Tag Archives: mortality

xxx S.V. Nikitin, К.S. Shatokhin, V.I. Zaporozhets, N.N. Кochnev, D.S. Bashur, A.V. Khodakovа and V.I. Ermolaev
‘GENETIC LOAD’ and changes in the chronology of early mortality in mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS
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‘GENETIC LOAD’ and changes in the chronology of early mortality in mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS

S.V. Nikitin¹, К.S. Shatokhin²*, V.I. Zaporozhets¹, N.N. Кochnev², D.S. Bashur¹, A.V. Khodakovа² and V.I. Ermolaev¹

¹Institute of Cytology and Genetics of Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences, RU630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
²Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, RU630039 Novosibirsk, Russia
*Correspondence: true_genetic@mail.ru

Abstract:

This paper describes the study of the common factors of mortality of suckling piglets. It is assumed that this parameter is influenced by recessive lethal factors of the genetic load in population. An immediate subject of study was the chronological analysis of mortality in piglets from the breeding group of mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS (Institute of Cytology and Genetics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences) for the period from 2013 through 2019. The results revealed increased number of dead piglets in the early postnatal period (first five days after farrowing) over this time period. This observation was confirmed by a statistically significant correlation coefficient between the year of birth and the number of animals that died during the first five days of life. Mortality in the period from the 6th day to weaning, on the contrary, decreased to probable accidental death which was non-related to genetic causes. Observed redistribution of mortality may be associated with increased general homozygosity in population and, in part, with the optimization of the excessive for mini-pigs multiple fertility. It is possible that the consequence of the second cause is an increase in mortality and a decrease in multiple pregnancy. It is assumed that in the breeding group of mini-pigs of the ICG SB RAS, there is the process of eliminating excessive lethal ‘genetic load’ and optimizing homozygosity to a level ensuring maximum survival of piglets on the 6th day after birth. Results of regression analysis showed that the mortality of piglets in 2018 reached its maximum level and in future a decrease to the optimum level which is typical for domestic pigs is possible. In general, results of this study suggest that newborn piglets are represented by two types. The first type includes animals whose viability potential determined by recessive lethal ‘genetic load’ is zero – they cannot live outside mother’s body. The second type is represented by animals with a genetic viability potential equal to one –they can die only from accidental death.

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465-470 L. Metspalu, K. Jõgar, A. Ploomi, K. Hiiesaar, I. Kivimägi and A. Luik
Effects of biopesticide Neem EC on the Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)
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Effects of biopesticide Neem EC on the Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

L. Metspalu, K. Jõgar, A. Ploomi, K. Hiiesaar, I. Kivimägi and A. Luik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and EnvironmentalSciences, Kreutzwaldi Str. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: Luule.Metspalu@emu.ee

Abstract:

Third instars larvae of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. were exposed to Neem EC (M/S RYM Exports, The Indian Neem Tree Company) by a leaf-dip experiment (concentration of azadirachtin – 100 ppm). The after-treatment parameters studied the duration of the larval stage, mortality, and weight of pupae. Neem EC has shown significant prolongation in the development of larvae of M. brassicae: 18.5 days in the test variant, versus 14.8 days in the control. Neem EC also caused lethal failure of larval-larval and larval-pupal ecdysis, which is typical for insecticides possessing morphogenetic activity commonly referred to as IGR-activity. The mortality of larvae, prepupae and pupae in the test variant was significantly higher than in the control. The experiment in laboratory revealed that Neem EC inhibited larval development, greatly increased mortality, had antifeedant/deterrent effects and acted as a growth regulator for M brassicae larvae and pupae.

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21–30 K. Hiiesaar, L. Metspalu, J. Jõudu and K. Jõgar
Over-wintering of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) in field conditions and factors affecting its population density in Estonia
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Over-wintering of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) in field conditions and factors affecting its population density in Estonia

K. Hiiesaar, L. Metspalu, J. Jõudu and K. Jõgar

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: kylli.hiiesaar@emu.ee

Abstract:

The adaptation of Colorado potato beetles (CPB) (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) to low temperatures has been the basis for the formation of a local permanent population in Estonia. The number of this pest fluctuates in different years on a large scale. The hibernation of the beetles in field conditions during the years 2000–2005 was observed and some factors influencing the beetles’ mortality was discussed in this study. Soil with a lighter texture – loamy sand proved better for the hibernation of CPB than clay loam soil with a heavier texture. 30 cm confirmed to be more suitable depth for hibernation than 50 cm, demonstrating lower mortality rate. Every autumn CPB populations were differently prepared for hibernation: part of the beetles burrowed themselves into the soil considered to be ready for over-wintering, and there were more survivals than among the beetles staying on the soil surface: that could not complete their maturation feeding. The temperature may become lethal for a majority of the hibernating population only during extreme winters when the temperature falls to -30oC for a longer period of time. During our observation period, it happened only once: in 2002/2003. In more mild winters there were no problems with over-wintering: about two third of the beetles survived in clay sand and about a half in loamy clay soil. It is difficult to predict the annual damage caused by CPB because the Estonian population consists of adapted over-wintered beetles and beetles migrated from southern regions. In some years we have had a great number of immigrant beetles and, in some years, no immigration has occurred.

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