Tag Archives: oat

xxx D.C. Silveira, M. Pelissoni, C.R. Buzatto, S.M. Scheffer-Basso, L.A. Ebone, J.M. Machado and N.C. Lângaro
Anatomical traits and structural components of peduncle associated with lodging in Avena sativa L.
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Anatomical traits and structural components of peduncle associated with lodging in Avena sativa L.

D.C. Silveira¹*, M. Pelissoni², C.R. Buzatto³, S.M. Scheffer-Basso², L.A. Ebone², J.M. Machado⁴ and N.C. Lângaro²

¹Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Faculty of Agronomy, Departament of Forage Plant and Agrometeorology, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 7712 Bairro Agronomia, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre RS, Brazil
²University of Passo Fundo, Faculty of Agronomy, Agronomy Post-Graduate Program, BR 285, Bairro São José, CEP 99052-900 Passo Fundo, Brazil
³University of Passo Fundo, Institute of Biological Sciences, Environmental Sciences Post-Graduate Program, BR 285, Bairro São José, CEP 99052-900 Passo Fundo, Brazil
⁴University of Cruz Alta, Faculty of Medicine veterinary, Center for Health and Agrarian Sciences, Rod. Jacob Della Méa, km 5.6, ZIP98005-972 Cruz Alta, Brazil
*Correspondence: diogenessilveira@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Lodging dramatically reduces the yield of cereals and increases the difficulty of mechanical harvesting. Because it is a complex phenomenon, new cultivars with genetic resistance to lodging is a sustainable alternative in agricultural production systems. This resistance is associated with a combination of factors, such as stem thickness and stiffness, being closely linked to anatomical traits and structural carbohydrates present in the stem. In the present study we compared, under field conditions, eight contrasting oat cultivars in terms of lodging resistance. Our aim in this study was to investigate the association of anatomical traits and structural components of the peduncle with resistance to lodging, aiming to assist in the plant selection process. In addition, a second objective was to understand the genetic dissimilarity among oat cultivars according to the characters studied. Some characteristics for potential indirect selection were studied in this work and if correlated with lodging can be used to identify superior genotypes. From the anatomical point of view, the correlation obtained between the internal vascular bundle and the lodging resistance factor allowed us to confirm that this trait can be used in indirect selection to lodging resistance. The structural components of peduncle, in the two ways explored in the present study, comparison of mean and correlation, did not demonstrate the potential to be used exclusively as plant selection characters traits for lodging resistance. There is noticeable variability in oat cultivars for most stem traits.

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553-562 A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel
The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia
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The characteristics of spring cereals in changing weather in Estonia

A. Ingver, I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm, T. Kangor and R. Koppel

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48 309 Jõgeva, Estonia;e-mail: Anne.Ingver@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The objective of this investigation was finding out the impact of weather on yield, length of growing period, plant height, lodging resistance and protein content of spring cereals over 19 years (1991–2009). Two varieties per each crop were selected for testing. Historical weather and crop yield data from the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute were analyzed by the linear correlation analysis. To estimate the variation of grain yield, the minimum and maximum values, averages and coefficients of variation were calculated.It can be stated that the both stress conditions – drought and excess precipitation causeddecrease of yield and quality of all the crops. The highest yields developed in 180–250 mm precipitation range from sowing to maturity. Oat requires more moisture than wheat and barley. Significant positive correlation between the amount of precipitation and oat yield was found when three years of severe lodging were eliminated. Positive correlation between yield and plant height was found. In the years of severe lodging there was remarkable yield decrease of oat. Yield of oat and barley had negative correlation with sunshine hours in June. The same correlation for wheat was not significant. Extra-low protein content for all the cereals, especially for wheat, formed in a cool year with the lowest sum of sunshine hours during the whole growing period (2009). For oat and barley positive correlation between sunshine hours in June and protein content was found. For formation of higher protein content, warm and dry weather conditions are required. Protein content was inversely associated with yield.

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522-527 I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver
Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation
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Spring cereals performance in organic and conventional cultivation

I. Tamm, Ü. Tamm and A. Ingver

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 1 Aamisepa St., 48309 Jõgeva, Estoniae-mail: ilmar.tamm@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

The field trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute to compare grain yield and quality characteristics of spring wheat, barley and oat in organic and conventional conditions. Thirteen varieties of each cereal crop were tested during the four trial years (2005–2008). By the results turned out that all the spring crops were able to produce comparatively high yields in organic conditions after a suitable precrop. Oat as the most unpretentious crop was the highest yielding in organic trial and had the best weeds suppressing ability among the spring cereals. The most widely spread weeds were (Chenopodium album) and (Viola arvensis). Among the quality traits protein content was the most influenced by the management regime having evident decrease in organic conditions. A yield gap between organic and conventional production depended on crop, precrop and growing conditions.

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