Tag Archives: potatoes

xxx I.I. Novikova, V.B. Minin, J.A. Titova, I.L. Krasnobaeva, A.M. Zaharov and A.N. Perekopsky
Biological effectiveness of a new multifunctional biopesticide in the protection of organic potatoes from diseases
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Biological effectiveness of a new multifunctional biopesticide in the protection of organic potatoes from diseases

I.I. Novikova¹, V.B. Minin²*, J.A. Titova¹, I.L. Krasnobaeva¹, A.M. Zaharov² and A.N. Perekopsky²

¹Federal State Budget Scientific Institution "All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection" (FSBSI VIZR), 3, Podbelskogo shosse, RU196608 Saint-Petersburg-Pushkin, Russia
²Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production branch of the BFSBSI “Federal Scientific AgroEngineering Centre VIM (IEEP – branch of FSAC VIM), 3, Filtrovskoe shossse, p.o. Tiarlevos, RU196625 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: minin.iamfe@mail.ru

Abstract:

Crop disease control is of particular importance in organic crop production, as the use of chemical pesticides is prohibited there. A new multifunctional biofungicide Kartofin was selected and used to optimize the phytosanitary state of organic potatoes ecosystems. Previously of studies indicated the prospects of using the biofungicide to control numerous fungal and bacterial diseases during the potato growing season and storage of tubers. The crop rotation field experiment was carried out in 2017–2020 at the Experimental Station of the IEEP – BRANCH OF FSAC VIM near Saint-Petersburg (59°65 N and 30°38 E). The soil of experimental plots is sod-podzolic light loamy. In the potatoes (variety Udacha) field, a 2-factor field experiment was established which studied:
 the action of biofungicide Kartofin;
 the effect of the compost.
The experiment was established on the plots with the size 61.6 m2 each. The experiment had four replications.
Three doses of the compost were used which corresponded to different levels of the potato productivity. Potatoes were treated with biofungicide at the time of planting and by foliar spray during the growing season. The combined use of compost at a dose of 4 t ha-1 and biofungcide made it possible to achieve the yield of standard tubers of 27.3–28.2 t ha-1 with their low incidence of fungal diseases. The biological effectiveness of the biofungicide Kartofin in reducing the prevalence and development of a complex of fungal diseases (alternariosis, late blight, stem form of rhizoctoniosis) on potato plants of the Udacha variety reached 82.2–89.9%.

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1359–1367 V.B. Minin, V.D. Popov, D.A. Maksimov, A.A. Ustroev, S.P. Melnikov and E. Papushin
Developing of modern cultivation technology of organic potatoes
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Developing of modern cultivation technology of organic potatoes

V.B. Minin¹*, V.D. Popov¹, D.A. Maksimov¹, A.A. Ustroev¹, S.P. Melnikov² and E. Papushin¹

¹Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production, – BFSBSI ‘Federal Scientific AgroEngineering Centre VIM’, Filtrovskoe shosse, 3, p.o. Tiarlevos, RU196625 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, building A2, Peterburgskoe shosse, Pushkin, RU196601 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: minin.iamfe@mail.ru

Abstract:

Medium term field experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of biological ways to increase potatoes yield on the sod-podzolic, light loamy soil.
The effects of the following two groups of factors were studied:
1. The level of mineral nutrition provided by compost;
2. Microbiological pant protection product (bio preparations): Flavobacterin which has N fixer attribute and Vitaplan and Kartofen, which have bio fungicide features.
Potatoes varieties ‘Nevsky’ and ‘Udacha’ were cultivated. The compost was applied in the dose range from 0 to 160 kg N ha-1. Treatment with bio-preparations was carried out by potato tubers during planting and leaves during the growing season. Weeds were removed mechanically. Weather conditions had a significant impact on the formation of the crop. The average yield of standard potato tubers for 2017–2018 ranged from 14.1 to 29.3 t ha-1. The use of both microbiological preparations and compost gave approximately the same effect and increased yields by 35–37% compared to the control. The use of compost together with bio-preparations provided an output of 27.6–29.3 t ha-1 of potatoes. In 2019, the joint use of compost and bio-preparations allowed to reach a yield of 40 tons ha-1 of marketable potatoes. On the basis of the obtained data, the mathematical dependencies of the yield of potatoes on the dose of compost, the type of biological preparation and the complex indicator of the year conditions were determined.

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974–981 O. Chernikova, Yu. Mazhayskiy and L. Ampleeva
Selenium in nanosized form as an alternative to microfertilizers
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Selenium in nanosized form as an alternative to microfertilizers

O. Chernikova¹, Yu. Mazhayskiy¹ and L. Ampleeva²

¹Academy of law management of the federal penal service of Russia, RU390036 Ryazan, Sennaya street 1, Russian Federation
²Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev, RU390044 Ryazan, Kostycheva street 1, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: chernikova_olga@inbox.ru

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is an obvious fact that it is necessary to look for new approaches to agriculture, which would ensure the maximum reduction in the dependence of the volumes and quality of the crop on external factors. The use of nanopreparations in crop production is the most promising. The development of new technologies and techniques using nanomaterials, which would ensure high yields and quality of potato products, is relevant and has great practical importance. The research in recent years has established the important role of selenium in the regulation of plant activity.The purpose of this work was to research the effect of selenium nanoparticles and selenium in the form of micronutrient fertilizers on early-maturing varieties of potatoes for table use: adaptive capacity and nutritional value. Selenium nanopowder in the form of a solution contained the optimum nanoselenium concentration applied–0.13 g per hectare seeding rate. The potato tubers were soaked in distilled water 30 minutes before seeding. The treatment of potato tubers with selenium micronutrient, the dose of which amounted to 400 g per 1 hectare, was also carried out before planting. The soil preparation and agrotechnology cultivation generally accepted in the Ryazan region.The research results showed that presowing treatment of potato tubers with selenium nanopreparation had the most favorable effect on the adaptive capacity of plants (heat resistance, water-holding properties), as well as on yield increase, than treatment of tubers with selenium in the form of microfertilizer. The use of Se nanoparticles leads to an increase in the protein and vitamin C content. The Udacha potato variety showed great responsiveness to the entering of various forms of selenium in comparison with others. The use of selenium in the form of microfertilizer leads to an increase in the accumulation of starch and dry matter. These figures were the highest in potato tubers of the Zhukovskiy Ranniy variety.

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1546-1554 R. Zarins, Z. Kruma, L. Tomsone, S. Kampuse, I. Skrabule and I.H. Konosonoka
Comparison of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and freeze-dried potatoes
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Comparison of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and freeze-dried potatoes

R. Zarins¹, Z. Kruma¹*, L. Tomsone¹, S. Kampuse¹, I. Skrabule² and I.H. Konosonoka²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Rigas iela 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Zinātne iela 2, Priekuli, Priekuli municipality, LV-4126 Latvia
*Correspondence: zanda.kruma@llu.lv

Abstract:

Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) contain a wide range of compounds with health benefits, and different techniques have been developed for the determination of these compounds. Freeze-drying is a common method for the preservation and preparation of samples for the analyses of bioactive compounds, but it is well known that drying influences the composition of food products. The aim of the current study was to compare phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh and freeze-dried potatoes. In the experiment 11 cultivar potatoes grown in experimental fields of the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics in 2016 were analysed. Potatoes were freeze-dried. Homogenized fresh and freeze-dried samples were extracted with an ethanol/water (80/20 w/w) solution. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. The highest TPC and radical scavenging activity were determined in cultivars ‘Peru Purple’ and ‘Blue Congo’ potatoes. Freeze-drying influenced all the tested parameters but more significantly the TPC, and for certain cultivars a reduction of more than 30% was observed. A strong correlation between TPC, DPPH and ABTS in fresh and freeze-dried samples was observed, r = 0.81, r=0.93, r = 0.92, respectively. It could be concluded that the effect of freeze-drying on TPC and antioxidant activity is cultivar dependent.

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044–054 V. Bulgakov, S. Ivanovs, V. Adamchuk and Y. Ihnatiev
Investigation of the influence of the parameters of the experimental spiral potato heap separator on the quality of work
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Investigation of the influence of the parameters of the experimental spiral potato heap separator on the quality of work

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Ivanovs²*, V. Adamchuk³ and Y. Ihnatiev⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Obrony str., UK 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Latvia University of Agriculture, 2, Liela str., LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³National Scientific Centre ‘Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification’ of Ukraine, 11, Vokzalna str., Glevaha-1, UK 08631 Kiev Region, Ukraine
⁴Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18, Khmelnytskoho pr., Melitopol, UK 72312 Zaporozhye region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

The known designs of potato heap cleaners have a series of disadvantages, particularly on sticky soils. In the newly developed and patented potato heap cleaner of a spiral type there is used the vibration effect and other technical solutions which ensure efficient self-cleaning of the rollers. Laboratory-field equipment was worked out and made for the investigations which had a spiral potato heap cleaner of a new design mounted on it. Under the field conditions the real technological process of digging and cleaning of the potato tubers from the soil admixtures was simulated in one row of the potato plantation. By using the developed methodology of a multi-factor experiment dependencies were obtained characterising the impact of the design and kinematic parameters of the cleaner itself upon the quality indicators of its operation (the soil separation efficiency, the cleanness of the heap, the damage and losses of the tubers), allowing optimisation of the design.

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