Tag Archives: poultry

371–377 M.G.L. Cândido, I.F.F. Tinôco, M. Barbari, L.C.S.R. Freitas, T.C. dos Santos, R.R. Andrade, R.S. Gates, L. Conti and G. Rossi
Effect of environmental temperature during the of brooding period on growing period of pullets viscera and tibia
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Effect of environmental temperature during the of brooding period on growing period of pullets viscera and tibia

M.G.L. Cândido¹*, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, M. Barbari², L.C.S.R. Freitas¹, T.C. dos Santos¹, R.R. Andrade¹, R.S. Gates³, L. Conti² and G. Rossi²

¹Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Peter Henry Rolfs Ave, s/n, BR 36570-000 Viçosa-MG, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
³University of Illinois, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 1304 West Pennsylvania Avenue, US61820 Urbana-IL, United States of America
*Correspondence: marciagl.candido@gmail.com

Abstract:

Poultry production in subtropical and tropical regions faces many problems, one of which is the high air temperature causing thermal stress, particularly dangerous in high-producing birds. Thus, the negative effects caused by heat stress (HS) must be managed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different levels of HS in viscera and tibia of pullets. A total of 648 chicks (Lohmann LSL Lite) were used in this study in two different phases. The pre-experimental phase (PEP) was from day 1 through 6 weeks of age. The birds were reared with three different environmental temperatures: thermal comfort, hot and cold. The experimental phase (EP) was conducted from the 7th to the 17th week. Pullets from each thermal environment of the PEP were submitted to: 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C. At the end of the 17th week of age 120 pullets were euthanatized and the organs, heart, liver, spleen and gizzard were weighed, as also their tibias. Effects of PEP, and its interaction with EP, were not significant (P < 0.05) for viscera and tibia weight. However, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in heart weight with the decrease of the environmental temperature was observed, being the pullets subject to 20 ºC and 25 °C with the heaviest weights. For the liver, pullets subject to the 35 °C had the lowest weight and were different (P < 0.05) from the other three treatments. For gizzard, the difference (P < 0.05) was between the treatments 20 ºC and 35 °C. These results indicate that brooding temperatures tested during the first 6 weeks of life did not affect the viscera and bone weight during the growing phase.

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582-592 F.C. Sousa, I.F.F. Tinôco, M. Barbari, F. Baptista, C.F. Souza, A.O. Saraz, D.J.R. Coelho and A.L. Silva
Diagnosis of air quality in broilers production facilities in hot climates
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Diagnosis of air quality in broilers production facilities in hot climates

F.C. Sousa¹*, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, M. Barbari²*, F. Baptista³, C.F. Souza¹, A.O. Saraz⁴, D.J.R. Coelho¹ and A.L. Silva⁵

¹Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, Campus University of Viçosa, BR30570-000 Viçosa, MG, Brazil
²Università degli Studi di Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems (GESAAF), Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
³Universidade de Évora, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas (ICAAM), Apartado 94, PT7006-554 Évora, Portugal
⁴Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Calle 59 A N 63, CO400-03 Medellin, Colombia
⁵Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Department of Animal Science, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, Campus University of Viçosa, BR30570-000 Viçosa, MG, Brazil
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; fernanda.sousa@ufv.br

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate air quality of industrial farms of broilers production, located at Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The environmental air quality was evaluated during the last rearing week, between 35 and 42 days of life of broilers. Facilities with beds constituted by two types of substrates were evaluated: coffee husks (6 reuse cycles) and shavings (4 reuse cycles). A total of 30 facilities (3 per each of the 10 reuse cycles) were investigated. Air quality was diagnosed by determining air temperature and relative humidity and by ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations. Air temperature and relative humidity were not affected by reuse cycles in coffee husks bed, but these variables were affected by reuse cycles in shavings bed. Ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations increased linearly according to the reuse cycles for both types of bed. The maximum concentrations of ammonia and carbon dioxide were 25 ppm and 1,348 ppm in facilities with bedding of coffee husks and 10 ppm and 1,075 ppm in facilities with bedding of shavings, respectively. Air quality of facilities using coffee husk bed tends to be worse when compared to facilities using shavings bed due to the higher values of ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations, as observed in this study. In conclusion, regardless bedding type, increases in reuse cycles tend to decrease air quality inside the facility, since a linear increasing in ammonia and carbon dioxide concentrations can be observed in relation to the number of bed reuse cycles.

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320-327 R.R. Andrade, I.F.F. Tinôco, C.F. Souza, K.P. Oliveira, M. Barbari, V.M.F. Cruz, F.J.F. Baptista, M.O. Vilela, L. Conti and G. Rossi
Effect of thermal environment on body temperature of early-stage laying hens
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Effect of thermal environment on body temperature of early-stage laying hens

R.R. Andrade¹, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, C.F. Souza¹, K.P. Oliveira¹, M. Barbari²*, V.M.F. Cruz³, F.J.F. Baptista³, M.O. Vilela¹, L. Conti² and G. Rossi²

¹University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, CEP: BR36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems – Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
³University of Évora, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas (ICAAM), Apartado 94, PT7006-554 Évora, Portugal
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; rafaella.andrade@ufv.br

Abstract:

The thermal comfort condition of early-stage laying hens can be verified by means of physiological variations. The mean surface temperature and cloacal temperature are important parameters to demonstrate the effect of the thermal environment on the birds. The objective of the present study was to correlate homeostasis and stress with physiological responses (mean surface temperature and cloacal temperature) of lightweight laying hens of the Lohmann LSL Lite line aged from one to forty-two days when submitted to different thermal environments. A total of 864 birds with the same age, origin and uniform body weight were randomly distributed in four climatic chambers. The characterization of the different environments was as follows: thermal comfort temperature (33.0–19.0 °C), two cold stress levels (28.0–17.0 °C and 25.0–17.0 °C) and one level of heat stress (38.0 °C – 22.0 °C). The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design in the subdivided plots scheme, with four treatments in the plots and the evaluations (days) in the subplots. The means were compared using the Tukey test, adopting the 5% probability level. The birds maintained the physiological responses, based on cloacal and surface temperatures, within the normal range for all evaluated treatments during the period between 01 and 42 days of life. The surface temperature of the birds varied as a function of the air temperature of each breeding environment, with lower surface temperatures for mild cold and moderate cold treatments.

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629–638 R.R. Andrade, I.F.F. Tinôco, F.C. Baêta, M. Barbari,, L. Conti, P.R. Cecon, M.G.L. Cândido, I.T.A. Martins and C.G.S. Teles Junior
Evaluation of the surface temperature of laying hens in different thermal environments during the initial stage of age based on thermographic images
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Evaluation of the surface temperature of laying hens in different thermal environments during the initial stage of age based on thermographic images

R.R. Andrade¹, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, F.C. Baêta¹, M. Barbari²,*, L. Conti², P.R. Cecon¹, M.G.L. Cândido¹, I.T.A. Martins¹ and C.G.S. Teles Junior¹

¹ University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil
² University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; rafaella.andrade@ufv.br

Abstract:

The initial stage of laying hens requires important care in relation to the thermal environment, in view of the good development of the birds, the obtaining of good quality pullets and, consequently, the adequate laying rate of adult birds.
The aim of the present study was to study, through thermographic images, the variation of the superficial temperature of laying birds of the Lohmann LSL Lite line, from one to forty-two days of age, submitted to different thermal environments. For this experiment, 864 layer chicks were distributed homogeneously in four climatic chambers. The characterization of the different environments was as follows: thermal comfort conditions (32.8 °C–20.2 °C), two cold stress levels (28.0 °C–17.9 °C and 25.5 °C–17.3 °C) and one level of heat stress (37.4 °C–23.3 °C). The black globe temperature and humidity index (BGHI) was also calculated during the trials. The data were evaluated through the Tukey test, adopting the level of 5% of probability. Via infrared thermography the temperatures of head, body and shank of the laying birds were recorded. The results showed effect (P < 0.05) of the temperature of each environment on the surface temperature of the birds. Along with the rise of the ambient temperature, an increase in the surface
temperature (head and shank) was found.
Under the recommended comfort treatment, the performance of laying birds during the earlystage, related to the superficial temperature of the birds shows the best values with temperature ranges of 32.8 °C–20.2 °C and BGHI values between 82.3 ± 1.3 and 66.4 ± 1.3.

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687–693 L.C.S.R. Freitas, I.F.F. Tinôco, F.C. Baêta, M. Barbari, L. Conti, C.G.S. Teles Júnior, M.G.L. Cândido, C.V. Morais and F.C. Sousa
Correlation between egg quality parameters, housing thermal conditions and age of laying hens
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Correlation between egg quality parameters, housing thermal conditions and age of laying hens

L.C.S.R. Freitas¹, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, F.C. Baêta¹, M. Barbari²*, L. Conti², C.G.S. Teles Júnior¹, M.G.L. Cândido¹, C.V. Morais¹ and F.C. Sousa¹

¹ Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Avenue Peter Henry Rolfs, University Campus, BR36570-900, Viçosa-MG, Brazil
² University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; leticia.ramos@ufv.br

Abstract:

High environmental temperatures cause a decrease in feed consumption by laying hens and, as a consequence, a reduction of productive performance and egg weight. The hens age is a factor influencing the albumen quality that tends to be more liquefied in older hens. Such variable is analysed by the determination of the Haugh Unit.
The correlations between the egg quality variables (egg weight and Haugh Unit), the  thermohygrometric conditions in the facility and the age of laying hens were determined in the study and evaluated based on the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and their significance at the 5% level. The microclimatic data and the eggs were collected in 20 points of poultry facility with birds of 43, 56, 69, 79 and 86 weeks of age, totalling 100 samples.
The results show significant correlations between egg weight and temperature (r = -0.238), egg weight and hens age (r = 0.310), Haugh Unit index and hens age (r = -0.256); a non-significant correlation between the quality parameters with the relative humidity of the air inside the barn. The egg weight had a weak negative correlation with the ambient temperature and a weak positive correlation with the hens age. Concerning the Haugh Unit, a weak negative correlation with the age of the animals was found. The weak or non-existent correlation of temperature with egg quality parameters can be due to the environmental conditions that remained in the range of thermal comfort for the animals during the trials.

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