Tag Archives: productivity

241-260 O. Havryliuk, T. Kondratenko, B. Mazur, O. Tonkha, Y. Andrusyk, V. Kutovenko, R. Yakovlev, V. Kryvoshapka, A. Trokhymchuk and Y. Dmytrenko
Efficiency of productivity potential realization of different-age sites of a trunk of grades of columnar type apple-trees
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Efficiency of productivity potential realization of different-age sites of a trunk of grades of columnar type apple-trees

O. Havryliuk¹*, T. Kondratenko², B. Mazur¹, O. Tonkha¹, Y. Andrusyk¹, V. Kutovenko¹, R. Yakovlev¹, V. Kryvoshapka², A. Trokhymchuk² and Y. Dmytrenko¹

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,
Heroiv Oborony Str., 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Institute of Horticulture of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Sadova Str., 23, UA03027 Novosilky, Kyiv Region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: o.havryliuk@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

An article provides information about buds organogenesis in plants of columnar apple cultivars in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine (Kyiv), which allows to establish the features of this process in complex fruit formations of different ages, and their productivity and longevity. We recommend studying of apple trees productivity in the process of its formation by analyzing of rudimentary organs formation and their consistent development into vegetative and generative organs, which are elements of productivity. Studies of organogenesis different-age fruit formations of columnar apple cultivars were conducted in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine during 2016–2020. It was established that separate age sections of columnar apple trees trunk formed different initial productivity potential. In plants of all studied varieties and age groups, the laying of generative buds, the implementation of reproductive elements in V–IX and X–XI stages of organogenesis were more effective in older age areas of the trunk. Complex fruit formations, regardless of the trunk age where they are placed, form a high potential for productivity, which is effectively realized. The dependence of the formation and productivity potential realization on the stages of organogenesis and meteorological factors is established.

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91-102 I.P. Diordiieva, L.O. Riabovol, Ya.S. Riabovol, O.P. Serzhuk, Iu.І. Nakloka, О.P. Nakloka and S.P. Karychkovska
Breeding and genetic improvement of soft winter wheat with the use of spelt wheat
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Breeding and genetic improvement of soft winter wheat with the use of spelt wheat

I.P. Diordiieva¹, L.O. Riabovol¹, Ya.S. Riabovol², O.P. Serzhuk¹, Iu.І. Nakloka³, О.P. Nakloka⁴ and S.P. Karychkovska⁵

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Limagrain Ukraine LLC, 55 Turgenevskaya Str., 04050 Kiev, Ukraine
³Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of General Agriculture, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
⁴Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Vegetable growing, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
⁵Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and foreign languages, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: diordieva201443@gmail.com

Abstract:

In the process of carrying out studies as a result of hybridization of soft wheat with spelt wheat, a number of new forms that differ in morphobiological and economically valuable features were obtained. The aim of the research was to expand the genetic diversity of soft wheat by hybridization with spelt wheat, analysis of the heterotic effect in hybrids in order to systematize the samples and obtain valuable original forms for the breeding process of creating high-yielding varieties.

As a result of research the breeding technology of creating high-yielding forms of soft winter wheat by cross-species hybridization of Triticum aestivum L. × Triticum spelta L. has been improved. It has been determined that the plant height and ear length in hybrids are inherited by type of intermediate inheritance or negative dominance, the number of grains in the ear – by type of intermediate inheritance or positive dominance; ear grain weight – by type of superdominance or positive dominance. In F2 hybrids there is a dihybrid cleavage into forms with speltoid, squarehead and typical ear with a quantitative predominance of speltoid plants, which indicates the control of the ‘ear shape’ indication by two non-allelic genes. The ear shape of the soft wheat original varieties in relation to speltoid varieties turned out to be a recessive trait, but at the same time it was dominant to a squarehead form. Regardless of the genotypes of soft wheat included in the combination of crossbreeding with spelt wheat, red color ear indication was determined by a monogenic type of inheritance. Varieties of soft winter wheat Artaplot, Umanska Tsarivna and Freya have been created, which are included in the State Registry of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine and recommended for cultivation in Polissia.

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148-160 O. Havryliuk, T. Kondratenko, B. Mazur, V. Kutovenko, B. Mazurenko, O. Voitsekhivska and Y. Dmytrenko
Morphophysiological peculiarities of productivity formation in columnar apple varieties
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Morphophysiological peculiarities of productivity formation in columnar apple varieties

O. Havryliuk¹*, T. Kondratenko¹, B. Mazur¹, V. Kutovenko¹, B. Mazurenko¹, O. Voitsekhivska² and Y. Dmytrenko¹

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 12 А Heroiv Oborony Str., UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Plant biology department, 60 Volodymyrska Str., UA 03127 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: o.havryliuk@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

Differentiation of generative buds is one of the most important biological processes of plant transition from vegetative to generative state. This process is key to the problem of creating regular fruit-bearing and early-fruiting plantations. The article provides information on the organogenesis of buds in plants of columnar apple varieties in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, which allows establishing the features of this process in complex fruit formations of different ages, and the levels of their productivity and longevity. Research to study the organogenesis of different-age fruit formations of columnar apple varieties was conducted in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine during 2016–2020. The efficiency of realization the plants biological potential of all studied columnar apple varieties at III–IV and V–IX stages of organogenesis was high: the largest number of buds from their total number differentiated into generative on trees varieties ‘Sparta’, ‘President’, ‘Bilosnizhka’, ‘Valuta’ and ‘Tantsivnytsia’ (37–51%), the smallest in ‘Favoryt’ and ‘Bolero’. The biggest number of flowers per one potentially generative bud was formed by plants of ‘Tantsivnytsia’ and ‘Bilosnizhka’ varieties. The lowest level of ovarian loss during the X stage of organogenesis was observed on plants of  ‘Valuta’, ‘President’, and ‘Tantsivnytsia’ varieties (41–49%), and the highest – in ‘Favoryt’ variety (up to 83%). More effective realization of potential productivity at the XI stage of organogenesis occurred in plants of ‘President’, ‘Valuta’ and ‘Tantsivnytsia’ varieties; their trees on one potentially generative bud formed – 0.27–0.38 fruits. The coefficient of determination indicates that the influence of meteorological conditions of the year on the passage of III–IV stages of organogenesis is 46%; V–IX stages – 42%; Stage X – 17%; Stage XI – 24%.

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1530-1544 L.E. Kolesnikov, A.A. Belimov, E.Y. Kudryavtseva, B.A. Hassan and Yu.R. Kolesnikova
Identification of the effectiveness of associative rhizobacteria in spring wheat cultivation
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Identification of the effectiveness of associative rhizobacteria in spring wheat cultivation

L.E. Kolesnikov¹, A.A. Belimov², E.Y. Kudryavtseva³, B.A. Hassan⁴ and Yu.R. Kolesnikova³

¹Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnologies, Soil science and Ecology, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Petersburgskoe Shosse, 2, RU196601, St. Petersburg - Pushkin, Russia
²Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology”, Laboratory of rhizosphere microflora, sh. Podbelskogo, 3, RU196608, St. Petersburg, Pushkin-8, Russia
³Federal Research Center N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), genetic resources of wheat department, plant introduction department, Bolshaya Morskaya Str. 42–44, RU190000, St. Petersburg, Russia
⁴Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Office, Abo-Ghraib, St. Al-Zaytun, H.
IQ10081, Baghdad, Iraq
*Correspondence: kleon9@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The maximum increase in wheat yield (by 67% to the control), associated with a decrease in the root rot development by 19%, an increase in the productive bushiness by 18%, the spike weight by 26%, in the grains number per spike by 8% was noted when using the Bacillus subtilis strain 124-11; the strain effect on leaf diseases was insignificant (2–5%). The plants differed in the maximum changes (to control) in the total bushiness by 59%, the plants vegetative part weight by 27%, the flag leaf area by 21%, the pre-flag leaf area by 28%, the roots numbers and weight by 20% and 62%. After plants treatments with the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SPB2137, the wheat maturation period was reduced by 9% (to the control), wheat yield increased by 58% due to a decrease in the development of root rot and septoria by 18%, the yellow rust pustules area by 44%; the productive bushiness and plant height increased by 25% and 19%, the plant vegetative weight by 21%, the spike length by 4%. The most expressed protective and growth-stimulating effect was shown by the Sphingomonas sp. K1B, which caused a maximum decrease (to the control) in the root rot and yellow rust development by 22% and 7%, the strips length by 22%, the pustules number in the strip by 29%, brown rust by 10%, septoria by 11%. Wheat plants were characterized by a large number and length of roots by 17% and 13%, root weight by 49%, a maximum increase in the nodal roots number and length by 15% and 17%; total bushiness by 34.5%; a maximum increase in plant vegetative weight by 37%; the spike length by 3%.

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612–628 G. Tobi, Y.E. Bahloul, S. Oumouss, I. Rahmouni, A. Birouk and O. Benlhabib
Productivity, heritability and stability analysis of a Moroccan sugar beet germplasm
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Productivity, heritability and stability analysis of a Moroccan sugar beet germplasm

G. Tobi¹²*, Y.E. Bahloul¹, S. Oumouss¹, I. Rahmouni¹, A. Birouk² and O. Benlhabib²

¹Regional Center of Agricultural Research of Rabat, Research Unit of Plant Improvement Conservation and Development of Phytogenetic Resources, Avenue Mohamed Belarbi Alaoui B.P: 6356 – Instituts, 10101 – Rabat, Morocco
²Research Unit of Applied Biotechnologies in Agriculture, Agrobiodiversity and Local Products, Department of Plant Protection Production and Biotechnology, Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Avenue Allal EL FASSI – Madinat Al Irfane – BP 6202 – 10101 Rabat, Morocco
*Correspondence: g.tobi@iav.ac.ma

Abstract:

Progeny testing is the second part of maternal recurrent selection scheme adopted by INRA-Morocco for the national sugar beet breeding programme. The objective of this study is sugar beet germplasm productivity, heritability and stability analysis. The studied material concern 18 half-sib families (HSF) preselected initially for their seed production potential. Trials were conducted using randomised complete blocks designs during, 2013/14, 2014/15, 2015/16, 2017/18 campaigns in two experimental fields of INRA-Morocco; Sidi Allal Tazi (34° 30′ N, 6° 19′ W) and Larache (35° 11’ N, 6° 09’ W). Evaluated parameters concern the vigour, root weight (RW), leaf biomass yield (LBY), and sugar content (Sc). Data analysis by comparative procedures explores different accordance degrees of HSF versus controls. Good vegetative growth was observed, 85.6% closer to the maximal indicated scale level. The RW was significantly influenced by the genotype and reached a maximum of 1.06 kg versus 1.08 kg average recorded by controls. Sugar content recorded mean was 20.97% in HSF versus 21.39% in the controls. Most of HSF revealed mean values close to Z-type variety. Estimated heritability was 0.5 for RW, 0.2 for the LBY, and 0.02 for Sc. Sugar content was influenced by the environment and explained by the AMMI model (73.6%) versus 53.9% and 44.4% for root weight and leaf biomass yield respectively. The AMMI stability values showed F11, F12, F16, and F17 families as the most performing and stable HSF. Results demonstrate the relevance of the maternal recurrent selection scheme of the on-going national breeding programme.

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185–198 L.Yu. Novikova, N.A. Chalaya, M.N. Sitnikov, L.M. Gorlova, S.D. Kiru and E.V. Rogozina
Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia
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Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia

L.Yu. Novikova¹*, N.A. Chalaya¹, M.N. Sitnikov¹, L.M. Gorlova¹, S.D. Kiru² and E.V. Rogozina¹

¹N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), 42, 44, Bolshaya Morskaya Str., RU190000 St. Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Building A, 2, Peterburgskoe shosse, Pushkin, RU196601 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: l.novikova@vir.nw.ru

Abstract:

Under climate changes, it is particularly important to search for characteristics of varieties that are steady in contrasting weather conditions. The aim of the present research was to study the relationship between the growth of tubers and haulms in early potato varieties in the Northwestern Russia. Fourteen early potato varieties were studied in the field experiments conducted in 2017–2019 in the vicinities of St. Petersburg. The results of three intermediate digs on the 45th, 60th and 75th day from the planting date were analyzed. The correlation analysis, ANOVA, and regression were used. The average haulm and tubers weight significantly differed in the years of the study, while the number of tubers per plant and the haulm to tubers weight ratio did not differ. The relative growth rate of tubers weight from day 45 to 60 and from 60 to 75 did not differ significantly between 2018 and 2019, the years contrasting in terms of weather conditions. On the average, the tubers weight increased 2.6–2.8 times from day 45 to 60, and 1.4 times from day 60 to 75. It has been established that the early prediction of productivity in early potato varieties can be based on the haulm weight on the 60th day after planting; its coefficient of correlation with productivity was 0.72–0.79. Every 100 grams of the haulm weight on day 60 ensures a 100–200 g increment in the tubers weight by the time of harvest on day 80. The obtained results can be used in the development of a morphometric indicator-based automated system for monitoring the growth of potato plants.

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2727–2742 N. Krasova,, L. Ikase and D. Dēķena
Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia
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Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia

N. Krasova¹,*, L. Ikase² and D. Dēķena²

¹All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding, VNIISPK, Zhilina, Orel district, RU302530 Orel oblast, Russia
²Institute of Horticulture, Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Apple selections of Latvian breeding were evaluated in the Central zone of Russia since 1980, in total 32 cultivars and hybrids. After long-term evaluation, the following can be recommended for use in breeding of scab resistant cultivars with high quality fruits – ‘Dace’ (gene Rvi6), ‘Arona’, and good storage – ‘Edite’ (Rvi6), ‘Forele’, ‘Olga’, ‘Маdоna’, for breeding of early cultivars – ‘Roberts’ and DI-93-4-8, both resistant to scab (gene Rvi6) and fruit rots. Cultivars and hybrids with the best cold resistance of vital tissues were selected by artificially modelling winter-hardiness components − early colds (1st component) and mid-winter colds up to -38 °C (2nd component), showing reversible damages not exceeding 2.0 points: ‘Daina’, ‘Ella’, ‘Atmoda’, ‘Gita’, ‘Saiva’, of which the last 3 maintained high hardiness of bark, cambium and xylem with slight increase of bud damages also at -40 °C. Cultivars ‘Daina’ and ‘Ella’ showed resistance of buds and vital tissues on the level of ‘Antonovka’ after modelling a thaw with following freezing to -25 °С (3rd component), which suggests tolerance to fluctuating winter temperatures. These cultivars demonstrated good adaptation to different environment conditions and may be considered in breeding of new adaptive apple cultivars with high fruit quality.

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2701–2714 L. Ikase and E. Rubauskis
Evaluation of Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids in Latvia
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Evaluation of Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids in Latvia

L. Ikase* and E. Rubauskis

Institute of Horticulture (LatHort), Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Estonian apples have always been popular in Latvia. At present, ‘Tiina’ is widely grown commercially as well as in home gardens, and ‘Liivika’ is promising for organic and home orchards. A number of new Estonian apple cultivars and hybrids have been screened in 1990–2020. Several new selections by breeder Kalju Kask (Polli) are included in field trials at Institute of Horticulture – ‘Aule’, ‘Kastar’ and KK 201-2 (‘Karlote’) since 2011, ‘Kersti’ since 2014, KK 5-16 (‘Kelin’) with scab resistance gene Rvi6 and KK 2812 since 2015. Their trees were planted on dwarfing rootstock B.9 as one-year-old whips at distances 1.5×4 m, in 3 to 5 replications with 2 or 1 trees. Commercial cultivars ‘Auksis’, ‘Antei’ and ‘Zarya Alatau’ were used as controls. The highest productivity had ‘Aule’ and ‘Kastar’, the best fruit quality – ‘Aule’ and ‘Kelin’. ‘Aule’ has been highly esteemed also by some Latvian farmers. Fruits of ‘Kelin’ had the best storage, which is crucial for a cultivar’s commercial success in Latvia. On the other side, ‘Kersti’ proved to be unsuitable for Latvian conditions, having very strong tree vigour and low yields. ‘Kastar’ showed a high tendency to fruit cracking at calyx, while KK 201-2 and KK 2812 had irregular or low yields. Of newer acquisitions, scab resistant (gene Rvi6) ‘Virve’ and KK 4-11 show good preliminary results and have been propagated for trials on dwarfing rootstocks. Productivity, tree characteristics, fruit quality traits and taste panel evaluation of Estonian apples in Latvia are discussed.

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2460–2473 A. Zymaroieva, O. Zhukov, T. Fedonyuk and A. Pinkin
Application of geographically weighted principal components analysis based on soybean yield spatial variation for agro-ecological zoning of the territory
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Application of geographically weighted principal components analysis based on soybean yield spatial variation for agro-ecological zoning of the territory

A. Zymaroieva¹*, O. Zhukov², T. Fedonyuk³ and A. Pinkin⁴

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Stary Blvd. 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Faculty of Biology and Ecology, Department of Zoology and Ecology, pr. Gagarina, 72, UA49010 Dnipro, Ukraine
³Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Ecology and Life Safety, Stary Blvd. 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
⁴Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Engineering and Power Engineering, Department of Electrification, Automation of Production and Engineering Ecology, Stary Blvd. 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nastya.zymaroeva@gmail.com

Abstract:

In this study, the geographically weighted principal components analysis as an alternative method for agro-ecological characterization of the region was provided. The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of soybean yield was analyzed by using spatial statistics technology, which provided a good reference for agricultural development planning. The soybean yield was selected for the present study because it is a comprehensive indicator reflecting the production potential of the regional agroecosystems. The organized data set, which included the average per year yields of soybean in 10 regions (206 administrative districts) of Ukraine, was used for analysis. The regular temporal trend, specific for each district, was previously extracted from the time series data. The principal components analysis of the detrended data allowed to identify four principal components, which altogether can explain 58% of the soybean yield variation. The geographically weighted principal components analysis allowed to reveal that four spatially determined processes were influencing the yield of soybeans and had the oscillatory dynamics of different periodicity. It was hypothesized that the oscillating phenomena were of ecological nature. Geographically weighted principal component analysis revealed spatial units with similar oscillatory component of soybean yield variation. Our study confirmed the hypothesis that within the studied territory there are zones with the specific patterns of the temporal dynamics of soybean yield, which are uniform within each area but qualitatively different between zones. The territorial clusters within which the temporal dynamics of soybean yield is identical can be considered as agro-ecological zones for soybean cultivation.

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1891–1897 V. Gasiev, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev
Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops
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Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops

V. Gasiev*, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev

Vladikavkaz scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22 Markus street, RU362027 Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia
*Correspondence: gasiev77@mail.ru

Abstract:

The paper deals with the impact of binary mixtures of perennial grasses on the productivity and quality of forage crops that differ in their species composition. The studies have shown that mixed crops exceeded single-species crops in all indicators of forage crops productivity. In total over five years binary crops of Poterium polygamum exceeded single-species ones in all productivity indicators. The plants safety by the end of vegetation was also slightly lower than in single-species crops, which can be explained by greater competition for light, moisture and nutrients. So the safety of Medicago sativa L. was 81.8%, Onobrýchis – 83.6%, Galéga orientális L – 89.7%, Poterium polygamum – 74.6%, which is lower than that of legumes in single-species crops. In all years of herbage use, the binary crops exceeded single-species ones. On average, for 5 years of research, the yield of Poterium polygamum was 25.5 t ha-1, Medicago sativa L. – 22.5 t ha-1, Onobrýchis – 23.7 t ha-1. Among legumes, the maximum yield had Galéga orientális L agrocenosis – 26.1 t ha-1. Mixed crops of burnet with leguminous grasses were characterized for yielding the vegetative mass on average 28.5–30.9 t ha-1. Maximum values of binary Poterium polygamum crops characterized crops with the leguminous plant component of goat’s rue in all years of research. Mixed crops also showed maximum values of dry matter per unit area and amounted respectively 33.52–36.74 t ha-1. The same pattern continued in the yield of fodder units, digestible protein and metabolic energy, their maximum was obtained at the variant Poterium polygamum+ Galéga orientális L.

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