Tag Archives: productivity

xxx L.Yu. Novikova, N.A. Chalaya, M.N. Sitnikov, L.M. Gorlova, S.D. Kiru and E.V. Rogozina
Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia
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Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia

L.Yu. Novikova¹*, N.A. Chalaya¹, M.N. Sitnikov¹, L.M. Gorlova¹, S.D. Kiru² and E.V. Rogozina¹

¹N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), 42, 44, Bolshaya Morskaya Str., RU190000 St. Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Building A, 2, Peterburgskoe shosse, Pushkin, RU196601 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: l.novikova@vir.nw.ru

Abstract:

Under climate changes, it is particularly important to search for characteristics of varieties that are steady in contrasting weather conditions. The aim of the present research was to study the relationship between the growth of tubers and haulms in early potato varieties in the Northwestern Russia. Fourteen early potato varieties were studied in the field experiments conducted in 2017–2019 in the vicinities of St. Petersburg. The results of three intermediate digs on the 45th, 60th and 75th day from the planting date were analyzed. The correlation analysis, ANOVA, and regression were used. The average haulm and tubers weight significantly differed in the years of the study, while the number of tubers per plant and the haulm to tubers weight ratio did not differ. The relative growth rate of tubers weight from day 45 to 60 and from 60 to 75 did not differ significantly between 2018 and 2019, the years contrasting in terms of weather conditions. On the average, the tubers weight increased 2.6–2.8 times from day 45 to 60, and 1.4 times from day 60 to 75. It has been established that the early prediction of productivity in early potato varieties can be based on the haulm weight on the 60th day after planting; its coefficient of correlation with productivity was 0.72–0.79. Every 100 grams of the haulm weight on day 60 ensures a 100–200 g increment in the tubers weight by the time of harvest on day 80. The obtained results can be used in the development of a morphometric indicator-based automated system for monitoring the growth of potato plants.

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2727–2742 N. Krasova,, L. Ikase and D. Dēķena
Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia
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Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia

N. Krasova¹,*, L. Ikase² and D. Dēķena²

¹All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding, VNIISPK, Zhilina, Orel district, RU302530 Orel oblast, Russia
²Institute of Horticulture, Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Apple selections of Latvian breeding were evaluated in the Central zone of Russia since 1980, in total 32 cultivars and hybrids. After long-term evaluation, the following can be recommended for use in breeding of scab resistant cultivars with high quality fruits – ‘Dace’ (gene Rvi6), ‘Arona’, and good storage – ‘Edite’ (Rvi6), ‘Forele’, ‘Olga’, ‘Маdоna’, for breeding of early cultivars – ‘Roberts’ and DI-93-4-8, both resistant to scab (gene Rvi6) and fruit rots. Cultivars and hybrids with the best cold resistance of vital tissues were selected by artificially modelling winter-hardiness components − early colds (1st component) and mid-winter colds up to -38 °C (2nd component), showing reversible damages not exceeding 2.0 points: ‘Daina’, ‘Ella’, ‘Atmoda’, ‘Gita’, ‘Saiva’, of which the last 3 maintained high hardiness of bark, cambium and xylem with slight increase of bud damages also at -40 °C. Cultivars ‘Daina’ and ‘Ella’ showed resistance of buds and vital tissues on the level of ‘Antonovka’ after modelling a thaw with following freezing to -25 °С (3rd component), which suggests tolerance to fluctuating winter temperatures. These cultivars demonstrated good adaptation to different environment conditions and may be considered in breeding of new adaptive apple cultivars with high fruit quality.

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2701–2714 L. Ikase and E. Rubauskis
Evaluation of Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids in Latvia
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Evaluation of Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids in Latvia

L. Ikase* and E. Rubauskis

Institute of Horticulture (LatHort), Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Estonian apples have always been popular in Latvia. At present, ‘Tiina’ is widely grown commercially as well as in home gardens, and ‘Liivika’ is promising for organic and home orchards. A number of new Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids have been screened in 1990–2020. Several new selections by breeder Kalju Kask (Polli) are included in field trials at Institute of Horticulture – ‘Aule’, ‘Kastar’ and KK 201-2 (‘Karlote’) since 2011, ‘Kersti’ since 2014, KK 5-16 (‘Kelin’) with scab resistance gene Rvi6 and KK 2812 since 2015. Their trees were planted on dwarfing rootstock B.9 as one-year-old whips at distances 1.5×4 m, in 3 to 5 replications with 2 or 1 trees. Commercial cultivars ‘Auksis’, ‘Antei’ and ‘Zarya Alatau’ were used as controls. The highest productivity had ‘Aule’ and ‘Kastar’, the best fruit quality – ‘Aule’ and ‘Kelin’. ‘Aule’ has been highly esteemed also by some Latvian farmers. Fruits of ‘Kelin’ had the best storage, which is crucial for a cultivar’s commercial success in Latvia. On the other side, ‘Kersti’ proved to be unsuitable for Latvian conditions, having very strong tree vigour and low yields. ‘Kastar’ showed a high tendency to fruit cracking at calyx, while KK 201-2 and KK 2812 had irregular or low yields. Of newer acquisitions, scab resistant (gene Rvi6) ‘Virve’ and KK 4-11 show good preliminary results and have been propagated for trials on dwarfing rootstocks. Productivity, tree characteristics, fruit quality traits and taste panel evaluation of Estonian apples in Latvia are discussed.

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2460–2473 A. Zymaroieva, O. Zhukov, T. Fedonyuk and A. Pinkin
Application of geographically weighted principal components analysis based on soybean yield spatial variation for agro-ecological zoning of the territory
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Application of geographically weighted principal components analysis based on soybean yield spatial variation for agro-ecological zoning of the territory

A. Zymaroieva¹*, O. Zhukov², T. Fedonyuk³ and A. Pinkin⁴

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Stary Blvd. 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Faculty of Biology and Ecology, Department of Zoology and Ecology, pr. Gagarina, 72, UA49010 Dnipro, Ukraine
³Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Ecology and Life Safety, Stary Blvd. 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
⁴Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Engineering and Power Engineering, Department of Electrification, Automation of Production and Engineering Ecology, Stary Blvd. 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nastya.zymaroeva@gmail.com

Abstract:

In this study, the geographically weighted principal components analysis as an alternative method for agro-ecological characterization of the region was provided. The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of soybean yield was analyzed by using spatial statistics technology, which provided a good reference for agricultural development planning. The soybean yield was selected for the present study because it is a comprehensive indicator reflecting the production potential of the regional agroecosystems. The organized data set, which included the average per year yields of soybean in 10 regions (206 administrative districts) of Ukraine, was used for analysis. The regular temporal trend, specific for each district, was previously extracted from the time series data. The principal components analysis of the detrended data allowed to identify four principal components, which altogether can explain 58% of the soybean yield variation. The geographically weighted principal components analysis allowed to reveal that four spatially determined processes were influencing the yield of soybeans and had the oscillatory dynamics of different periodicity. It was hypothesized that the oscillating phenomena were of ecological nature. Geographically weighted principal component analysis revealed spatial units with similar oscillatory component of soybean yield variation. Our study confirmed the hypothesis that within the studied territory there are zones with the specific patterns of the temporal dynamics of soybean yield, which are uniform within each area but qualitatively different between zones. The territorial clusters within which the temporal dynamics of soybean yield is identical can be considered as agro-ecological zones for soybean cultivation.

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1891–1897 V. Gasiev, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev
Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops
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Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops

V. Gasiev*, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev

Vladikavkaz scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22 Markus street, RU362027 Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia
*Correspondence: gasiev77@mail.ru

Abstract:

The paper deals with the impact of binary mixtures of perennial grasses on the productivity and quality of forage crops that differ in their species composition. The studies have shown that mixed crops exceeded single-species crops in all indicators of forage crops productivity. In total over five years binary crops of Poterium polygamum exceeded single-species ones in all productivity indicators. The plants safety by the end of vegetation was also slightly lower than in single-species crops, which can be explained by greater competition for light, moisture and nutrients. So the safety of Medicago sativa L. was 81.8%, Onobrýchis – 83.6%, Galéga orientális L – 89.7%, Poterium polygamum – 74.6%, which is lower than that of legumes in single-species crops. In all years of herbage use, the binary crops exceeded single-species ones. On average, for 5 years of research, the yield of Poterium polygamum was 25.5 t ha-1, Medicago sativa L. – 22.5 t ha-1, Onobrýchis – 23.7 t ha-1. Among legumes, the maximum yield had Galéga orientális L agrocenosis – 26.1 t ha-1. Mixed crops of burnet with leguminous grasses were characterized for yielding the vegetative mass on average 28.5–30.9 t ha-1. Maximum values of binary Poterium polygamum crops characterized crops with the leguminous plant component of goat’s rue in all years of research. Mixed crops also showed maximum values of dry matter per unit area and amounted respectively 33.52–36.74 t ha-1. The same pattern continued in the yield of fodder units, digestible protein and metabolic energy, their maximum was obtained at the variant Poterium polygamum+ Galéga orientális L.

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206–219 V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva, K.V. Mazur and I.M. Didur
Influence of the assimilation apparatus and productivity of white lupine plants
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Influence of the assimilation apparatus and productivity of white lupine plants

V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva*, K.V. Mazur and I.M. Didur

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine,
*Correspondence: pantsyreva@vsau.vin.ua

Abstract:

Artificial regulation of the growth and development of cultivated plants aimed to increase biological productivity and improve the quality of eco-friendly products is an important goal of modern agricultural production. Application of the natural growth stimulators and bacterial agents is quite relevant and effective. The field research was conducted on the basis of the research farm ‘Agronomichne’ of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, village Agronomichne, Vinnytsa district, Vinnytsia region, Ukraine. Features of the growth and development of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) plants are examined. There has been established a positive effect of the combination of inoculation with the bacterial agent and growth stimulator on the productivity of white lupine, which is important for the formation of high and stable yields. The papers presents the results of studies on the effect of pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar nutrion under conditions of the right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine on the assimilation apparatus of white lupine plants. It has been established that bacterial agents and growth stimulators increase white lupine productivity due to optimization of the studied technological methods of cultivation. The optimal leaf surface area that provided maximum grain yield has been determined. The research has established a positive effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with the bacterial agent Rhizohumin and the growth stimulator Emistym C and foliar nutrition with Emistym C on the chlorophyll content in the white lupine leaves. The influence of the investigated technological methods on the formation of the assimilation surface area and chlorophyll synthesis in the leaves of white lupine has been proved. The preparations studied induce intensive development of the photosynthetic apparatus, yield increase, improvement of the yield structure and they improve grain quality under conditions of right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The issue of seed bacterization and application of growth stimulators requires a more detailed study. Therefore, such researches are relevant and significance in terms of both practical and scientific value.

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2068-2078 S. Kalēja, A. Lazdiņš, A. Zimelis and G. Spalva
Model for cost calculation and sensitivity analysis of forest operations
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Model for cost calculation and sensitivity analysis of forest operations

S. Kalēja*, A. Lazdiņš, A. Zimelis and G. Spalva

Latvian State Forest Research Institute "Silava", 111 Rigas str., LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia *Correspondence: santa.kaleja@silava.lv

Abstract:

Forest operations include logging, off-road and road transport of round wood, harvesting residues and wood chips, soil scarification and pre-commercial thinning, as well as other less conventional operations like stump extraction and undergrowth removal before felling. The process of harvesting can involve different interfering phases with specific productivity parameters, which will have impact on the productivity of harvesting and delivery, as well on the prime cost of logs and forest biofuel. Detailed prime cost calculation allows to assess the impact of various factors on costs of the products, as well as to define threshold values for certain parameters affecting the productivity. The base model elaborated within the COST action FP0902 is complemented with standard economic methods and adopted to the harvesting process or any other forest or farming operation including systems consisting from several machines. The model is designed in a way, which is simple in use, easily extensible with additional parameters and machines and with possibility to change individual input data. The cost calculation section of the model consists from investments (base machines and equipment), labor costs (salaries, social charges, insurance and other payments) and operational costs (fuel, lubricants, maintenance, repair and other consumables). The average hourly cost is calculated according to forecast of number of working hours per year. Engine hours are used in calculation to synchronize input data with service statistics from dealers’ centers. The parameters of the forest stands affecting productivity, like diameter or volume of an average extracted tree, number of relocations per year, average off-road transport distance, driving speed and other parameters are defined in the calculation. Productivity and load size can be set as fixed values or equations (in case if the sensitivity analysis should be done). The model calculates the hourly cost (productive, engine and proposed working hours) and the unit price for each phase of the work process. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates impact of various factors, like number of working hours per year, dimensions of the average extracted tree, forwarding and road transport distance, fuel price and fuel consumption as a default parameters or any other indicator, which can be added to the sensitivity analysis. The model is validated against the actual harvesting contracts and hourly cost of rental machines. Default parameters in the calculation are summaries of information provided by contractors or service companies.

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556-563 K.P. Oliveira, C.F.S. Ferreira, I.F.F. Tinoco, R.R. Andrade, M. Barbari, V.M.F. Cruz, F.J.F. Baptista, M.F.A. Vieira, L. Conti and G. Rossi
Productive performance of broilers at the final stage of breeding submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy in different thermal environments
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Productive performance of broilers at the final stage of breeding submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy in different thermal environments

K.P. Oliveira¹, C.F.S. Ferreira¹, I.F.F. Tinoco¹, R.R. Andrade¹, M. Barbari²*, V.M.F. Cruz³, F.J.F. Baptista³, M.F.A. Vieira⁴, L. Conti² and G. Rossi²

¹University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, CEP: BR36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Systems, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
³University of Évora, Department of Rural Engineering, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrânicas, Núcleo da Mitra, Évora, Portugal
⁴Federal Rural University of Amazonia – UFRAPA-256, s/n – Nova Conquista, Paragominas – PA, 68627-451
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; kelle.oliveira@ufv.br

Abstract:

The Brazilian poultry industry is an activity in constant development due to the high indices of productive efficiency. The accelerated evolution of poultry production has allowed to obtain early and very efficient broilers able to convert different foods into animal protein. However, due to this intensive breeding system, a series of metabolic and management problems appeared, with emphasis on thermal stress. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physiological responses of broiler chickens in the final stage of breeding (21 to 42 days of life), submitted to two thermal conditions, one representative of the thermoneutrality situation (T1) and one giving a situation of cyclic stress by heat (T2). For each experimental thermal condition, the birds were submitted to different levels of metabolizable energy of 3,050, 3,125, 3,200, 3,275 kcal kg-1. At 28, 35 and 42 days, the birds and the feed leftovers were weighed to measure the performance variables: CR (feed intake), GP (weight gain) and CA (feed conversion), viability of the rearing (Vb), productive efficiency index (PEI).
As conclusions, the GP was 13.6% higher for the birds maintained at the thermoneutrality situation T1. The PEI was 32.5% higher for the birds maintained in T1 condition, when compared to those kept in T2. However, both in thermoneutral and in heat stress conditions, the increase in the level of metabolizable energy in the diet did not influence the performance and the productive efficiency index of broiler chickens aged between 21 and 42 days of age.

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64-82 G. Cekstere, A. Osvalde, V. Nollendorfs, A. Karlsons, J. Pormale, P. Zalitis, G. Snepsts, S. Minova, L. Jankevica and M. Laivins
Effects of fertilization on Picea abies stands situated on drained peat soils
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Effects of fertilization on Picea abies stands situated on drained peat soils

G. Cekstere¹*, A. Osvalde¹, V. Nollendorfs¹, A. Karlsons¹, J. Pormale¹, P. Zalitis², G. Snepsts², S. Minova³, L. Jankevica³ and M. Laivins²

¹University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, Miera street 3, LV-2169, Salaspils, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute ‘Silava’, Riga street 111, LV-2169, Salaspils, Latvia
³University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, Laboratory of Experimental Entomology and Microbiology, Miera street 3, LV-2169, Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: gunta.cekstere@lu.lv

Abstract:

Norway spruce used for afforestation of drained peat soils frequently has low productivity and decay in a long-term, which could be related to soil chemical composition and nutrient status. The research aim was to elucidate the effect of PSM on new Norway spruce plantings (1st experiment) and 20-year-old spruce stands (2nd experiment) on drained peat soils by evaluating: (1) nutrient accumulation in soil-plant system, (2) soil microbiological activity, (3) health status of spruce individuals, (4) growth intensity and productivity of spruce, (5) changes in composition of vascular plant and moss species. The study was conducted at two forest (Myrtillosa turf.mel.) sites in Latvia, each consisting of two plots: control and treated with PMS (100 g m-2 in September 2007, 50 g m-2 in April 2008). During 2008–2016, regular analysis of soil, spruce needles, soil microbiology, assessment of tree crown vitality, stand productivity, inventory of vascular plant and moss species were done. The results showed that the fertilization with PMS resulted in a significantly improved K, Ca, Zn, and N status of trees, crown vitality and up to three times increased tree growth parameters at both experiments during the study period. The average count of bacteria and fungi in soil of fertilized plots, accompanied by a remarkable variability in the study years, was significantly higher only for the 1st experiment. Fungi: bacteria ratio for the fertilized and control plots differed significantly only for the 1st experiment. Significant increase of cover with nitrophilic plant (Urtica dioica, Antriscus sylvestris, Rubus idaeus) and moss (Plagiomnium cuspidatum, P. ellipticum) species at both fertilized sites were stated.

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2026–2038 B. Osmane, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina
Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows
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Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows

B. Osmane*, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina

Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: baiba.osmane@arei.lv

Abstract:

The need for alternative protein sources to soybean meal, partially or fully substituted in the diets of dairy cows, is an urgent problem in farming nowadays. Soybean meal is the most common protein source included in feed concentrate for dairy cows in Latvia and in other European countries as well. Among possible alternatives, grain legumes seem interesting for dairy cow diets because of their rapid degradation in the rumen and readily available energy. Peas and beans will be an important source of proteins in feed. Biochemical tests were done on eight samples of domestically grown dried peas of average size, 11 samples of dried beans of average size and some samples of soybean meal to examine the chemical composition of the peas and beans. Peas and beans were included in the feed ration during a feeding trial on dairy cows. Milk yields and milk quality parameters were examined in the trial. The digestibility of peas of most varieties and breeding lines examined was considerably higher than that of soybean meal, while the digestibility of beans of all the varieties and breeding lines examined and of soybean meal was the same. The peas contained more reducing sugars, starches and had a higher value of NEL than the tested beans, which meant the peas had a higher nutritional value. The diets comprising beans and peas fed to the dairy cows increased the fat and protein contents of milk, compared with the control group and the beginning of the trial. The total amount of amino acids increased in the bulk milk samples of all the trial groups during the feeding trial.

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