Tag Archives: penetration resistance

xxx V. Novák, K. Křížová and P. Šařec
Biochar Dosage Impact on Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status
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Biochar Dosage Impact on Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status

V. Novák¹*, K. Křížová¹² and P. Šařec¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Protection and Plant Health, Drnovská 507/73, CZ16106 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: novakvaclav@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

In the context of climate change and the ongoing population growth, current agriculture inevitably faces many challenges. Long periods of drought are often followed by shorter periods of heavy precipitation and degraded soil is often unable to retain the rainfall water properly. Apart from common organic fertilizers, soil amendments are currently considered a promising solution that might improve soil quality. The most discussed one is biochar, a natural soil conditioner that might under certain conditions improve soil properties. This study is based on the experiment that was established in 2017 in order to determine the impact of biochar dosage and it’s effect over time. Four parcels approximately 15×30 m were designed in Rapotín, Czech Republic. Each of them was treated with a specific dose of biochar (15, 30, 45, 60 t ha-1), and selected soil physical properties such as penetration resistance and reduced bulk density were then measured at the beginning of the cropping season 2019. In addition, vegetation properties were investigated with the use of handheld sensors repeatedly during the season on winter wheat. The dataset contained information about chlorophyll and nitrogen content as well as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index estimations. Acquired values were later compared with the results obtained from the fifth variant founded in 2014 with a 15 t ha-1 dose and from the control variant. Although the dosage levels applied were quite substantial, no significant difference was found when evaluating selected soil properties. Crop response gave similar results. Any of the examined characteristics differed among the 2017 variants and control. Nevertheless, when compared to the 2014 variant, clearly different results were detected. Thus, this study concluded that the effect of biochar dosage is might not be as significant factor, however, the time effect likely is. Therefore, the study has to continue and soil/crop properties will be observed in the upcoming season as well.

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790–800 J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof and P. Findura
Soil compaction caused by irrigation machinery
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Soil compaction caused by irrigation machinery

J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof* and P. Findura

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 94976 Nitra, Slovakia, *Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

 This contribution is focused on the analysis of soil compaction with chassis of a wide-span irrigation machine, Valmont. The sprinkler had 12 two-wheeled chassis (size of tyre 14.9”×24”). During the evaluation of soil compaction, we monitored the values of penetration resistance and soil moisture during the operation of the sprinkler. Considering the performance parameters of the pump, the sprinkler was only half of its length (300 m) in the technological operation. In this area, also field measurements were performed in 19 monitoring points spaced both in tracks and outside the chassis tracks. The analysis showed the impact of compression with sprinkler wheels. The results of average resistance ranged from 1.20 to 3.26 MPa. The values of the maximum resistance ranged from 2.30 to 5.35 MPa. The results indicated a shallow soil compaction; however, it is not devastating.

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101-108 K. Trükmann, E. Reintam, J. Kuht, E. Nugis and L. Edesi
Effect of soil compaction on growth of narrow–leafed lupine, oilseed rape and spring barley on sandy loam soil
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Effect of soil compaction on growth of narrow–leafed lupine, oilseed rape and spring barley on sandy loam soil

K. Trükmann¹, E. Reintam¹, J. Kuht¹, E. Nugis² and L. Edesi²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: katrin.trykmann@emu.ee
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

Soil compaction is an environmental problem and has been recognized as the main form of soil degradation in Europe. Soil compaction may increase soil strength and compacted soil layers can affect root and shoot growth. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil compaction on soil properties and on the growth of narrow–leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Hertzg.), and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The experiment was carried out on the research field of the Estonian University of Life Sciences in the summers of 2004 and 2005 on the sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol. The field was compacted by tractor MTZ-82 (total weight 4.84 Mg) characterized by multiple tire-to-tire passing. Parameters such as plants biomass (roots and shoots) and the changes in physical properties, bulk density and penetration resistance of soil were measured. The results of the present study revealed that the highest increase of penetration resistance and soil bulk density due to the soil compaction occurred in growing spring barley. Although the roots and shoots mass of lupine and oilseed rape increased with increased soil bulk density, there was a very strong negative linear correlation between the roots and shoots weight and soil bulk density on spring barley. A positive correlation was detected between the roots and shoots mass of narrow–leafed lupine and soil bulk density, and soil compaction had a positive effect on the roots and shoots mass of oilseed rape. The study indicates that oilseed rape and narrow–leafed lupine can grow more successfully on compacted soils than can barley.

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