Tag Archives: nutrition

176–185 N. Lebedová, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, M. Okrouhlá and K. Zadinová
Effect of feed restriction on muscle fibre characteristics and meat quality traits in pigs
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Effect of feed restriction on muscle fibre characteristics and meat quality traits in pigs

N. Lebedová*, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, M. Okrouhlá and K. Zadinová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Animal Science, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: lebedova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on muscle fibre composition and meat quality traits in pigs. Forty crossbred pigs (Pietrain × Large WhiteSire) × (Landrace × Large WhiteDam) were divided into two feeding groups: ad libitum (AL) and restricted (R1). The effects of feed restriction on muscle fibre characteristics of the musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) and meat quality traits were evaluated. Muscle fibres were stained and classified as fibre types I, IIA, and IIB. For each muscle fibre type, the fibre density, fibre cross-section area (CSA), and fibre proportion were determined. Fibres IIB were divided into small- (diameter < 46 μm), medium- (diameter 46–86 μm) and large-sized (diameter > 86 μm) fibres. The AL group had significantly lower (P < 0.05) percentage area of IIB fibres and lower (P < 0.01) CSA of IIB fibres than did the R1 group. The R1 group had significantly greater content of large-sized IIB fibres and smaller content of medium-sized IIB fibres than did the AL group (P < 0.05). The group fed ad libitum had greater backfat thickness and smaller lean meat content and tended to have better meat quality traits compared to the restricted group. The results of this study show that strong feed restriction had a negative effect on muscle fibre composition, especially on the amount of large-sized fibres IIB, which are associated with poor meat quality.

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2211-2228 K. Vehovský, K. Zadinová, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, N. Lebedová, M. Okrouhlá and M. Šprysl
Fatty acid composition in pork fat: De-novo synthesis, fatty acid sources and influencing factors – a review
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Fatty acid composition in pork fat: De-novo synthesis, fatty acid sources and influencing factors – a review

K. Vehovský, K. Zadinová*, R. Stupka, J. Čítek, N. Lebedová, M. Okrouhlá and M. Šprysl

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Animal Husbandry, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00, Prague – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Corresponding author: zadinova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Fats are among the basic nutrients the human organism needs as a source of energy, as well as to grow and regenerate cells, tissues, and organs. Particularly animal fats, with their higher proportion of saturated fatty acids and low content of n-3 fatty acids, are often seen by the public as relatively undesirable food components. Fatty acid (FA) composition of pork is affected by many factors: genotype, breeding, gender and feeding methods. Numerous research teams, therefore, have searched for means of effectively manipulating the chemical composition of animal fats. This paper reviews existing knowledge and means of effectively influencing the fatty acid composition in pig fat, which is a significant component of human food in European countries due to their high consumption of pork. The findings of various authors demonstrate that not only altering of fatty acids sources in animal diets but a range of other factors as well can significantly influence the composition of fatty acids in pig fat and consequently pork quality.

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389-397 L. Degola and D. Jonkus
The influence of dietary inclusion of peas, faba bean and lupin as a replacement for soybean meal on pig performance and carcass traits
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The influence of dietary inclusion of peas, faba bean and lupin as a replacement for soybean meal on pig performance and carcass traits

L. Degola and D. Jonkus

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
Correspondence: lilija.degola@llu.lv; daina.jonkus@llu.lv

Abstract:

The effect of peas, faba bean and lupin seed inclusion in growing and finishing pig diets was evaluated. The control diet included soybean meal at 15%, but in the trial groups diets peas were 15 or 28%, faba bean 20 or 25%, lupin seed 12 or 15%, completely replacing soybean meal. Diets formulated to be isoenergetic for ME and with the same crude protein content. The faba bean and, especially, lupin seed meal inclusion in pig diets for growing period significantly reduced ADG P = 0.02 and 0.01), and G : F was also significantly influenced (P = 0.02) for pigs in lupin seed meal groups. There were no effects on finisher pigs average daily gain, inclusion peas or faba bean, daily gain were, respectively 892 ± 19 and 915 ± 11, 867 ± 12 and 828 ± 11, except lupin seed meal (P = 0.04) inclusion. There were no significantly effects on carcass quality and to pork chemical content, but pigs fed the diets with peas 28% and faba bean 25% had less of lean meat content, greater backfat thickness and internal fat than other groups which have a similar results. The muscle chemical content show that inclusion of pulses increased the total fat content in pork. In conclusion, results from this experiment suggest that pigs fed peas and faba bean have equal or slightly lower growth performance and carcass traits than pigs fed soybean meal, except lupin seed meal.

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1086-1095 E. Skripleva, and T. Arseneva
Optimization of the recipe of yoghurt with additives and control of some quality attributes of new yoghurt recipe
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Optimization of the recipe of yoghurt with additives and control of some quality attributes of new yoghurt recipe

E. Skripleva¹,* and T. Arseneva²

¹Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova street 9, 191002, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondence: 4ernamurka@rambler.ru 2Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova street 9, 191002, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

Abstract:

According to the data and the results of clinical trials received in Nutrition Institute of ‘Russian Academy of Medical Sciences’, it was found that 80% of Russians suffer from lack of selenium. Saint-Petersburg University Innovation Company ‘Littoral’ has developed a biologically active food supplement ‘Selenium Alga plus’. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of using dietary supplement ‘Selenium Alga Plus’ in yoghurt manufacture. Almost all groups of the population consume such fermented milk drink as yogurt, so that it is considered that this method increasing selenium as the most effective. People suffering from diabetes may have lack of selenium in the organism, as well as healthy people. Since traditional yogurt contains 11% of sucrose, it is necessary to choose sweetening components with vegetable origin. Selecting sweetening components of vegetable origin we pursued the dual purpose. Firstly, we created a sweet product, which would be a source of organic selenium. Therefore the sucrose was replaced with the plant origin sweeteners such as syrup of Jerusalem artichoke and stevioside. Secondly, it was the development of technology and composition of functional food product, intended not only for mass consumption, but also for people suffer from diabetes. It becomes possible due to the absence of sucrose, the presence of selenium and Jerusalem artichoke, which are able to reduce the blood sugar level.

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311-316 F.L. Stoddard
Improving food and feed security in the Nordic and Baltic region by using appropriate crop rotations
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Improving food and feed security in the Nordic and Baltic region by using appropriate crop rotations

F.L. Stoddard

Dept. Agricultural Sciences, PL 27 (Latokartanonkaari 5), 00014 University ofHelsinki, Finland; email frederick.stoddard@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

Abstract: Rotations in the Nordic and Baltic region are, as elsewhere in Europe, heavily biased towards cereals. Broadleaved crops in general, and grain legumes in particular, offer a range of environmental and agricultural benefits that are inadequately exploited in this region. This article reviews some of the options available to the region. Brassica oilseeds can be used as catch crops, cover crops and biofumigants, as well as for their oil and protein-rich meal. Fibre hemp is a good soil-cleaning crop with excellent bioenergy potential. Grain legumes produce food and animal feed locally while contributing positively to soil health, and are particularly under-exploited regionally, in spite of the availability of suitable germplasm. The prospects for using mainstream alternative crops in regional rotations are therefore very good and this use should lead to improved agricultural sustainability and economic viability.

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