Tag Archives: particle number

1165–1180 T. Ovaska, S. Niemi, K. Sirviö and O. Nilsson
Exhaust particle number of a non-road diesel engine fuelled by methyl esters with different fatty acid compositions
Abstract |

Exhaust particle number of a non-road diesel engine fuelled by methyl esters with different fatty acid compositions

T. Ovaska*, S. Niemi, K. Sirviö and O. Nilsson

University of Vaasa, School of Technology and Innovations, P.O. Box 700, FI-65101 Vaasa, Finland
*Correspondence: teemu.ovaska@univaasa.fi

Abstract:

The main aim of this study was to find out how methyl esters with different fatty acid compositions affect the exhaust particle numbers. Along with fossil diesel fuel oil (DFO) and renewable diesel (HVO), a high-speed non-road diesel engine was fuelled by rapeseed (RME) and soybean (SME) methyl esters. Particle numbers within the size range of 5.6–560 nm were measured by means of an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS). The exhaust smoke, gaseous emissions and the basic engine performance were also determined. During the measurements, the 4-cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled engine was run according to the non-road steady cycle. Methyl esters reduced particles within the size range of 70 to 200 nm. For RME and SME, both positive and significant correlations were found between the sum of the particle numbers detected above the size category of 23 nm and methyl palmitate (C16:0), methyl stearate (C18:0) and methyl linoleate (C18:2) contents at 10% load at rated speed. In terms of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, HVO was beneficial while carbon monoxide (CO) emission was the lowest with DFO. The level in smoke emission was negligible.

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1159-1168 T. Ovaska, S. Niemi, T. Katila and O. Nilsson
Exhaust particle size distributions of a non-road diesel engine in an endurance test
Abstract |
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Exhaust particle size distributions of a non-road diesel engine in an endurance test

T. Ovaska¹*, S. Niemi¹, T. Katila² and O. Nilsson¹

¹University of Vaasa, School of Technology and Innovations, P.O. Box 700, FI-65101 Vaasa, Finland
²AGCO Power Oy, Linnavuorentie 8–10, FI37240 Linnavuori, Nokia, Finland
*Correspondence: teemu.ovaska@uva.fi

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to find out how the non-road diesel engine running period of 500 hours affects the exhaust particle size distribution. By means of an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS), particle number was measured before the endurance test and after 250 and 500 hours of engine operation. The size distributions were determined at full and 75% loads both at rated and at intermediate speeds. The soot, gaseous emissions and the basic engine performance were also determined and lubricating oil was analysed a few times during the running period. A blend of low-sulphur fossil diesel and soybean methyl ester (B20) was used as fuel in the 4-cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled engine which was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. All emissions were measured downstream the catalysts. During the 500 hours of operation, the particle number increased considerably within an approximate size range of 7 to 30 nm. Between the initial and final measurements, no notable differences were observed in the particle number emissions within a particle size range of 50 to 200 nm. The copper content of lubricating oil also increased significantly during the 500 hours’ experiment. One possible reason for the substantial increase in the nucleation mode particle number was assumed to be copper, which is one of the metallic elements originating from engine wear. The engine efficiency was almost equal, and the differences both in smoke and hydrocarbon emission were negligible throughout the 500 hours’ experiment.

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