Tag Archives: potato

xxx H. Klikocka
Boron content and some quality features of potato tubers under the conditions of using sulphur fertilizer
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Boron content and some quality features of potato tubers under the conditions of using sulphur fertilizer

H. Klikocka

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Economics and Agribusiness, Akademicka 13, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
Correspondence: hanna.klikocka@up.lublin.pl

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of sulphur application on the content and uptake of boron (B) with the yield of potato tubers. A field experiment with potato was conducted in 2009–2011, with S applied in different forms (elemental and K2SO4) and at different rates (0, 25, and 50 kg ha-1).
The content of B in tubers depended significantly on each fertilizer S rate and form. The uptake of boron with dry mass of tubers was equally advantageous in the application of each rate and form with sulphur fertilization compared to controls. No significant effect of weather on the content and uptake of boron tubers was found. The tuber yield and starch content were significantly increased by both the fertilizer S rate and form. A positive correlation was found between B content and B uptake of the yield of tubers. B uptake positively correlated with tuber yield and with a yield of DM and with the yield of starch.
Sulphur applied as sulphate increased the content of SO4-S in the soil. Application of elemental S at a rate of 50 kg ha-1 decreased the pH of the soil. Soil content of total C depended on each rate and form of S applied. No correlation was found between B content and B uptake between the analysed soil parameters. The content of total C in the soil was positively correlated with tuber yield. The pH of soil negatively correlated with tuber yield.

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742-754 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, Z. Ruzhylo, I. Fedosiy, J. Nowak and J. Olt
Theoretical study on motion of potato tuber on surface of separator
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Theoretical study on motion of potato tuber on surface of separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, Z. Ruzhylo¹, I. Fedosiy¹, J. Nowak² and J. Olt³

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv, UA03041, Ukraine
²University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 13 Akademicka Str., 20-950 Lublin, Poland
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the separator that cleans potatoes from impurities and has a design of the spiral type. The authors have devised a highly efficient design of the spiral type potato heap separator, in which the motion of the potato tubers takes place in the channel formed by two spiral members made in the form of cylindrical spiral springs. In order to substantiate the optimal kinematic and design parameters of the new spiral type potato heap separator, the authors have generated a mathematical model of the motion of a single potato tuber on the cleaning surface formed by two spirals. As a result of solving the obtained analytical expressions, the graphical relations between the parameters of the investigated process of the motion of a single potato tuber body situated between two adjacent spirals have been plotted, which has enabled selecting the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the spiral separator. It has been established in the completed investigation that the angular velocity of rotation of the cleaning rolls has to be within the range of 27-40 rad s-1 in order to ensure the efficient transportation and cleaning of the potato tuber with a diameter of 50 mm that moves on the surface of the spiral with a radius of 75 mm wound from the round bar with a diameter of 15 mm, in case the spirals are mounted with an eccentricity of 10 mm. By analysing the kinematics of motion of the potato tuber on the surface of the spiral type cleaning machine, in case the tuber contacts the spirals at two points, it has been established that the increase of the angular velocity of rotation of the spirals results in the respective growth of the transportation capacity of the cleaning tool, while the separating efficiency at the same time becomes reduced to some extent.

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346–359 P. Barbaś and B. Sawicka
Dependence of potato yield on weed infestation
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Dependence of potato yield on weed infestation

P. Barbaś¹* and B. Sawicka²

¹Department Agronomy of Potato, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute, Jadwisin Research Center; Szaniawskiego street 15, PL05-140 Serock, Poland
²University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Plant Production and Commodities Science, Akademicka street 15, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
*Correspondence: p.barbas@ihar.edu.pl

Abstract:

Results of the research were based on a field experiment carried out in 2007–2009 at the Experimental Plant of the IHAR-PIB in Jadwisin, on podzolic soil with a granulometric composition of loamy sand. The experiment was established by means of a random sub-block method in a dependent split-plot pattern, in triplicate. The first order factor were the potato cultivars: ‘Irga’ and ‘Fianna’, the second order factor were the methods of weeds regulation: 1) control − without chemical protection; 2) extensive mechanical treatments (every 2 weeks) from planting to closing the rows; 3) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 before potato emergence; 4) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 40 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% before potato emergence; 5) Sencor 70 WG – 0.5 kg ha-1 after potato emergence; 6) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 30 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% after potato emergence; 7) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Fusilade Forte 150 EC – 2 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence; 8) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Apyros 75 WG 26.5 g ha-1 + Atpolan 80 SC – 1 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence. The number, floristic compositions, fresh weight and dry matter of weeds were determined. A high, yield-protective effect of herbicides was obtained as a result of limited competition of weeds. Mechanical care contributed to the increase in the total potato yield by 36.2%, and the marketable yield by 45.7%, as compared to the control object.

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206–215 F. Musa, D. Krasniqi and S. Musa
Aphid complex associated with potato in agro-climatic conditions of Kosovo
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Aphid complex associated with potato in agro-climatic conditions of Kosovo

F. Musa¹, D. Krasniqi² and S. Musa¹*

¹University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Plant Protection Department, Boulevard Bill Clinton p.n. Prishtina, XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
²Phytosanitary Corporate Sara&Meti sh.p.k. Prishtina. Analytical, Food and Agriculture Laboratory, Street Kamer Loshi No.76. XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspondence: sarandamusa1@gmail.com

Abstract:

Field surveys for aphids infesting potato crops in three most important localities for potato production in Kosovo (Podujevë, Prishtinë and Vushtrri) were conducted in vegetation seasons of 2018–2019. With the purpose to monitor and confirm the aphid composition in potatoes, aphid leaf count was used as a method which is applied worldwide. Sampling for aphids from the leaves of potato plants was undertaken during cropping season, every 10 days, where 100 leaves were taken at random and checked in triplicates, from each field. During of this experimental work, the following aphid species were registered Myzus persicae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Aphis nasturtii and Aulacorthum solani. From the total number of aphids recorded (4,210 individuals), the following percentage belongs to the different aphids: M. persicae (57.24%), A. nasturtii (25.72%), A. solani (7.77%), M. euphorbiae (5.68%), and other none identified aphids (3.59%). Relying on the results of this research we have confirmed to exist statistical significant differences with regard to the number of aphid’s species according to the localities and aphids that infests the potatoes. With the goal to manage and control aphids spread infields with potatoes, it is extremely useful to evaluate and to see the possibility for an Integrated Management against these pests at farmer level.

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38–52 V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, Z. Ruzhylo, I. Fedosiy, Ye. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
Theory of oscillations performed by tools in spiral potato separator
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Theory of oscillations performed by tools in spiral potato separator

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, Z. Ruzhylo¹, I. Fedosiy¹, Ye. Ihnatiev² and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to provide for the intensification of the process of removing impurities from the potato heap by oscillating devices, which takes place, when potato tubers are cleaned in the spiral separator during their lifting. The authors have devised a new design of the spiral separator, which can be used in the process of lifting potatoes from the soil. It comprises cantilever cleaning spiral springs, which in their simultaneously rotary and oscillatory motion clean and transport the potato tubers with good quality. However, the removal of impurities from the cleaning area and the cleaning of the side surfaces of potato tuber bodies from the stuck soil can be significantly more effective, if the spiral springs perform their oscillatory motions in the longitudinal and vertical plane during their operation more intensively. In order to achieve that, the authors have worked out a new theory of the oscillatory motion of the cleaning spiral working under the action of the potato heap. That promotes the intensification of the process of cleaning potato bodies from the stuck soil. The authors have generated a new partial differential equation, which describes the oscillations of the cantilever cleaning spiral. The PC-assisted numerical solving of the said differential equation and further numerical modelling have made it possible to obtain the analytic expressions of the relations between the change in the helix pitch distance of the cleaning spiral and its deformation, in particular, the simultaneous longitudinal extension and transverse bending. That result, in its turn, provided for finding the maximum limit amount of the above-mentioned deformation under the condition that the potato tubers may not fall through the spaces between the spiral turns, taking into account the design and kinematic parameters of the cleaning spiral itself, the material it is made of and the process-dependent mode of operation of the separator. As a result of the PC-assisted numerical modelling, it has been found that the total deflection of the spiral on its length varies within the range of 0 to 0.05 m under the following parameters: angular velocity of rotation of the spiral ω = 30 rad s-1, density of the material of the spiral ρ = 7,700 kg m-3, elastic modulus Е = 2∙1011 Pa, cleaning spiral bar stock radius r = 8.5 mm and a uniform load intensity of 1000 N m-1. Such variation ensures the good quality of cleaning and transportation of potato tubers. According to the results of the PC-assisted numerical calculations, the helix pitch distance of a cleaning spiral with the above parameters and the original helix pitch distance S = 48 mm, due to the spiral’s deformation under the proposed transverse oscillations, can change up to 54 mm, which makes impossible for potato tubers to fall out of the cleaning unit. Experimental studies fully support the results from the theoretical calculations to determine the displacement of the ends of the cleaning unit’s spiral springs.

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494–506 S.V. Murashev, S.D. Kiru, V.G. Verzhuk and A.V. Pavlov
Potato plant growth acceleration and yield increase after treatment with an amino acid growth stimulant
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Potato plant growth acceleration and yield increase after treatment with an amino acid growth stimulant

S.V. Murashev¹, S.D. Kiru²*, V.G. Verzhuk³ and A.V. Pavlov³

¹ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, Lomonosova street 9, RU191002 St. Petersburg, Russia
²Saint-Petersburg Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnologies, soil science and ecology, Department of Plant Production named I.A. Stebut, Peterburgskoe highway 2, RU196601 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
³N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), Bolshaya Morskaya street 42–44, RU190000 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: s.kiru53@mail.ru

Abstract:

An increase in the productivity of potato plants and natural resistance of tubers to external influences during growth, while preserving the qualitatively new properties of tubers in the process of low-temperature preservation, can be achieved through the effect of bioactive compounds on the metabolism of potato plants in our work, we used a regulator derived from the hydrolysis of natural collagen down to low molecular weight fractions and pure glycine. The evidence of its effectiveness is based on shortening the growing season and increasing plant productivity as well as the content of bioactive and nutrient compounds in their storage organs, reducing losses during low-temperature preservation caused by natural biological processes, physiological diseases and damage by microorganisms. The paper deals with issues related to the growth and development of potato plants and their storage organs until the growing season is over and a possible increase of potato productivity after the planting material was treated with an amino acid growth regulator.

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694–703 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, I. Holovach, V. Adamchuk, Z. Ruzhуlo and J. Olt
Numerical modelling of process of cleaning potatoes in spiral separator
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Numerical modelling of process of cleaning potatoes in spiral separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, I. Holovach¹, V. Adamchuk², Z. Ruzhуlo¹ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna street, Glevakcha -1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Cleaning potato tubers from soil and plant residues after their digging from the soil is a topical problem in the industrial production of potatoes. Taking into account the fact that the cleaning spirals are positioned with overlapping and rotate in the same sense, the potato tuber that has landed on the surface of the spiral separator in the trough between two adjacent spirals will perform translational motion towards the output ends of the spirals. As a result of solving the said system of equations, the graphical relations between the values of the normal reactions and friction forces generated during the translation of the potato tuber along the mentioned spirals, on the one hand, and the design and kinematic parameters, on the other hand, based on the requirement of not damaging tubers when performing the said work process of transportation and cleaning, have been obtained. The limitations for the normal reactions and friction forces at the points of contact between the tuber and the surface of the cleaning spiral are set in accordance with the requirement that they do not exceed the force of scraping (damaging) the tuber’s external surface permissible for potato tubers. That has provided an opportunity to obtain the rational values of the design and kinematic parameters of the separator’s operating spirals, in particular, the value of the angular velocity of the rotating cleaning spirals as well as their radius and helix lead.

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33–48 V. Bulgakov, S. Pascuzzi, S. Nikolaenko, F. Santoro, A. Sotirios Anifantis and J. Olt
Theoretical study on sieving of potato heap elements in spiral separator
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Theoretical study on sieving of potato heap elements in spiral separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Pascuzzi², S. Nikolaenko¹, F. Santoro², A. Sotirios Anifantis² and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kiev, Ukraine
²Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science (DiSAAT), University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola, 165/A, Bari, IT70125, Italy
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

One of the principal problems in the harvesting of potatoes is the cleaning of the lifted heap from soil and plant impurities. The low quality in the performance of this harvesting work process operation is the main cause of the withdrawal from fields of considerable amounts of fertile soil. In order to facilitate choosing the optimal parameters for the new design of the spiral potato heap cleaning unit, a mathematical model of sieving the soil impurities through its cleaning spirals has been developed. The obtained analytical expressions have been solved with the use of a PC and the results have been used for plotting the graphic relations between the parameters of the examined process of a variable-mass body’s motion on the surface of a spiral, which have made it possible to select the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the spiral cleaning unit under consideration. The obtained graphic relations indicate that the rate of sieving in the spiral separator depends on many factors, including the initial mass, the design dimensions (spiral’s radius, helix angle etc.), the frictional properties of the surface, the angular parameters of the position of the potato heap elements on the spiral’s surface, and the angular velocity of the rotational motion of the spiral roll itself.

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1590-1606 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, M. Arak, I. Holovach, Z. Ruzhуlo and J. Olt
Mathematical model of cleaning potatoes on surface of spiral separator
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Mathematical model of cleaning potatoes on surface of spiral separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, M. Arak², I. Holovach¹, Z. Ruzhуlo¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, UA03041Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Cleaning potato tubers from soil impurities and plant debris after digging them out of soil is a topical problem in the work process of potato production. Therefore, the engineering of new designs of potato heap separators necessitates the further studying of them and the optimisation of their kinematic and design parameters, which must not only ensure the high quality of cleaning, but also rule out the possibility of damaging the tubers. The aim of this study is to determine the design and kinematic parameters of the improved design of the spiral potato separator, which will ensure the high quality of cleaning and rule out the possibility of damaging the tubers, on the basis of the development of the new theory of potato tuber’s motion on the surface of the separator. An analytical study has been carried out resulting in the construction of the equivalent schematic model of the interaction between the potato tuber and separator, the tuber being approximated by a material point on the surface formed by the two cantilevered spirals, which are the separator’s tools. The separator’s spirals are driven to rotate and at the same time they can perform oscillations in the vertical and axial plane under the action of the varying load generated by the continuous feeding of the potato heap for separation. In the model, the forces acting on the potato tuber’s body are applied to it, the coordinate axes that have been selected and appropriately oriented are shown. A system of equations has been set up for the constructed equivalent schematic model, comprising three differential equations of the potato tuber body’s motion on the surface of the trough formed by the two cantilevered spirals. The determined kinematic and design parameters will allow to raise the quality of cleaning potato tubers from soil impurities and plant debris.

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52-63 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, V. Adamchuk, Z. Ruzhуlo and J. Olt
Theory of impact interaction between potato bodies and rebounding conveyor
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Theory of impact interaction between potato bodies and rebounding conveyor

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, V. Adamchuk², Z. Ruzhуlo¹ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevaкha-1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

In order to increase substantially the quality of the potato heap separation, it is necessary to carry out the theoretical substantiation of the spiral separator’s parameters with regard to the impact interaction between the product and the tools of the unit under the condition of not damaging the tubers. An equivalent schematic model of the impact interaction between a potato tuber and the surface of the rebounding conveyor has been devised. Taking into account the coefficient of restitution of the tuber’s velocity in case of an impact, new analytical expressions have been obtained for determining the magnitude and direction of the potato tuber’s velocity after the impact. They provided the basis for applying the principle of momentum at impact and obtaining the analytical expressions that allow determining the impact impulse and impact force at the impact of the tuber on the surface of the rebounding conveyor and, eventually, the dynamic constraints on the permitted velocity of the tuber prior to the impact interaction under the condition of not damaging it. A new analytical mathematical model of the impact interaction of the potato tuber during the potato heap separation has been developed. On the basis of the obtained theoretical results, studies have been carried out on the rational kinematical parameters of the high-quality performance of the above-mentioned work process under the condition of keeping the potato tubers undamaged.

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