Germination of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) grains trigger biochemical changes that augment bioavailability of flower and its utility for gluten-free dietary foods
Peter the Great Polytechnic University, The Graduate School of Biotechnology and Food Technology, street Novorossiyskaya, 48, RU194021 St-Petersburg, Russia
During past decade, there has been an active search for new sources and means, such as biologic modification of raw plant material, to produce bioavailable foods with pre-defined properties. In this study, we tested whether germination of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) grains could be used to increase bioavailability of the flower for gluten-free diets (GFD). Our analysis demonstrated that grains of four selected cultivars had similar germination rates in different media. However, the pikes of amylolytic and proteinase activities were detected at the 2nd and 3rd days of germination, whereas the pike of lipase activity was associated with the 4th day. The highest and the lowest enzymatic activities were detected in grains germinated in whey and in NaCl, respectively. During germination, cumulative phenolic content increased up to 3.5 times reaching the highest levels by day 5. Based on these data, we produce batches of flour from grains germinated for 3 days and evaluated its utility in producing non-rising cake and shortbread pastry dough. Sensory evaluation of the baked products confirmed that flour from germinated grains could be used for substitution of the wheat flower in the dough. Collectively, our novel findings demonstrated that biochemically defined germination conditions could be used to produce proso millet flour with greater digestibility and nutritive value for the development of new GFD recipes.