Tag Archives: nitrogen

xxx P. Šařec, O. Látal, P. Novák, J. Holátko, V. Novák, T. Dokulilová and M. Brtnický
Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils
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Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils

P. Šařec¹*, O. Látal², P. Novák³, J. Holátko⁴, V. Novák¹, T. Dokulilová⁴⁵ and M. Brtnický⁴⁵

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Agrovýzkum Rapotín Ltd., Rapotín, Výzkumníků 267, CZ788 13 Vikýřovice, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
⁴Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Geology and Pedology, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
⁵Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: psarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study aims at verifying the effect of farmyard manure (FYM) and of selected activators (Z’fix and NeoSol) on changes of soil properties. Their application should lead to improvement of soil physical properties and of organic matter fixation, to reduction of environmental risks, e.g. of tillage energy requirements. Experimental variants (0.7 ha each) were as follows: I (FYM with Z’fix); II (FYM with Z’fix + NeoSol); III (FYM); IV (Control NPK only). FYM was applied at rates: 50 t ha-1 (2014); 30 t ha-1 (2016). Additional NPK fertilizer (I–IV) was applied according to annual crop nutrient normative. The agent Z’fix was used as an activator of FYM biological transformation (5.5 kg t-1). The agent NeoSol was used as soil activator (200 kg ha-1; annually). In order to verify the effect, cone index, bulk density, tillage implement draft and chemical soil components (Humus, C/N ration and Ntot) were measured annually. Compared to the control, the application of FYM combined with the mentioned agents (I–III) increased Ntot more than two times. Moreover, it decreased (I–III) bulk density by 8.7%. Tillage implement draft decreased by 3% after the application of FYM with Z’fix (I, II). The study confirmed that FYM application combined with utilization of activators positively influenced soil fertility and helped to reduce environmental risks.

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2220–2232 J.A. Chávez, J.L. Alcántara-Flores, R.C. Almiray-Pinzón, E. Díaz-Cabrera, R. Pérez-Avilés, M.E. Patiño-Iglesias and M.A. Mora-Ramírez
Vegetative growth response of beets and lettuce to stored human urine
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Vegetative growth response of beets and lettuce to stored human urine

J.A. Chávez¹, J.L. Alcántara-Flores²*, R.C. Almiray-Pinzón³, E. Díaz-Cabrera³, R. Pérez-Avilés², M.E. Patiño-Iglesias² and M.A. Mora-Ramírez³*

¹University of Puebla, Faculty of Phys. Sci. Math., Avenida San Claudio y 18 Sur, Col. San Manuel, Edif., FM1-101B, Ciudad Universitaria, postal code 72570, Pue., Puebla, México
²University of Puebla, Science Institute, Av. San Claudio, Edif FM8 111-D, San Manuel, 72570 Puebla, Pue., México
³University of Puebla, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Physico Mathematics, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, 72570 Puebla, Pue.,
*Correspondence: jlaf7@yahoo.com.mx; marco.x.mora@gmail.com

Abstract:

In this work, we present the experimental results of the effect of stored human urine (SHU) on the growth of beets (Beta vulgaris L) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L). We apply different amounts of SHU according to the recommended dose of nitrogen, considering soil from farmland and vermiculite as substrates. The last allows us to determine with high precision the isolated effect of SHU over the vegetative development of beet plants, without considering other nutrients present in common soils. Experimental results demonstrate that the application of SHU has no significant effects on lettuce vegetative growth under our soil conditions. In contrast, SHU can be used successfully as a fertilizer of beets. The optimum dose was found at 120 kg N ha-1 and resulted in average dry weight of 125 g. However, if the dose exceeds the optimum levels, the growth of the plant is inhibited. Beets fertilized with SHU does not pose any hygienic risk for human consumption. Our findings represent a promising alternative to propose expanding the use of SHU as fertilizer in medium-sized greenhouses and to provide benefits to families in rural areas, with little or no available water supplies.

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559–573 M. Latati, N.Y. Rebouh, A. Aouiche and M. Laouar
Modeling the functional role of the microorganisms in the daily exchanges of carbon and nitrogen in intercropping system under Mediterranean conditions
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Modeling the functional role of the microorganisms in the daily exchanges of carbon and nitrogen in intercropping system under Mediterranean conditions

M. Latati¹*, N.Y. Rebouh², A. Aouiche³ and M. Laouar¹

¹Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique, Département de Productions Végétales. Laboratoire d’Amélioration Intégrative des Productions Végétales (C2711100). Rue Hassen Badi, El Harrach DZ16200 Alger, Algérie
²University of Russia (RUDN University) Department of AgroBiotechnology, Institute of Agriculture,Peoples' Friendship, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya street, RU117198 Moscow, Russia
³Ecole Supérieure des Sciences de l'Aliment et des Industries Agroalimentaires (ESSAIA), Avennue Ahmed Hamidouch Route de Beaulieu, El Harrach, DZ16200 Alger, Algérie
*Correspondence: m.latati@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sequestration in plants and soil micro-organisms is considered as a major phenomenon against global warming. The modeling of this phenomenon aims at highlighting the role that the legumes-cereals mixed crop can play in the reduction of greenhouse gases. It is based on field experiments in maize (Zea mays L.)-common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) intercropped system of the cereal agroecosystem in Setif region of Algeria. For this purpose, the MOMOS model was selected and validated in a calcareous soil and low phosphorus (P) conditions. It revealed some mechanisms that control the C and N sequestration in the compartments of the complex soil-plant-atmosphere-microorganism system. CN modeling results show that the daily growth of intercropped maize with common beans is positively correlated with the microbial CN transformation during the cropping cycle, under limited P and N conditions. Thus, this approach revealed the functional role of rhizobial symbiosis in maintaining the balance between the different C and N exchanges from soil to atmosphere and from atmosphere to soil.

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1202-1214 M. Golabadi, P. Golkar and B. Bahari
Remobilization assay of dry matter from different shoot organs under drought stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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Remobilization assay of dry matter from different shoot organs under drought stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

M. Golabadi¹*, P. Golkar² and B. Bahari¹

¹Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Collage of Agriculture, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box: 81595-158 Isfahan, Iran
²Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Isfahan University of Technology, P.O. Box: 84156-2781 Isfahan, Iran
*Correspondence: m.golabadi@khuisf.ac.ir

Abstract:

Remobilization of dry matter during the grain filling period in wheat is capable of helping the plant recover its grain yield under drought stress. In this study, the genotypic variation of different traits related to dry matter remobilization were measured in seven genotypes of wheat under the three different environment conditions of well-watered, drought stress at heading stage with application of extra nitrogen fertilizer (30%), and drought stress in Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that the genotypes were different not only in their dry matter remobilization from the spike, the stem, the peduncle, and the leaf sheath but also in their current photosynthesis. Different environmental conditions were found to affect dry matter remobilization from the leaves and sheath, current photosynthesis, grain yield, and the relative contributions by the stem and the spike to grain yield. The highest values of spike and stem contribution to grain yield were obtained under drought stress while current photosynthesis was found to be the sole supplier for grain filling in normal conditions. Application of extra nitrogen fertilizer under drought stress was found to reduce the loss of grain yield in some genotypes as a result of enhanced vegetative growth, reserve accumulation, and dry matter remobilization to the grain.

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443-450 R. Morcuende, P. Pérez, R. Martínez-Carrasco and E. Gutiérrez
Nitrogen Modulates the Diurnal Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Wheat Plants – Projections Towards Climate Change
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Nitrogen Modulates the Diurnal Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Wheat Plants – Projections Towards Climate Change

R. Morcuende, P. Pérez, R. Martínez-Carrasco and E. Gutiérrez

Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e–mail: rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es

Abstract:

This study investigates whether the diurnal regulation of nitrate reductase activity in the flag leaf of wheat is affected by combined increases of CO2 and temperature in the air and to ascertain whether the nitrogen supply modifies these effects. Spring wheat was grown at ambient (360 μmol mol−1) or elevated (700 μmol mol−1) CO2, under ambient and 4°C warmer temperatures, and with two levels of nitrogen supply in field temperature gradient chambers. At ear emergence, NR activity reaches a maximum in the early part of the light period and declines later in the light period and during the first part of the night. Although elevated CO2 did not increase NR activity, it led to a modification of the diurnal regulation. During the last part of the photoperiod the decline of the activity was faster in plants grown in ambient CO2, in which the accumulation of amino acids was higher. The maximum reached in the first hours of the light period in plants grown in elevated CO2 and nitrogen abundance was related to a higher accumulation of soluble carbohydrates. The dark inactivation of NR was prevented in plants grown in elevated CO2 with low nitrogen. Additionally, the higher decline of NR activation in plants grown with ample nitrogen supply and higher temperatures was related to the accumulation of amino acids. It is concluded that nitrogen plays a role in the activity and post-translational regulation of NR under the future climatic scenario.

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445-452 V. Scholz, J. Kern and P. Kaulfuß
Environmental effects of energy crop cultivation – results of a long-term field trial
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Environmental effects of energy crop cultivation – results of a long-term field trial

V. Scholz¹, J. Kern² and P. Kaulfuß³

¹Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany, e-mail: vscholz@atb-potsdam.de
²Postal address above, e-mail: jkern@atb-potsdam.de
³Postal address above, e-mail: pkaulfuss@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

In order to identify crop species for sustainable energy farming it is necessary to determine the significance of genetic, environmental and growing-technical factors. Therefore, in 1994 a  long-term practically oriented field experiment on a sandy soil was established to investigate ten annual and perennial plant species and the effects of different N-fertilisation. The measuring programme includes yields, energy gain, N2O emissions as well as ecologically relevant plant and soil constituents. The results of this 15-year trial confirm the possibility of ecological and energy-efficient production of various energy crop species.

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487-492 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke
Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield
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Amounts of nitrogen and carbon returned to soil depending on green manure and the effect on winter wheat yield

L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, A, Makke

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of LifeSciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 1, Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

The trials were carried out during the 2006–08 growing seasons at the Department of Field Crop Husbandry in the Estonian University of Life Sciences. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of winter wheat. The total phytomass of leguminous green manures ploughed into soil in 2007 varied from 10.3 Mg ha–1 with the bird’s foot trefoil to 13.9 Mg ha–1 with the white sweet clover. The root mass of legumes comprised 37–54% of the total biomass. The amount of carbon applied into the soil with the green material and roots of legumes varied from 4.43 Mg ha-1 to 5.98 Mg ha–1. The amounts of nitrogen were up to 274 kg of N ha–1. The highest wheat yields were attained in treatments with lucerne and red clover as preceding crops. Compared to the N0 treatment, the extra yield reached 3.26 Mg ha–1 with green manures. Both green manures and mineral fertilizers enhanced the quality of the winter wheat yield, but the results did not vary among different green manures.

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125-132 L. Talgre, E. Lauringson, H. Roostalu and A. Astover
The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat
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The effects of green manures on yields and yield quality of spring wheat

L. Talgre¹, E. Lauringson¹, H. Roostalu² and A. Astover²

¹Department of Field Crops and Grasslands, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
²Department of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
E-mail: liina.talgre@emu.ee

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the period of 2004–2006 to investigate the effect of green manure treatments on the yield and yield quality of spring wheat. In the experiment, different green manure crops were compared for amounts of N, C and organic matter applied into soil and their effect on the yield and yield quality of succeeding cereals. The amount of organic matter applied into soil was dependent on the cultivated crop. The highest amount of organic matter was applied with hybrid lucerne, the lowest, with unfertilised oats. With sowings of red clover, lucerne and hybrid lucerne, 4.91–7.70 Mg C ha-1 and 341.9–379.1 kg N ha-1 were added to soil with green material and roots. The yield of spring wheat on unfertilised soil was 2.12 Mg ha-1, but the treatment with hybrid lucerne as a preceding crop gave an extra yield of 1.45 Mg ha-1. Green manure crops did not have a unilateral effect on the quality of spring wheat. Grain yield grew with the increased norm of mineral nitrogen, but there was no significant improvement in quality indicators.

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5-14 R. Aavola and M. Kärner
Nitrogen uptake at various fertilization levels and cutting frequencies of Lolium species
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Nitrogen uptake at various fertilization levels and cutting frequencies of Lolium species

R. Aavola¹ and M. Kärner²

¹Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, Aamisepa 1, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia;e-mail: rene.aavola@jpbi.ee
²Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: malle.karner@emu.ee

Abstract:

A field trial was carried out in 1999–2000 to identify optimal combinations of compound fertilizer rates and defoliation frequencies in perennial ryegrass cv. Raidi (diploid) and Raite (tetraploid) and Italian ryegrass cv. Talvike (tetraploid), to enable the nitrogen (N) requirements of dairy cows to be met. The study aimed at estimating the N utilization in the swards subjected to 6 cycles of simulated grazing or cutting 4 times for silage. N application rates were changed from 0–500 kg ha-1 by 100 kg in the former and from 0–400 by 80 kg ha-1 in the latter harvest regime. Increasing the rate of fertilizer increased the N concentrations and yields. Applying N 300 to ryegrasses defoliated at tillering to stem elongation stage allowed assuring minimum N content in the forage dry matter (2.2%) while at N 500 the upper level (2.7%) was exceeded. The ryegrass plants took up less N than was applied with the compound fertilizer. Increasing the defoliation frequency of grass had a positive effect on N content of the forage, but had inconsistent or no effect on improving N uptake from fertilizer and soil. Perennial ryegrass cultivars were more efficient than Italian ryegrass in taking up N from the soil and fertilizer at simulated grazing. Cutting 4 times a year at moderate to high fertilizer rate applications did not reveal a distinct superiority in N absorption of a particular cultivar, but Italian ryegrass had the best N uptake potential from N deficient soil.

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27-35 L. Buskienė and N. Uselis
The influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on the growth and yield of raspberries cv. ‘Polana’
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The influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on the growth and yield of raspberries cv. ‘Polana’

L. Buskienė¹ and N. Uselis²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT–-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail:institutas@lsdi.lt
²Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, LT–-54333 Babtai, Kaunas distr., Lithuania; e-mail:n.uselis@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out from 1998–2001 at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, according to the scheme: N60 (control); N60K90; N90; N90K130; N120; N120K180; N150;N150K240. The soil was Epicalcari – Endohypogleic cambisol, clay loam, containing 7.2% oforganic matter, 140 mg kg-1 P2O5, 125 mg kg-1 K2O, 11900 mg kg-1 CaO, 3040 mg kg-1 MgO,pHKCl –7.3.Primocane raspberries cv. ‘Polana’ fertilized with the largest amount of nitrogen fertilizers(N150) produced 20% more primocanes in comparison with the control (N60). Potassiumfertilizers increased the diameter of raspberry stems – fertilizing them with N120K180 stemdiameter resulted in an increase of 5.3%, with N90K130 and by 4.2% with N150K240 incomparison with the control.Primocane raspberries cv. ‘Polana’ fertilized with N120K180 gave the highest yieldincrement – 2.5 t ha-1, and, with N60K90 – 2.4 t ha-1 – in comparison with those fertilized onlywith nitrogen fertilizers (N60).When the rate of nitrogen fertilizers was increased from 60 to 90–150 kg ha-1, the nitrogencontent in the soil increased by approximately 25%. When the rate of potassium fertilizers was increased from 90 to 240 kg ha-1, potassium content in the soil increased to 33%. The content of potassium in raspberry cv. ‘Polana’ leaves significantly increased when fertilizing only with the highest rates of potassium fertilizers (N120K180 – N150K240) – by 12.1–19.7% – in comparisonwith control (N60).

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