Grain yield response of facultative and winter triticale for late autumn sowing in different weather conditions
National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Plant Science, Heroiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
Climate change is affecting the growing conditions of winter cereals. Peculiarities of organogenesis and their impact in grain yield of facultative triticale depend on different nitrogen fertilization can help to avoid adverse effects of unfavorable conditions. Field experiment was conducted in zone of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The experiment included 2 late autumns sowing periods and fertilization system with few variants of nitrogen fertilization applied in spring. Features of organogenesis of two winter varieties and facultative triticale Pidzimok kharkivskiy were determined by apical meristem microscopy from emergence till heading. Was established process of apical meristem differentiation in facultative triticale has non-linear relation between temperature and number of spikelets. The efficiency of apical meristem differentiation reaches its maximum at 12 °C. Grain yield of triticale varieties depend on studied factors but main impact had weather conditions. Grain yield of facultative triticale significantly exceeds winter varieties and had a lesser difference between sowing period than winter cultivars. Crops in the first sowing period were more productive than in the second. Facultative triticale has great productivity potential in late autumn sowing and can realize it in various conditions. Reduced yields in late sowing are lower than in winter cultivars.