Tag Archives: pork

1452–1459 S. Sazonova, I. Gramatina, D. Klava and R. Galoburda
Effect of high pressure processing on raw pork microstructure and water holding capacity
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Effect of high pressure processing on raw pork microstructure and water holding capacity

S. Sazonova, I. Gramatina*, D. Klava and R. Galoburda

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, 22 Rigas street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: ilze.gramatina@llu.lv

Abstract:

High pressure processing (HPP) is widely used as an alternative to thermal food preservation technologies, including processed meats treatment. This technology affects food texture and water-holding capacity, which may have beneficial effect on product yield. After thermal treatment, meat partially releases water together with water-soluble proteins, which is concerned as a loss. It is very important not only because of changes in taste properties, but also economic aspects such as reduced final product weight. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the meat microstructure and water-holding capacity upon high pressure treatment. Pork samples were treated at various pressures and holding times, namely, 300 and 600 MPa with a 1 and 15 minutes holding time at each pressure. Untreated sample was regarded as a control. Microstructure of pork meat was evaluated after the paraffination of the samples. Fibre cross section area and space between fibres were measured and reported. Water-holding capacity was measured by centrifugation of meat samples over filter and calculating released amount of juice. Results indicated that fibre size did not change significantly after treatment at 300–600 MPa pressure comparing to the control sample – untreated meat. However, high pressure can affect hydrophobic properties of myofibrillar protein. The experimental results showed that water-holding capacity increases with the high pressure treatment. It is an important issue in meat processing industry, because HPP treatment allows reducing the water loss in fresh pork.

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1434–1441 A. Põldvere, A. Tänavots, R. Saar, S. Sild and L. Lepasalu
Effect of heat treatment at constant 120 °C temperature on the rheological and technological properties of pork
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Effect of heat treatment at constant 120 °C temperature on the rheological and technological properties of pork

A. Põldvere¹⋅²⋅*, A. Tänavots², R. Saar¹, S. Sild¹ and L. Lepasalu¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal
Sciences, Department of Food Science and Technology, F.R reutzwaldi 56/5,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal
Sciences, Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, F.R. Kreutzwaldi 62,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Estonian Pig Breeding Association, Aretuse 2, EE61411 Märja, Tartumaa, Estonia
*Correspondence: aarne.poldvere@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of low-temperature heat treatment on the physical and technological properties of pork. The Longissimus thoracis muscles from four pigs were used to determine the quality indicators of pork at 24 hours after slaughtering. Meat samples were cooked at constant 120 °C in a cooking bag until the internal temperatures of 62, 67, 72, 77 and 82 °C. Raw meat was the darkest and differed considerably (P < 0.05) from the heat-treated meat. The colour values of the heat-treated meat differed slightly among internal temperature phases. The ultimate pH value of raw meat also differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of cooked meat. The pH value of cooked meat varied only within the range of 0.05 units. The electrical conductivity of muscle decreased gradually as the temperature increased. In case of heat-treated meat, the cooking loss increased considerably (from 18.88% to 31.73%) along with the increase in the internal temperature. The Warner-Bratzler shear force value was the highest (38.50 N) in the meat cooked until 77 °C, and the lowest (28.51 N) in that cooked until 67 °C. Strong negative correlation (P < 0.001) between electrical conductivity and cooking loss was observed during the heating procedure. Heat treatment can significantly decrease the electrical conductivity and increase the cooking loss of meat. Meat was the toughest when the internal temperature was 77 °C. However, the best rheological properties were observed in the meat cooked until the internal temperature of 72 °C.

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900-906 C.M.A. Barone,, R. Di Matteo, L. Rillo, C.E. Rossetti, F. Pagano andD. Matassino
Pork quality of autochthonous genotype Casertana, crossbred Casertana x Duroc and hybrid Pen ar Lan in relation to farming systems
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Pork quality of autochthonous genotype Casertana, crossbred Casertana x Duroc and hybrid Pen ar Lan in relation to farming systems

C.M.A. Barone¹,*, R. Di Matteo¹, L. Rillo², C.E. Rossetti², F. Pagano¹ andD. Matassino²

¹University of Naples Federico II. Department of Agriculture, Via Università100, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy. 2ConSDABI. National focal point-FAO. Piano Cappelle, 82100 Benevento, Italy. *Correspondence: carmela.barone@unina.it

Abstract:

In the last decades, the development of livestock has coincided with improvements of the animals performance. The swine has been strongly selected for several traits that determined a significant spread of some genetic types, more productive than the old autochthonous genetic types (AGT). Therefore, the AGT suffered a growing demographic contraction. The AGT are able to reduce the loss of genetic variability, potentially useful for the new generation and they play an important economic role for their productive capacity in harsh environments; furthermore, they can be used to obtain natural and ‘traditional’ products. In the current research the black AGT Casertana (CT) was compared with the crossbreed CT×Duroc in relation to gender (castrated males and entire females) and farming systems: Open Air and Outdoor (plus access to the bush) for some qualitative properties of meat. In addition ‘Fiocco’ ham, a traditional product, from CT, CT×DU and Pen ar Lan pigs was analyzed. The results showed that the CT pigs had a significantly higher percentage of fat, a thicker adipose tissue, and their meat had lower values of hardness, chewiness, shear force, and appeared significantly redder than other genotypes meat. The farming systems and gender did not affect the carcass composition and physical traits of meat.

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775-782 J. Žgajnar and S. Kavčič
Multi-goal pig ration formulation; mathematical optimization approach
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Multi-goal pig ration formulation; mathematical optimization approach

J. Žgajnar¹ and S. Kavčič²

¹University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Deptartment of Animal Science, Groblje 3,SI-1230 Domžale, Slovenia; e-mail: jaka.zgajnar@bfro.uni-lj.si
²The same address as 1

Abstract:

Organically produced pork is characterized by high production costs, within the main part goes to ration cost. Forage must be produced under strict conditions, reflecting in high prime costs. The main challenge for farmers is how to formulate economically efficient, nutrition balanced and politically acceptable rations at the least-cost to be competitive. This challenging task demands handy tool that merges all three viewpoints. In this paper an example of such a tool, based on three step approach, is presented. In the first step, a common linear program is utilized to formulate least-cost ration. In the second step, a sub-model, based on weighted goal programming and supported by a system of penalty functions, is used to formulate a nutritionally balanced and economically acceptable ration that also fulfils conditions demanded by organic farming. The most ‘efficient’ energy content of the ration is searched in the last step. The obtained results confirm the benefits of the applied approach.

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