Tag Archives: organic farming

381-386 Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė
Selection of winter wheat for organic growing
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Selection of winter wheat for organic growing

Ž. Liatukas and A. Leistrumaitė

Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Instituto al. 1, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr., LT-58344,Lithuania; e-mail: alge@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The study was conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during 2006–2008. Sixteen registered winter wheat varieties and advanced breeding lines were tested. Correlation analysis of traits of winter wheat genotypes grown under conventional and organic systems showed stronger correlations between the traits that had been found to be environmentally more stable. Overwintering, plant height, heading, maturity, lodging and hectolitre weight strongly correlated (r = 0.74**–0.98**) between the growing systems in both years. Soil coverage, which is a very important trait for organic system showed weak or medium correlations (r = 0.43*–0.64**) between the systems tested. Yield and 1000 grain weight mostly correlated with the traits of plant vegetative development, whereas hectolitre weight showed random correlations with the other traits. The yield was found to positively correlate with soil coverage at development stages BBCH41-42, 60-65 and number of productive tillers (r = 0.31*–0.54*).

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400-405 H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür
The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements
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The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements

H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür

Department of Plant Sciences , Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture,13 Teaduse St.,75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

Abstract Different sowing rates, row spacing, optimal and reasonable mixtures of herbicides were investigated for the seed production of the Estonian fodder galega Gale (Galega orientalis Lam.). The control of dicotyledonous weeds with herbicides is well justified in the year of sowing because the control remains insufficient in the years of seed production. However, the control of weeds in the years of seed production diminishes the expenditures for seed gathering, drying and cleaning. The control of couch grass is necessary to avoid ergot sclerotia in seed production and gives good results in the years of seed harvesting. The average seed yield of fodder galega was 259 kg ha-1 Desicant Basta 150 SL (glyfosinate-ammonium 158 g l-1) with rate of 1.0 l ha-1 was used before seed harvesting in order to dry the green parts of plants, to favour uniform ripening and to diminish the losses in seed harvesting, which gave an extra yield of 35%. Due to a higher competative ability of weeds, it is expedient to use a bigger sowing rate in the ecological farming, i.e. 10 kg ha-1.

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419-424 J. Moudrý, jr, P. Konvalina, J. Moudrý, L. Friebel and J. Friebelová
Perennial grasslands and agroenvironmental programme effects
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Perennial grasslands and agroenvironmental programme effects

J. Moudrý, jr¹, P. Konvalina¹, J. Moudrý¹, L. Friebel² and J. Friebelová²

¹University Of South Bohemia, Faculty Of Agriculure,Studentská 13, České Budějovice, 370 05
²University Of South Bohemia, Faculty Of Economy, Studentská 13, České Budějovice, 370 05

Abstract:

Farming on grasslands is an important part of organic faming. There is a perceptible trend of increasing acreages of grasslands in organic farming in the Czech republic too. Adjustment of subventions has an inconsiderable influence on this trend. Subventions should be balanced in a sufficient measure for supporting of organic farming in all directions, nevertheless in current situation the increasing of acreage of grasslands is too strong and share of grasslands in organic farming is too high. It provokes a degradation of production function of organic farming and insufficient utilization of arable land. This article is focused on the analysis of farming of selective file of farms with accent on farming on grasslands and use of the agroenvironmental programmes.

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612-617 P. Konvalina, J. Moudrý jr., I. Capouchová and J. Moudrý
Baking quality of winter wheat varieties in organic farming
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Baking quality of winter wheat varieties in organic farming

P. Konvalina¹, J. Moudrý jr.¹, I. Capouchová² and J. Moudrý¹

¹University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Agriculture, Studentská 13, České Budějovice,370 05, Czech Republic; phone number: +420387772547, e-mail: konvalina@zf.jcu.cz
²University of Life Sciences Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources,Kamýcká 129, Praha 6-Suchdol, 165 21, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The technological value of wheat is negatively influenced by organic methods of cultivation. The critical factor is the crude protein content and quality. The aim of this paper is to identify diferences in the quality of eight varieties and two strains of wheat recommended in conventional or organic conditions. Correlation analysis of the qualitative parameters of wheat shows a clear relationship between crude protein content, wet gluten content and Zeleny – sedimentation value. According to the test results, it is appropriate to use the content and quality of protein as selective criteria for the selection of varieties. The Level of baking quality is never reduced below the quality level of the worstquality varieties grown in the same conditions. On the other hand, the best quality varieties provide grains characterized by better baking quality, but lower yield level, than the others.

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625-631 K. Kucińska, J. Golba and I. Pelc
The role of education and extension services for organic and conventional farming in the region of Podkarpacie, Poland
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The role of education and extension services for organic and conventional farming in the region of Podkarpacie, Poland

K. Kucińska¹, J. Golba¹ and I. Pelc

¹Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, Warsaw University of LifeSciences, Ul. Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warszawa, Poland;e-mail: katarzyna_kucinska@sggw.pl , jan_golba@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Knowledge and know-how are the most important factors in many branches of the national economy. The same rules apply to organic agriculture. This was investigated in the Podkarpackie region in Poland. A survey revealed that lack of professional knowledge in the area of organic agriculture is seen as an important obstacle to running a farm. The process of conversion is assessed less strictly by farmers with higher education. Moreover, the direction of education is more important for proper farm management than its level. To succeed in running an organic farm, farmers emphasised two important issues. They are government subsidies and a well organised extension service.

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632-639 S. Lakner
Technical efficiency of organic milk-farms in Germany – the role of subsidies and of regional factors
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Technical efficiency of organic milk-farms in Germany – the role of subsidies and of regional factors

S. Lakner

Georg-August University Göttingen, Department for Agricultural Economicsand Rural Development Platz der Göttinger Sieben 5, 37073 Göttingen;e-mail: slakner@gwdg.de

Abstract:

This paper investigates the efficiency of organic milk farms in Germany based on data from 1994/95 to 2005/06. Five inputs and one output are analysed by means of a stochastic frontier production function, allowing for heteroscedasticity and technical effects. The selection of determinants of technical efficiency includes 5 groups of indicators. The analysis is focused on the impacts of farm support of organic farms and of regional factors, which can influence technical efficiency. The results show, that the agri-environmental payments do not affect efficiency. Farms, which receive investment aid, show lower efficiency scores. Finally, the implications for the agricultural policy are discussed.

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744-748 I. Sturite
Bottlenecks in organic farming in Northern Norway
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Bottlenecks in organic farming in Northern Norway

I. Sturite

Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Arctic Agriculture and LandUse Division, Tjøtta, N-8860, Norway; e-mail: ievina.sturite@bioforsk.no

Abstract:

In Norway, the goal of 15% organic food production within 2015 is too ambitious if the current growth rate of organic farmland is continued. Hence, a study of bottlenecks within organic farming systems in Northern Norway, and farmer’s preconditions to convert was conducted in spring 2007. A questionnaire was sent to certified and former certified organic farmers, and a control group of conventional farmers. For organic farmers the most important bottlenecks were public regulations and organic price premiums. Conventional farmers feared yield decrease, restricted forage availability and extra work. In 2008, interviews with selected farmers and officials in local municipalities were conducted to explore the reasons for large differences between certified organic farmland.

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775-782 J. Žgajnar and S. Kavčič
Multi-goal pig ration formulation; mathematical optimization approach
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Multi-goal pig ration formulation; mathematical optimization approach

J. Žgajnar¹ and S. Kavčič²

¹University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Deptartment of Animal Science, Groblje 3,SI-1230 Domžale, Slovenia; e-mail: jaka.zgajnar@bfro.uni-lj.si
²The same address as 1

Abstract:

Organically produced pork is characterized by high production costs, within the main part goes to ration cost. Forage must be produced under strict conditions, reflecting in high prime costs. The main challenge for farmers is how to formulate economically efficient, nutrition balanced and politically acceptable rations at the least-cost to be competitive. This challenging task demands handy tool that merges all three viewpoints. In this paper an example of such a tool, based on three step approach, is presented. In the first step, a common linear program is utilized to formulate least-cost ration. In the second step, a sub-model, based on weighted goal programming and supported by a system of penalty functions, is used to formulate a nutritionally balanced and economically acceptable ration that also fulfils conditions demanded by organic farming. The most ‘efficient’ energy content of the ration is searched in the last step. The obtained results confirm the benefits of the applied approach.

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371-378 A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis
Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture
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Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture

A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis*

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Lt-53361, Akademija,Kaunas distr., Lithuania
*Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: algis.Sliesaravicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Field trials with different varieties of winter wheat, rye barley and triticale were carried out at the Agroecology Center of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture from 2003-2005. The biological agent biojodis was tested. The winter wheat varieties ‘Baltimor’ and ‘Residence’ were found to be the most resistant to Septoria tritici (leaf blotch. The biological agent biojodis increased wheat grain yield for separate varieties by 0.38 – 0.97 t ha-1. No significant differences in disease resistance were found among the triticale and rye varieties tested. Research on the biological agent biojodis revealed that this agent reduced the incidence of fungi in the grain of the winter wheat variety ‘Širvinta 1’, thus it could diminish the number of mycromicetes species and the fungal infection level.The grain untreated wtith biojodis was found to be infected with 4 fungi species(Aspergillus oryzae, Fusarium nivale, Fusarium poae, Mycelia sterilia), where the infection level reached 9.0×103 cfu (colony forming unit), whereas the grain treated with the agent at a rate of 2 l t-1 was found to be infected with 2 species of fungi (Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichiodes) at 5.5×103 cfu (colony forming unit) infection level.

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13–22 V. Boguzas, A. Marcinkeviciene and A. Kairyte
Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of weed seed bank in organic farming
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Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of weed seed bank in organic farming

V. Boguzas¹, A. Marcinkeviciene² and A. Kairyte¹

¹Department of Soil Management, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentu 11, Akademija, LT–53361 Kauno r., Lithuania; tel. +370 37 752233; e–mail: bovac@nora.lzuu.lt
²Experiment Station, Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Noreikiskes, LT–53367 Kauno r., Lithuania; tel. +370 37 752217; e–mail: lzuustotis@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The influence of organic farming on weed seed bank under two different crop rotations: with and without manure, was investigated in an organic farm of Kazliskiai over the period of 1997–2002. Proven by qualitative index, organic farming increases the diversity of weed species. Seeds of 10 weed species were found in one experimental field at the beginning of a transition period and, after 6-year organic farming, the diversity of weeds increased almost up to 16 species. In all years of the investigation, seeds of Chenopodium album, Fallopia convolvulusand Stellaria media were found in 0–25 cm soil layer. In the sixth year of organic farming there were found 26.3, 70.0 and 91.2% less seeds of the mentioned species, respectively, compared with the transition period. At the beginning of organic farming, the amount of weed seeds in the soil was 28.0% bigger in fields of crop rotation with manure, compared to crop rotation without manure but, in the sixth year of organic farming, the difference disappeared. All weeds were distributed into 3 biological and 4 ecophysiological groups and 3 types of dispersal. Most of seeds found in 0–25 cm soil layers were therophytes. Most of them germinate in summer, spread by water (barochory), because Chenopodium albumdominates. Both in fields of the 1st and 2nd crop rotation and in all experimental years, the quantitative and qualitative distribution of weeds into biological, ecophysiological groups and types of dispersal was even, with the exception of ecophysiological groups in crop rotation with manure.

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