Tag Archives: particulate matter

xxx A. Vagová, M. Hromasová, M. Linda and P. Vaculík
Determining external friction angle of barley malt and malt crush
Abstract |
Full text PDF (618 KB)

Determining external friction angle of barley malt and malt crush

A. Vagová¹, M. Hromasová²*, M. Linda² and P. Vaculík¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
²University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: hromasova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper deals with determining the amount of external friction angle of barley malt and malt crush depending on the load size. Barley malt is a basic raw material for production of the traditional Czech Pilsner type of beer. The angle of internal and external friction is one of the basic parameters of bulk materials. Friction among individual grains of material, i.e. a connection with the forces, applied between individual material particles, includes the internal friction angle. Conversely, the external friction angle is the angle in which the bulk material begins to move on the other material (steel). A two-roll mill (or disc mill and hammer mill) was used for the malt crush manufacture, which is used in the traditional malt processing in beer production. During crushing on this machine, we used the passage of the milled material through a gap between two counter-rotating cylinders. The results of barley malt and malt crush external friction angle, depending on the load size of the barley malt and the malt crush on mobile prototype device, are from 8 to 22°. The mobile prototype device is based on the following principle: a square chamber filled with a loaded material moves on the pad (steel).

Key words:

, , ,




985-996 J. Čedík, M. Pexa, M. Holůbek, D. Mader and R. Pražan
Effect of sunflower and rapeseed oil on production of solid particles and performance of diesel engine
Abstract |
Full text PDF (735 KB)

Effect of sunflower and rapeseed oil on production of solid particles and performance of diesel engine

J. Čedík¹*, M. Pexa¹, M. Holůbek¹, D. Mader¹ and R. Pražan²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agriculture Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The development of biofuels for compression ignition engines is heading primarily to utilization of vegetable oils. Combusting of 100% vegetable oil in unmodified CI engine is usually not possible due to higher viscosity of the vegetable oil. In order to use 100% vegetable oil in CI engine the oil needs to be preheated, esterified or hydrotreated. Alternatively, in order to use raw vegetable oil in CI engine without preheating it is possible to use vegetable oil – diesel fuel blends or vegetable oil – butanol – diesel fuel blends in order to lower the viscosity of the fuel. The contribution focuses on comparison of the effect of sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils on operational parameters of the turbocharged compression ignition engine, especially on production of solid particles. The measurement was carried out according to standardized NRSC test cycle. 5% and 20% concentration of vegetable oils in diesel fuel were used as a test fuels for the measurement while the diesel fuel was used as a reference. The count and size of solid particles were measured by means of EEPS particle analyser. Based on the measured values it can be stated that the slight increase of performance parameters occurred with strong effect on emissions production, especially on production of solid particles.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1041–1049 M. Kotek, P. Jindra, P. Prikner and J. Mařík
Comparison of PM production in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust gases
Abstract |
Full text PDF (620 KB)

Comparison of PM production in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust gases

M. Kotek*, P. Jindra, P. Prikner and J. Mařík

Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kotekm@oikt.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article is focused on different kind of combustion engines and their particulate matter production. The first part of experiments dealt with particulate matter production under defined driving cycle and operating regimes. The second part of experiments was carried out to measure the maximal PM production under engine’s full load regime. The experimental vehicle engines were manufactured by Skoda Auto a.s., equipped with modern fuel injection systems. Two representatives of diesel engines were chosen: the engine EURO-4 1.4 TDI with PD (Unit injector) injection system and the EURO-6 1.6 TDI with common rail injection system and DPF. As two representatives of gasoline EURO-4 engines were chosen: 1.2 MPI with non-direct fuel injection system and 2.0 FSI with direct stratified fuel injection system. The analysis of the particulate matters was carried out on a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer 3090 that is able to classify particles from 5.6 nm to 560 nm. In the case of diesel engines the results proved expectable decrease in PM production due to usage of diesel particulate filter (DPF). The older engine without DPF produced more than hundred times higher PM production under all operating regimes of driving cycle. The result of gasoline engines confirmed increased PM production of direct injection systems especially under higher engine load. FSI engine in driving cycle reached up twenty times higher PM production than MPI engine.

Key words:

, , , , , , , ,