Tag Archives: organic farming

xxx V. Šķipars, D. Ruņģis, I. Ločmele, S. Seile, I. Mežaka and L. Legzdiņa
Evaluation of morphological traits, genetic diversity and major resistance genes in barley subpopulations cultivated under organic and conventional farming systems
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Evaluation of morphological traits, genetic diversity and major resistance genes in barley subpopulations cultivated under organic and conventional farming systems

V. Šķipars¹²*, D. Ruņģis², I. Ločmele¹, S. Seile¹, I. Mežaka¹ and L. Legzdiņa¹

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, 2 Zinatnes Str., LV-4126 Priekuli, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Genetic Resources Centre, 111 Rigas Str., LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilnis.skipars@silava.lv

Abstract:

Most crop varieties currently grown in organic conditions have been bred for conventional farming, and are not adapted to increased environmental variability under organic farming conditions and unpredictable environmental fluctuations due to climate change. This can be mitigated by the use of heterogeneous material, increasing genetic diversity and enabling adaptation to local conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of several generations of cultivation in parallel under organic and conventional farming systems on the genetic diversity, morphological traits and frequency of major disease resistance genes as indicators of adaptation to the farming system in heterogeneous spring barley populations with differing levels of diversity. Populations in differing generations originating from crosses between two, three, 10 and 15 parental genotypes were cultivated in organic and conventional farming systems for three, four or 10 generations, thus forming subpopulations in each environment. These subpopulations were genotyped, and tested for morphological traits in both farming systems. A significant effect of cultivation environment on tillering capacity (p < 0.05) was found for all tested populations and in several cases for plant height, ear length and grain number per spike, indicating some adaptation trends. In the short term, genetic diversity parameters were not decreased in the later generation populations in comparison to the initial populations with the exception of observed heterozygosity, as expected for a self-pollinating species. No clear differences in genetic diversity parameters between populations cultivated under either organic or conventional condition for several generations were identified.

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xxx L. Buša, M. Bērtiņš, A. Vīksna, L. Legzdiņa and D. Kobzarevs
Evaluation of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratio measurement data for characterization of organically and conventionally cultivated spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain
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Evaluation of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratio measurement data for characterization of organically and conventionally cultivated spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain

L. Buša¹*, M. Bērtiņš¹, A. Vīksna¹, L. Legzdiņa² and D. Kobzarevs¹

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Jelgavas street 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, 2 Zinatnes street, LV-4126 Priekuli, Latvia
*Correspondence: lauma.busa@lu.lv

Abstract:

With the growing interest of public in the quality of their consumed food, organic produce has been steadily gaining an important place in everyday menus of our society. The growing demand has boosted organic farming and we have also seen the price difference between organic products and their conventional counterparts. It is important to the public to have security, that the food labelled ‘organic’ has really been grown according to the good practices of organic farming and that it has not received any chemical pesticides, herbicides, and synthetic fertilizers. Stable isotope ratios of crops from different crop management systems can help to answer these questions, as these values depend on the growing conditions, fertilizers used etc. In this study, 10 barley grain samples from conventional and organic crop management systems have been studied. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios have been determined and the element content in the samples has been calculated. Student’s t-test has been performed to evaluate whether the differences between various parameters are significant. For potential clustering and discrimination of organic and conventional grains principal component analysis has been carried out. The PCA showed that no significant clustering can be observed, however the Student’s t-test for δ15N values confirmed that barley grown with green-manure fertilizers are significantly (p < 0.01) enriched with the heavier nitrogen isotope. Furthermore, it has been concluded that the total element content of carbon and nitrogen in barley grains does not correlate with the stable isotope ratios and cannot help with discriminating of these samples.

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1216–1222 L. Zarina, L. Zarina, D. Piliksere and S. Cerina
Gross margin comparison of cultivation of different legume species in the organic farming system
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Gross margin comparison of cultivation of different legume species in the organic farming system

L. Zarina¹*, L. Zarina², D. Piliksere¹ and S. Cerina¹

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Zinatnes street 2, LV 4126 Priekuli, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV 2001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: livija.zarina@arei.lv

Abstract:

In order to identify the most suitable varieties for organic farming, the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics in 2018 started study four legume species. The independent variables of the study were the legume genotypes: faba bean (Vicia faba L., cv. ‘Isabell’, ‘Lielplatone’, ‘Laura’, ‘Boxer’), field pea (Pisum sativum L, cv. ‘Astronaute’, ‘Bruno’, ‘Rebekka’, ‘Zaiga’), narrow lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L., cv. ‘Sonet’, ‘Probor’, ‘Derliai’, ‘Haags Blau’), and soya (Glycine max L., cv. ‘Annucha’, ‘Sculptor’, ‘Augusta’). The soil types of the experimental organic field were sod–podzolic, sandy loam, and loamy sand. At the start of the study the organic substance concentration was 15–18 mg kg-1, pHKCl was 5.3–5.98, the concentration of plant – available phosphorus (P205) was 133.2–182.9 mg kg-1, and the concentration of potassium (K2O) – 69.2–109.7 mg kg-1. Green manure (buckwheat) was a pre-crop, incorporated in autumn. For the comparison of economic indicators, the gross coverage calculation was used, which based on the difference obtained by subtracting variable costs from the valuation of gross output. All variable costs and revenues were included in the gross margin calculation without value added tax. The study indicated large differences in yields between genotypes. From the economic point of view, the most suitable cultivars for cultivation according to the organic farming method were: field beans – ‘Isabell’ and ‘Lielplatone’ with average gross cover (GC), 505.40 and 504.60 EUR, respectively, field peas – ‘Bruno’ (GC 379.60 EUR), narrow-leaved lupin – ‘Derliai’ (GC 647.70 EUR), soybeans – ‘Sculptor’ (GC 204.40 EUR). Among the legume species studied, lupine showed the highest economic performance, among the genotypes – cultivar ‘Derliai’ (α = 0.05).

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2022-2032 L. Edesi, T. Kangor, V. Loide, R. Vettik, I. Tamm, H.J. Kennedy, M. Haljak, Ü. Tamm, T. Võsa, K. Tamm, T. Talve and E. Karron
Effects of lake sediment on soil chemical composition, dehydrogenase activity and grain yield and quality in organic oats and spring barley succession
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Effects of lake sediment on soil chemical composition, dehydrogenase activity and grain yield and quality in organic oats and spring barley succession

L. Edesi¹*, T. Kangor², V. Loide¹, R. Vettik¹, I. Tamm², H.J. Kennedy³, M. Haljak², Ü. Tamm², T. Võsa¹, K. Tamm¹, T. Talve¹ and E. Karron¹

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Agrotechnology, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva alevik, Estonia
²Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant breeding, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva alevik, Estonia
³Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Development, Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva alevik, Estonia
*Correspondence: liina.edesi@etki.ee

Abstract:

In organic farming, it is important to maintain soil fertility with organic fertilisers; often organic compost, manure, or slurry is used. However, the effects of lake sediment in maintaining and improving soil fertility are less studied. The direct and residual effects of a one-time application of 50 t ha-1 or 100 t ha-1 of lake sediment were compared to an unfertilised control for oats (Avena sativa) (2015) followed by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) in 2016, under organic farming conditions. Soil chemical composition, microbial activity in the 0–20 cm soil layer, grain yield, and grain quality were tested. The application rate, 100 t ha-1, increased (P < 0.05) the soil organic carbon (SOC), the amount of mobile calcium (Ca), total nitrogen (Ntot), and boron (B) content in soil. Both application rates increased (P < 0.05) the amount of magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) content in the soil. The application rate had no effect on soil pH. Soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was higher (P < 0.05) at 100 t ha-1 than the control and the lower application rate. Both rates of lake sediment application significantly (P < 0.05) increased the grain yield and test weight for oats in 2015. Positive residual effects on spring barely yield only occurred in the 100 t ha-1 treatments in 2016. No residual impact of lake sediment was found on spring barely quality.

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2089–2105 L. Tyšer, M. Kolářová and T.T. Hoová
Occurrence of archaeophytes in agrophytocoenoses – field survey in the Czech Republic
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Occurrence of archaeophytes in agrophytocoenoses – field survey in the Czech Republic

L. Tyšer, M. Kolářová* and T.T. Hoová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, Kamýcká 129, CZ-165 00 Prague-Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: mkolarova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Archaeophytes are alien plants introduced to the Czech Republic before the year 1500. Their occurrence is strongly connected with agricultural production. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of archaeophytes in arable fields in the Czech Republic in terms of applied management systems (conventional and organic farming), crops (winter cereals, spring cereals, wide-row crops) and environmental site conditions at different altitudes. In 2006–2018, a phytocoenological survey was conducted in selected farms across the Czech Republic. Totally, 180 weed species were found, of which 48.89% were considered as archaeophytes (88 species). In view of the invasive status, 5 archaeophytes were considered as invasive, the other 83 species were regarded as naturalized. The net effects of all variables studied on the occurrence of archaeophytes were statistically significant. The majority of the variation was explained by altitude, followed by crop and type of farming. Incidence of archaeophytes increases with an increasing altitude and is also related to their affinity with environmental factors. The highest occurrence of archaeophytes was found in cereals, some species, however, occur more frequently in wide row crops. The higher occurrence of archaeophytes was observed in organically managed fields.

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1934–1943 J. Kuht, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg, E. Loit and A. Luik
The content of weed seeds in the soil based on the management system
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The content of weed seeds in the soil based on the management system

J. Kuht¹*, V. Eremeev¹, L. Talgre¹, H. Madsen¹, M. Toom¹², E. Mäeorg¹, E. Loit¹ and A. Luik¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Jõgeva Vald, Estonia
*Correspondence: jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

In 2008 an experiment was set up on the field in Eerika experimental station (Estonian University of Life Sciences) as a 5-field crop rotation: barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with undersown red clover, red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The objective of the study was to measure the content of weed seeds in the soil and to evaluate the diversity of the species at the beginning of the period of organic production in 2011. In conventional farming systems without fertilizer (Con I) and conventional farming with mineral fertilizer (Con II) herbicides were used for weed control. All the crops in Con II system received P 25 kg ha-1 and K 95 kg ha-1, but the application rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizer differed. In organic systems (Org I – organic farming based on winter cover crop and Org II – organic farming based on winter cover crop and manure), the winter cover crops (ryegrass after winter wheat, winter oilseed rape after pea, winter rye after potato) were sown after the harvest and were ploughed into the soil as green manure in spring. Organic farming systems (Org II) had a negative effect on the content of weed seeds in the soil (2.0–22.7% less seeds than in other variants). The seeds of Chenopodium album were the most abundant among summer annual weeds and the seeds of Viola arvensis among winter weeds in the soil. Organic farming measures increased the domination of Chenopodium album – the dominance index D’ was increased by 0.09–0.14 compared to conventional variants. The content of seeds of winter weed Viola arvensis in Org II variant was decreased by 82%. The index of species evenness J’ and Shannon Wiener diversity index H’ were lower in organic plots by 0.10–0.18 and 0.60–0.19, respectively. Org II variants showed the best results based on the decrease of soil weed seed bank and distribution of the weed species.

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225–238 A. Łachacz, J. Tyburski and K. Romaneckas
The impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soil and productivity of organically grown crops
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The impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soil and productivity of organically grown crops

A. Łachacz¹, J. Tyburski² and K. Romaneckas³*

¹Department of Soil Science and Land Reclamation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 3, PL10 727 Olsztyn, Poland
²Department of Agroecosystems, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Lodzki 3, PL10 719 Olsztyn, Poland
³Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Sciences, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų 11, Akademija, LT53 361 Kaunas distr., Lithuania
*Correspondence: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt

Abstract:

Soils with high content of particles φ ≤ 0.02 mm usually have nonfavourable physical and mechanical properties. In order to determine the impact of biological agents on properties of heavy-textured soils in organic farming systems, in the years of 2007–2009 an on-farm scale field experiment was carried out in Budziszewo, Pomeranian province in Poland. The farm was organically managed for 20 years and was characterized by proper management (an appropriate crop rotation and a high stand of dairy cows). Nevertheless, in spring there were problems with soil drying, which used to delay sowing of spring cereals by ca 2 weeks, which in turn resulted in low yielding. Therefore, the following biological agents, i.e. beneficial microorganisms, were applied in 3 consecutive years 3 times each year. Produced on-farm (biodynamic horn preparation) and the others produced by industry under the trademark of: effective microorganism (EM), Humobak and UGmax. In 2007 silage maize was grown, in 2008 – winter spelt wheat and in 2009 – spring common wheat. The soil samples to study soil properties were collected from 5–15 cm soil layer during the vegetation period. The following soil properties were analysed: granulometric composition, bulk density of dry soil, total porosity, soil humidity and air content during sampling, organic matter content, soil pH, content of macroelements (P, K, Mg), soil aggregation based on dry and wet sieving. Moreover in 2009 additional soil samples were taken from an adjusting neighboring field of the conventional farm with the aim of comparing soil physical properties developed both under organic and conventional management.
The authors concluded that the application of above mentioned biological agents did not affect significantly soil properties. The applied agents did not affect crop productivity, with the exception of Humobak which decreased yield of silage maize and spring common wheat in the range of 41, and 26% respectively. A proper organic management as opposed to application of biological agents has positive effect on soil physical properties.

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1372-1379 J. Kuht, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik
Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production
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Soil weed seed bank and factors influencing the number of weeds at the end of conversion period to organic production

J. Kuht*, V. Eremeev, L. Talgre, H. Madsen, M. Toom, E. Mäeorg and A. Luik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

In 2008 an experiment was set up on the field in Eerika experimental station (Estonian University of Life Sciences) as a 5-field crop rotation: red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato and barley undersown with red clover. The objective of the study was to measure the content of weed seeds in the soil and to evaluate the diversity of the species at the end of the period of converting to organic production. In conventional farming systems without fertilizer (Conv I) and conventional farming with mineral fertilizer (Conv II) herbicides were used for weed control. All the crops in Conv II system received P 25 kg ha-1 and K 95 kg ha-1, but the application rates of mineral nitrogen fertilizer differed. In organic systems (Org I – organic farming based on winter cover crop and Org II – organic farming based on winter cover crop and manure), the winter cover crops (ryegrass after winter wheat, winter oilseed rape after pea, winter rye after potato) were sown after the harvest and were ploughed into the soil as green manure in spring. The content of annual weed seeds was the lowest in red clover that had 17.7% less weed seeds in the soil of Org II system compared to control (Conv I). In winter wheat the content of winter annual weed seeds was 50–76% higher compared to other crops. By the end of 2009 the content of organic carbon (Corg %) in the soil had increased significantly in both organic systems which results in higher activity of organisms that decrease the viability of weed seeds.

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801-810 P. Konvalina, Z. Stehno, J. Moudry
The critical point of conventionally bred soft wheat varieties in organic farming systems
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The critical point of conventionally bred soft wheat varieties in organic farming systems

P. Konvalina¹, Z. Stehno², J. Moudry¹

¹University of South Bohemia in ýeské BudČjovice, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant
Production and Agroecology, Department of Organic Farming, ýeské BudČjovice, Czech
Republic, konvalina@zf.jcu.cz
²Crop Research Institute Prague, Czech Republic, stehno@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Nowadays, wheat is the most important crop for organic farming systems. However, the varieties bred and tested in the conditions of organic farming systems are still missing, resulting in a very low level of yield in the Czech Republic (less than 50% of level of conventional yield in the same conditions). One reason is that the ideotype of the organically bred variety is different from that of the conventional. The varieties suitable for an organic farming system differ in many respects from those adopted in conventional farming. The first difference is obvious from the conventional tests of the varieties’ value for use, taking only direct indicators influencing the main parameter (yield) into account. Generally speaking, the features to be tested can be divided into 4 groups: the morphological, biological, economic and quality parameters. The conventional varieties are bred in conditions characterised by an abundance of soluble nutrients, and therefore, their root systems are not adapted to an insufficiency or weaker bonding of nutrients. The competitiveness with weeds has also been ignored. Any conventional variety which has not had to confront strong weeds during the breeding process cannot be assumed to be competitive enough in the conditions of an organic agro-ecosystem. Resistance to diseases and pests can be similarly characterised. Varieties are protected by pesticides throughout the conventional breeding process. Because of the seasonal fluctuations in weather, we need a plastic and flexible variety. They also differ in their qualitative parameters.

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198-203 B. Bankina and Z. Gaile
Evaluation of barley disease development depending on varieties
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Evaluation of barley disease development depending on varieties

B. Bankina¹ and Z. Gaile²

¹Institute of Soil and Plant Science, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: Biruta.Bankina@llu.lv
²Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Latvia University of Agriculture, Liela 2, Jelgava, Latvia;e-mail: Zinta.Gaile@llu.lv

Abstract:

Resistance against diseases is one of the key factors for plant varieties used in organic farming systems. Official variety trials in a certified organic field were inspected during 2004–2008 in the Research and Study farm “Vecauce”of LLU.Net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres) and mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) were the most significant diseases in spring barley. Rust (caused by Puccinia hordei (syn. P. anomala) was observed very seldom and leaf scald (caused by Rhynchosporium secalis) was noted only in 2008 for a new breeding line, G 131.The incidence of net blotch fluctuated from 0–100% depending on year and variety, butthe incidence of mildew was 3–100%. The incidence of barley rust did not exceed 29% (severity only 0.7%).The obtained data gave general information about the spectrum of diseases, but they areinconsistent and are seriously influenced by meteorological conditions: artificial inoculation is necessary for better variety selection, especially for organic farming.

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