryazan State Agrotechnological University, Faculty of Vet Medicine and Biotechnology, Kostychev street 1, 390044 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: svpolishuk@mail.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to study the effect of metal and oxide nanoparticles on some ecological and functional groups in the soil-plant-animal system to form the stability limits of organisms. Nanoparticles of cobalt, iron, zinc, copper, copper oxide, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide sized 20–80 nm were studied. The concentration range was 0.01–1,000 g of nanoparticles per ton of seeds or soil. Objects suitable for biotesting and environmental monitoring were selected: earthworms (Lumbricina), rats (white outbred) and Wistar rats. It was previously found that nanoparticles of the studied metals up to a concentration of 100 g t-1 of seeds, unlike oxides, practically do not affect bacterial populations. The use of indicators of biochemical and cytomorphologic reactions of invertebrates seems promising because worms are able to bind pollutants and reduce their penetration into plants. They are also an indicator of soil biotesting for metal contamination. Reactivity and toxic effects of nanoparticles (NPs) in natural conditions depend both on the type of soil and on the size and concentration of nanoparticles. With sizes (NPs) of up to 20 nm (depending on the type of soil and physicochemical characteristics), NPs are much more reactive and reduce the survival of microorganisms. Small nanoparticles (less than 20 nm) are characterized by a large interface. Such nano-objects exhibit high physical-chemical activity and are safe only at very low concentrations. The specifics of the environmental impact of oxide NPs compared to metal NPs was revealed. It was associated with accumulation of oxides in living systems and the peculiarities of changes in the morph physiological, histological and reproductive parameters of organisms and morphological and biochemical parameters of animals. Oxide nanoparticles accumulate in a living organism, exhibit toxic properties, lower the activity of enzymes and hormones and are transferred along trophic chains, which is not typical for metal nanoparticles.

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299-302 E. Merivee, A. Must, M. Milius and A. Luik
External stimuli in searching for favourable habitat, overwintering sites and refugia of ground beetles: a short review
Abstract |

External stimuli in searching for favourable habitat, overwintering sites and refugia of ground beetles: a short review

E. Merivee, A. Must, M. Milius and A. Luik

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: enno.merivee@emu.ee

Abstract:

More than 10 morphological types and subtypes of sensilla have been found on the antennae of ground beetles. On the basis of their external features and similarity with the antennal sensilla of other insects, it is suggested that they may function as mechano-, olfactory, taste, thermo- and hygroreceptors. In ground beetles, however, a thermoreceptive cell located in antennal campaniform sensilla, and three chemoreceptive cells of four, innervating large antennal taste bristles have been electrophysiologically identified. These cells are the salt, pH and sugar cell. Their probable role in searching for favourable habitats, overwintering sites and refugia is discussed. It is concluded that the strength of external chemosensory stimuli to which antennal taste cells do not fire, or fire at very low frequency, represents chemical conditions in the ground beetles’ preferred habitats and microhabitats. In the future, a good knowledge of external stimuli crucial in the searching behaviour of ground beetles’ could allow more effective manipulation of these predatory beetles in agricultural lands..

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221–228 A. Ploomi, E. Merivee, M. Rahi, J. Bresciani, H. P. Ravn, A. Luik and V. Sammelselg
Antennal sensilla in ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)
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Antennal sensilla in ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

A. Ploomi¹, E. Merivee¹, M. Rahi², J. Bresciani³, H. P. Ravn⁴, A. Luik¹ and V. Sammelselg⁵

¹Institute of Plant Protection, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014, Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: angela@eau.ee
²Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Veterinary and Agricultural University, Bülowsvej 13, DK 1870, Frederiksberg C, Denmark
⁴Danish Forest and Landscape Research Institute, Hoersholm Kongevej 11, DK 2970, Hoersholm, Denmark
⁵Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The antennal sensilla of male and female ground beetle species Bembidion lampros Hbst., Bembidion properans Steph. and Platynus dorsalis Pont. (Coleoptera, Carabidae) were investigated by using a scanning electron microscope. The filiform antennae of  ground beetles consist of the scape, pedicel and 9 flagellomeres. Thirteen different sensillar types were distiguished. These were: four types of sensilla chaetica, two types of sensilla trichodea, six types of sensilla basiconica, pit-organs sensilla coeloconica, and small domes sensilla campaniformia. Sensilla chaetica 4 occur only on the antennae of P. dorsalis, and sensilla trichodea 1 only on the antennae ofBembidion species. No sexual differences in the types of sensilla were found on the antennae of these three species. The possible functions are discussed and three types of sensilla were considered as olfactory, sensilla trichodea 2 and sensilla basiconica 1 and 2. Olfactory sensilla trichodea 2 and sensilla basiconia 1 form clear dorsal and ventral sensillar fields on the flagellomeres, which seems to be common in ground beetles.

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