Tag Archives: potato

xxx J. Olt, V. Bulgakov, V. Bonchik, Z. Ruzhylo, V. Volskiy, V. Melnik, Ye. Ihnatiev and H. Kaletnik
Theoretical research into operation of rotary potato harvester
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Theoretical research into operation of rotary potato harvester

J. Olt¹*, V. Bulgakov², V. Bonchik³, Z. Ruzhylo², V. Volskiy⁴, V. Melnik⁵, Ye. Ihnatiev⁶ and H. Kaletnik⁷

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³State Agrarian and Engineering University in Podilia, 13 Shevchenko Str., UA 32300 Kamenets-Podilsky, Ukraine
⁴National Scientific Centre, “Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification”, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁵Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44 Alchevskih Str., UA 61002 Kharkiv, Ukraine
⁶Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁷Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, 3 Soniacha Str., UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The topic of the paper is the determination and justification of the rational design and kinematic parameters of clod breaking tools in rotary potato harvesters with the aim of improving their separating efficiency. A new mathematical model has been developed for the motion of a soil particle on the working surfaces of the cone-shaped and cylindrical vanes in the rotary tool of the new design developed by the authors. Differential equations have been generated for the motion of a soil clod as a material particle from the moment of its arrival to the surface of the vane until the moment of its departure from the said surface. As a result of the completed investigations, relations have been established between the time of contact and absolute
displacement of the soil particle and the velocity of its departure from the rotor vane surface, on the one hand, and the kinematic and design parameters of the rotor, on the other hand. For example, when the machine translation velocity increases, the absolute displacement of the soil
particle within the interval from the time zero to the moment of its departure from the vane surface increases from 0.59 m to 0.65 m, the velocity of soil particle departure from the vane surface – from 1.61 m s–1 to 1.81 m s–1. The highest values of the absolute displacement of the soil particle and the velocity of its departure from the vane surface are achieved at a machine translation velocity of 2.0 m s–1. The time of the contact between the material particle and the vane surface decreases with the rise of the translation velocity. When the rotor rotation frequency varies within the range from 20 min–1 to 100 min–1, the absolute velocity, with which the soil particle leaves the vane surface, rises to 4 m s–1. The duration of the contact between the material particle and the vane reaches its maximum value of 0.33 s, when the rotor rotation frequency varies within the range of 30–40 min–1.

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994–1007 V. Bulgakov, V. Bonchik, I. Holovach, I. Fedosiy, V. Volskiy, V. Melnik, Ye. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
Justification of parameters for novel rotary potato harvesting machine
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Justification of parameters for novel rotary potato harvesting machine

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Bonchik², I. Holovach¹, I. Fedosiy¹, V. Volskiy³, V. Melnik⁴, Ye. Ihnatiev⁵ and J. Olt⁶*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv, UA 03041, Ukraine
²State Agrarian and Engineering University in Podilia, 13 Shevchenko Str., Kamenets-Podilsky, UA 32300, Ukraine
³National Scientific Centre, “Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification”, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631, Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁴Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44 Alchevskih Str., Kharkiv, UA 61002, Ukraine
⁵Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁶Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The authors have set an aim in relation to the development of a novel rotary potato harvesting machine design and the substantiation of rational design and process parameters for the clod crushing tools in the machine in order to improve its separation capacity. A novel design solution has been suggested for the process of crushing the two adjacent potato rows with the vanes of the vertical rotor and the expediency of using the methods of crushing clods in the two adjacent potato rows in advance has been justified. Also, the more rational placement of the clod crushing tools in the potato harvesting machine has been suggested. Following the completed research, the geometrical parameters of the vertical rotor have been substantiated, in particular, its diameter dр = 0.65–1.0 m and height hzag = 0.27 m. Additionally, the process parameters have been substantiated for some other tools crushing the clods, in particular, the angle of inclination of the share’s working face, which has to be equal to 10°, the elevator belt width bel = 1.05 m, the linear velocity of the belt Vp = 1.95 m s–1, the belt agitation amplitude Аst = 18 mm. If the soil moisture content is equal to W = 18.4%, the soil separation rate rises insignificantly, when the rotor diameter increases within the range of 0.65–1.0 m, moreover, at Vm = 1.0 m s–1 it varies within the range of 85.3–87.2%, at Vm = 1.5 m s–1 – within the range of 87.0–92.7%, at Vm = 2.0 m s–1 – within the range of 86.0–89.1%. The best performance is achieved at a rotor rotation frequency of nр = 100 min–1 and a translational velocity of Vm = 1.5 m s–1, in which case the soil separation rate S is equal to 93.5%. The tuber damage rate Pb decreases from 4.2% to 1.5%, as the rotor diameter dр increases from 0.65 m to 1.0 m, the translational velocity of the machine Vm – from 0.8 to 2.2 m s–1 at the rotor rotation frequency = 50–100 min–1.

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185–198 L.Yu. Novikova, N.A. Chalaya, M.N. Sitnikov, L.M. Gorlova, S.D. Kiru and E.V. Rogozina
Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia
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Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia

L.Yu. Novikova¹*, N.A. Chalaya¹, M.N. Sitnikov¹, L.M. Gorlova¹, S.D. Kiru² and E.V. Rogozina¹

¹N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), 42, 44, Bolshaya Morskaya Str., RU190000 St. Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Building A, 2, Peterburgskoe shosse, Pushkin, RU196601 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: l.novikova@vir.nw.ru

Abstract:

Under climate changes, it is particularly important to search for characteristics of varieties that are steady in contrasting weather conditions. The aim of the present research was to study the relationship between the growth of tubers and haulms in early potato varieties in the Northwestern Russia. Fourteen early potato varieties were studied in the field experiments conducted in 2017–2019 in the vicinities of St. Petersburg. The results of three intermediate digs on the 45th, 60th and 75th day from the planting date were analyzed. The correlation analysis, ANOVA, and regression were used. The average haulm and tubers weight significantly differed in the years of the study, while the number of tubers per plant and the haulm to tubers weight ratio did not differ. The relative growth rate of tubers weight from day 45 to 60 and from 60 to 75 did not differ significantly between 2018 and 2019, the years contrasting in terms of weather conditions. On the average, the tubers weight increased 2.6–2.8 times from day 45 to 60, and 1.4 times from day 60 to 75. It has been established that the early prediction of productivity in early potato varieties can be based on the haulm weight on the 60th day after planting; its coefficient of correlation with productivity was 0.72–0.79. Every 100 grams of the haulm weight on day 60 ensures a 100–200 g increment in the tubers weight by the time of harvest on day 80. The obtained results can be used in the development of a morphometric indicator-based automated system for monitoring the growth of potato plants.

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2425–2435 H. Klikocka
Boron content and some quality features of potato tubers under the conditions of using sulphur fertilizer
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Boron content and some quality features of potato tubers under the conditions of using sulphur fertilizer

H. Klikocka

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Economics and Agribusiness, Akademicka 13, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
Correspondence: hanna.klikocka@up.lublin.pl

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of sulphur application on the content and uptake of boron (B) with the yield of potato tubers. A field experiment with potato was conducted in 2009–2011, with S applied in different forms (elemental and K2SO4) and at different rates (0, 25, and 50 kg ha-1).
The content of B in tubers depended significantly on each fertilizer S rate and form. The uptake of boron with dry mass of tubers was equally advantageous in the application of each rate and form with sulphur fertilization compared to controls. No significant effect of weather on the content and uptake of boron tubers was found. The tuber yield and starch content were significantly increased by both the fertilizer S rate and form. A positive correlation was found between B content and B uptake of the yield of tubers. B uptake positively correlated with tuber yield and with a yield of DM and with the yield of starch.
Sulphur applied as sulphate increased the content of SO4-S in the soil. Application of elemental S at a rate of 50 kg ha-1 decreased the pH of the soil. Soil content of total C depended on each rate and form of S applied. No correlation was found between B content and B uptake between the analysed soil parameters. The content of total C in the soil was positively correlated with tuber yield. The pH of soil negatively correlated with tuber yield.

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742-754 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, Z. Ruzhylo, I. Fedosiy, J. Nowak and J. Olt
Theoretical study on motion of potato tuber on surface of separator
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Theoretical study on motion of potato tuber on surface of separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, Z. Ruzhylo¹, I. Fedosiy¹, J. Nowak² and J. Olt³

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv, UA03041, Ukraine
²University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 13 Akademicka Str., 20-950 Lublin, Poland
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the separator that cleans potatoes from impurities and has a design of the spiral type. The authors have devised a highly efficient design of the spiral type potato heap separator, in which the motion of the potato tubers takes place in the channel formed by two spiral members made in the form of cylindrical spiral springs. In order to substantiate the optimal kinematic and design parameters of the new spiral type potato heap separator, the authors have generated a mathematical model of the motion of a single potato tuber on the cleaning surface formed by two spirals. As a result of solving the obtained analytical expressions, the graphical relations between the parameters of the investigated process of the motion of a single potato tuber body situated between two adjacent spirals have been plotted, which has enabled selecting the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the spiral separator. It has been established in the completed investigation that the angular velocity of rotation of the cleaning rolls has to be within the range of 27-40 rad s-1 in order to ensure the efficient transportation and cleaning of the potato tuber with a diameter of 50 mm that moves on the surface of the spiral with a radius of 75 mm wound from the round bar with a diameter of 15 mm, in case the spirals are mounted with an eccentricity of 10 mm. By analysing the kinematics of motion of the potato tuber on the surface of the spiral type cleaning machine, in case the tuber contacts the spirals at two points, it has been established that the increase of the angular velocity of rotation of the spirals results in the respective growth of the transportation capacity of the cleaning tool, while the separating efficiency at the same time becomes reduced to some extent.

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346–359 P. Barbaś and B. Sawicka
Dependence of potato yield on weed infestation
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Dependence of potato yield on weed infestation

P. Barbaś¹* and B. Sawicka²

¹Department Agronomy of Potato, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute, Jadwisin Research Center; Szaniawskiego street 15, PL05-140 Serock, Poland
²University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Plant Production and Commodities Science, Akademicka street 15, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
*Correspondence: p.barbas@ihar.edu.pl

Abstract:

Results of the research were based on a field experiment carried out in 2007–2009 at the Experimental Plant of the IHAR-PIB in Jadwisin, on podzolic soil with a granulometric composition of loamy sand. The experiment was established by means of a random sub-block method in a dependent split-plot pattern, in triplicate. The first order factor were the potato cultivars: ‘Irga’ and ‘Fianna’, the second order factor were the methods of weeds regulation: 1) control − without chemical protection; 2) extensive mechanical treatments (every 2 weeks) from planting to closing the rows; 3) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 before potato emergence; 4) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 40 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% before potato emergence; 5) Sencor 70 WG – 0.5 kg ha-1 after potato emergence; 6) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 30 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% after potato emergence; 7) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Fusilade Forte 150 EC – 2 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence; 8) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Apyros 75 WG 26.5 g ha-1 + Atpolan 80 SC – 1 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence. The number, floristic compositions, fresh weight and dry matter of weeds were determined. A high, yield-protective effect of herbicides was obtained as a result of limited competition of weeds. Mechanical care contributed to the increase in the total potato yield by 36.2%, and the marketable yield by 45.7%, as compared to the control object.

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206–215 F. Musa, D. Krasniqi and S. Musa
Aphid complex associated with potato in agro-climatic conditions of Kosovo
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Aphid complex associated with potato in agro-climatic conditions of Kosovo

F. Musa¹, D. Krasniqi² and S. Musa¹*

¹University of Prishtina, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, Plant Protection Department, Boulevard Bill Clinton p.n. Prishtina, XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
²Phytosanitary Corporate Sara&Meti sh.p.k. Prishtina. Analytical, Food and Agriculture Laboratory, Street Kamer Loshi No.76. XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
*Correspondence: sarandamusa1@gmail.com

Abstract:

Field surveys for aphids infesting potato crops in three most important localities for potato production in Kosovo (Podujevë, Prishtinë and Vushtrri) were conducted in vegetation seasons of 2018–2019. With the purpose to monitor and confirm the aphid composition in potatoes, aphid leaf count was used as a method which is applied worldwide. Sampling for aphids from the leaves of potato plants was undertaken during cropping season, every 10 days, where 100 leaves were taken at random and checked in triplicates, from each field. During of this experimental work, the following aphid species were registered Myzus persicae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Aphis nasturtii and Aulacorthum solani. From the total number of aphids recorded (4,210 individuals), the following percentage belongs to the different aphids: M. persicae (57.24%), A. nasturtii (25.72%), A. solani (7.77%), M. euphorbiae (5.68%), and other none identified aphids (3.59%). Relying on the results of this research we have confirmed to exist statistical significant differences with regard to the number of aphid’s species according to the localities and aphids that infests the potatoes. With the goal to manage and control aphids spread infields with potatoes, it is extremely useful to evaluate and to see the possibility for an Integrated Management against these pests at farmer level.

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38–52 V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, Z. Ruzhylo, I. Fedosiy, Ye. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
Theory of oscillations performed by tools in spiral potato separator
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Theory of oscillations performed by tools in spiral potato separator

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, Z. Ruzhylo¹, I. Fedosiy¹, Ye. Ihnatiev² and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to provide for the intensification of the process of removing impurities from the potato heap by oscillating devices, which takes place, when potato tubers are cleaned in the spiral separator during their lifting. The authors have devised a new design of the spiral separator, which can be used in the process of lifting potatoes from the soil. It comprises cantilever cleaning spiral springs, which in their simultaneously rotary and oscillatory motion clean and transport the potato tubers with good quality. However, the removal of impurities from the cleaning area and the cleaning of the side surfaces of potato tuber bodies from the stuck soil can be significantly more effective, if the spiral springs perform their oscillatory motions in the longitudinal and vertical plane during their operation more intensively. In order to achieve that, the authors have worked out a new theory of the oscillatory motion of the cleaning spiral working under the action of the potato heap. That promotes the intensification of the process of cleaning potato bodies from the stuck soil. The authors have generated a new partial differential equation, which describes the oscillations of the cantilever cleaning spiral. The PC-assisted numerical solving of the said differential equation and further numerical modelling have made it possible to obtain the analytic expressions of the relations between the change in the helix pitch distance of the cleaning spiral and its deformation, in particular, the simultaneous longitudinal extension and transverse bending. That result, in its turn, provided for finding the maximum limit amount of the above-mentioned deformation under the condition that the potato tubers may not fall through the spaces between the spiral turns, taking into account the design and kinematic parameters of the cleaning spiral itself, the material it is made of and the process-dependent mode of operation of the separator. As a result of the PC-assisted numerical modelling, it has been found that the total deflection of the spiral on its length varies within the range of 0 to 0.05 m under the following parameters: angular velocity of rotation of the spiral ω = 30 rad s-1, density of the material of the spiral ρ = 7,700 kg m-3, elastic modulus Е = 2∙1011 Pa, cleaning spiral bar stock radius r = 8.5 mm and a uniform load intensity of 1000 N m-1. Such variation ensures the good quality of cleaning and transportation of potato tubers. According to the results of the PC-assisted numerical calculations, the helix pitch distance of a cleaning spiral with the above parameters and the original helix pitch distance S = 48 mm, due to the spiral’s deformation under the proposed transverse oscillations, can change up to 54 mm, which makes impossible for potato tubers to fall out of the cleaning unit. Experimental studies fully support the results from the theoretical calculations to determine the displacement of the ends of the cleaning unit’s spiral springs.

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494–506 S.V. Murashev, S.D. Kiru, V.G. Verzhuk and A.V. Pavlov
Potato plant growth acceleration and yield increase after treatment with an amino acid growth stimulant
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Potato plant growth acceleration and yield increase after treatment with an amino acid growth stimulant

S.V. Murashev¹, S.D. Kiru²*, V.G. Verzhuk³ and A.V. Pavlov³

¹ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, Lomonosova street 9, RU191002 St. Petersburg, Russia
²Saint-Petersburg Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnologies, soil science and ecology, Department of Plant Production named I.A. Stebut, Peterburgskoe highway 2, RU196601 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
³N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), Bolshaya Morskaya street 42–44, RU190000 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: s.kiru53@mail.ru

Abstract:

An increase in the productivity of potato plants and natural resistance of tubers to external influences during growth, while preserving the qualitatively new properties of tubers in the process of low-temperature preservation, can be achieved through the effect of bioactive compounds on the metabolism of potato plants in our work, we used a regulator derived from the hydrolysis of natural collagen down to low molecular weight fractions and pure glycine. The evidence of its effectiveness is based on shortening the growing season and increasing plant productivity as well as the content of bioactive and nutrient compounds in their storage organs, reducing losses during low-temperature preservation caused by natural biological processes, physiological diseases and damage by microorganisms. The paper deals with issues related to the growth and development of potato plants and their storage organs until the growing season is over and a possible increase of potato productivity after the planting material was treated with an amino acid growth regulator.

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694–703 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, I. Holovach, V. Adamchuk, Z. Ruzhуlo and J. Olt
Numerical modelling of process of cleaning potatoes in spiral separator
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Numerical modelling of process of cleaning potatoes in spiral separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, I. Holovach¹, V. Adamchuk², Z. Ruzhуlo¹ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna street, Glevakcha -1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Cleaning potato tubers from soil and plant residues after their digging from the soil is a topical problem in the industrial production of potatoes. Taking into account the fact that the cleaning spirals are positioned with overlapping and rotate in the same sense, the potato tuber that has landed on the surface of the spiral separator in the trough between two adjacent spirals will perform translational motion towards the output ends of the spirals. As a result of solving the said system of equations, the graphical relations between the values of the normal reactions and friction forces generated during the translation of the potato tuber along the mentioned spirals, on the one hand, and the design and kinematic parameters, on the other hand, based on the requirement of not damaging tubers when performing the said work process of transportation and cleaning, have been obtained. The limitations for the normal reactions and friction forces at the points of contact between the tuber and the surface of the cleaning spiral are set in accordance with the requirement that they do not exceed the force of scraping (damaging) the tuber’s external surface permissible for potato tubers. That has provided an opportunity to obtain the rational values of the design and kinematic parameters of the separator’s operating spirals, in particular, the value of the angular velocity of the rotating cleaning spirals as well as their radius and helix lead.

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