Tag Archives: protein content

1380–1389 A. Linina, D. Kunkulberga, A. Kronberga and I. Locmele
Winter rye grain quality of hybrid and population cultivars
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Winter rye grain quality of hybrid and population cultivars

A. Linina¹*, D. Kunkulberga², A. Kronberga³ and I. Locmele³

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology Rigas street 22, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
³Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, Zinatnes street 1a, Priekuli LV-4126, Latvia
*Correspondence: anda.linina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Rye (Secale cereale L.) is an important European crop used for food that is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe. Consuming rye grain products provides a rich source of dietary fibre as well as several bioactive compounds with potentially positive health implications. The goal of the research was to compare the rye grain quality of hybrid and population cultivars. A field trial was carried out in Priekuli Research Centre, Institute of Agricultural Resourses and Economic (in Latvia) during a three-year period: 2014/2015, 2015/2016, and 2016/2017. The trial included population winter rye cultivars ‘Kaupo’, ‘Amilo’, ‘Dankowskie Amber’ and hybrid rye cultivars ‘Brasetto’, ‘Su Drive’, ‘Su Mephisto’. Rye grain quality indices were analysed at Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, in Grain and Seed Research laboratory. Average data in our investigation (three years) show that cultivar, crop-year (weather conditions) and cultivar×crop-year interaction significantly (P < 0.05) affected rye grain protein content, starch content and Hagberg falling number. A significant negative correlation was found between protein content and starch content r = -0.937 (population cultivars grain), r = -0.944 (hybrid cultivars grain), medium strong negative correlation was found between protein content and falling number, respective r = -0.549 and r = -0.573. Differences between hybrid cultivar grain protein content, falling number and starch content comparing with population cultivar grains were not observed. The results of the current research show that the quality of all the studied cultivars meets the requirements for high-grade rye grains for food consumption.

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2005-2015 I. Diordiieva, L. Riabovol, I. Riabovol, O. Serzhyk, A. Novak and S. Kotsiuba
The characteristics of wheat collection samples created by Triticum aestivum L/Triticum spelta L hybridisation
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The characteristics of wheat collection samples created by Triticum aestivum L/Triticum spelta L hybridisation

I. Diordiieva¹*, L. Riabovol¹, I. Riabovol¹, O. Serzhyk¹, A. Novak² and S. Kotsiuba¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 1 Institytska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of General Agriculture, 1 Institytska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: diordieva201443@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of our research was to create, analyzes, and systematise wheat collection samples for the selection of valuable initial forms, to involve them in breeding process, and to create new productive cultivars. For this purpose the hybridisation of soft and spelt wheat was carried out, along with an evaluation of the hybrids that were obtained, between 2006 and 2018 (F5–F10). A collection of wheat samples, containing more than a thousand numbered items, was formed from the obtained diversity of samples. The economically-valuable and morphological characteristics of newly-developed materials were analysed. According to the results of our research, we selected forms of spelt, soft wheat, and speltoid samples which have high levels of productivity and high gluten and protein contents in grains.
Spelt wheat sample 1817 contains 45.2% gluten, 22.3% protein, and has a yield capacity of 6.55 t ha-1. Soft wheat sample 1689 has 32.4% gluten, 15.8% protein, and a yield capacity of 7.19 t ha-1. These samples were submitted for state scientific and technical expert evaluation in 2018. The created varieties of European spelt wheat and Artemisia soft wheat were included in the ‘State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine’.
The varieties, Artaniia and Artaplot, were submitted for state scientific and technical expert evaluation.

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1460–1466 I. Skudra and A. Ruza
Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer
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Winter wheat grain baking quality depending on environmental conditions and fertilizer

I. Skudra¹²* and A. Ruza¹

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, St. Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvian Rural Advisory and Training centre, St. Rigas 34, LV3018 Ozolnieki region, Ozolnieki parish, Ozolnieki, Latvia
*Correspondence: ilze.skudra@llkc.lv

Abstract:

Yield and quality of wheat grain depends on many factors such as environmental conditions, soil quality, genetic parameters and fertilization, especially nitrogen fertilizer which is one of the most important factor influencing quality parameters of winter wheat. Field experiments were done at the Research and Training Farm Vecauce of the Latvia University of Agriculture during 2013 till 2015. The aim of our study was to determine effect of nitrogen fertilization and environmental conditions on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety ‘Kranich’ grain quality parameters. The investigated factors were six different nitrogen application norms (0 – control, 85, 153, 175+S21, 187 N kg ha-1) and differential nitrogen norm according to chlorophylmeter (Konica Minolta Ltd.) data 180 N kg ha-1 in 2013, 150 N kg ha-1 in 2014 and 205 N kg ha-1 in 2015. One more variant was added – 175 N kg ha-1 in 2015. During the study years the meteorological conditions were significantly different. Our trials results showed that protein content suitable for bread making was obtained in variants N175+S21, 180 and 187 in year 2013, in all N application forms in 2014, but in 2015 – in all applications except N0, N175+S21, N85. The meteorological conditions had factor influence (2) 46% on protein content, but fertilizer application – 35%. Strong significant relationship at the 0.01 probability level between protein content and gluten content (r = 0.99), sedimentation value (r = 0.97) and falling number (r = 0.74) was found.

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929-938 R. Galoburda,, M. Kuka, I. Cakste and D. Klava
The effect of blanching temperature on the quality of microwave-vacuum dried mushroom Cantharellus cibarius
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The effect of blanching temperature on the quality of microwave-vacuum dried mushroom Cantharellus cibarius

R. Galoburda¹,*, M. Kuka², I. Cakste² and D. Klava¹

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Liela iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia 2Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, Liela iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: ruta.galoburda@llu.lv

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blanching temperature on structure, colour, chemical composition, and rehydration capacity of microwave-vacuum dried chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius). Fruiting bodies of chanterelle were collected from the forests in Jelgava region of Latvia. Prior to drying, fresh mushrooms were blanched in water at various temperatures of 70, 80, 90 and 100ºC for 3 min, then cooled in water (20ºC). After blanching mushrooms were dried in a microwave-vacuum drier according to the specially designed program. The content of dry matter of chanterelle was 9.5 ± 0.5%. The results revealed that weight loss at 70–90ºC was significantly smaller compared to blanching at 100ºC temperature. The results indicated the tendency of smaller changes in microstructure, weight loss and colour for samples blanched at 70–80°C temperature comparing to the samples unblanched or blanched at higher temperatures. Electrical conductivity in water extract of microwave-vacuum dried chanterelle decreased with increased blanching temperature. Titratable acidity of chanterelle significantly reduced after blanching due to leakage of soluble acids into blanching water.

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3–12 M. Alaru, B. Moller and A. Hansen
Triticale yield formation and quality influenced by different N fertilisation regimes
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Triticale yield formation and quality influenced by different N fertilisation regimes

M. Alaru¹, B. Moller² and A. Hansen²

¹Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia;
²Department of Dairy and Food Science, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej -30, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C., Denmark

Abstract:

Two different field trials with triticale were carried out in a field of the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University, situated near Tartu, in 2000/2001–2002/2003. In the first trial, the winter triticale cultivars ‘Modus’ and ‘Tewo’ were used to investigate the influence of different N fertilisation regimes on triticale yield formation and yield quality. Seven N fertiliser treatments in four replications in the first year and 11 fertiliser treatments in three replications in the second and third year were tested, by varying total nitrogen dosages and time of application. Nitrogen was applied as NH4NO3 at different plant development stages (EC30, EC47). In the second trial, 10 winter triticale cultivars were investigated (‘Modus’, ‘Tewo’, ‘Lasko’, ‘Dagro’, ‘Ulrika’, ‘Lamberto’, ‘Vision’, ‘Fidelio’, ‘Lupus’, and ‘Prego’) to select out cultivars of earlier maturing and higher tolerance to pre-harvest sprouting. Winter triticale parents – the winter rye ‘Vambo’ and the winter wheat ‘Kosack’ were used as the control.
The yield level and quality of winter triticale grains were most of all affected by weather conditions and then by cultivars and N application regimes. Nitrogen fertiliser application at the plant development stage EC47 decreased significantly the height of stems (r = -0.459***), which is the principal prerequisite for preventing lodging, and increased significantly grain protein content (1.69 and 1.8% as the average of three years in ‘Modus’ and ‘Tewo’ grains, respectively). Unlike spikes of wheat, all of these winter triticale cultivars started to germinate before general physiological maturity. The longer was the period from anthesis to general physiological maturity, the higher was the percentage of germination during the period (r = 0.727*). The higher was the moisture content in seeds of triticale 26 days after the EC65 (length of the period wheat reached physiological maturity), the higher was the germination percentage in spikes (r = 0.733*). Triticale cultivars with higher 1,000 kernel weight values reached physiological maturity later. An average germination before harvest time correlated positively with test weight (r = 0.608*).

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3–10 M. Alaru, Ü. Laur and E. Jaama
Influence of nitrogen and weather conditions on the grain quality of winter triticale
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Influence of nitrogen and weather conditions on the grain quality of winter triticale

M. Alaru, Ü. Laur and E. Jaama

Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51008 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: malaru@hot.ee

Abstract:

The protein content and  falling numbers of five winter triticale cultivars were tested in very different weather conditions (1998/1999–2000/2001) on Stagnic Luvisol soils (WRB classification) in the experimental fields of the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian Agricultural University near Tartu (58°23´N, 26°44´E). All cultivars were fertilised with nitrogen fertiliser (NH4NO3) in early spring, using a norm of 0–200 kg N ha-1 (increasing the amonts of fertiliser by 20 kg ha-1). Fertilising with nitrogen after hibernation at the tillering stage in early spring increased the protein content of  seeds averaged over years and cultivars by up to 1.57% in dry matter. Protein levels depended most on the cultivar, less on the weather conditions of the growth year and least  on the nitrogen fertiliser (the determination indices of a dispersion analysis were 0.35, 0.32 and 0.14, respectively). The yield and protein content were in negative correlation (r = 0,92*). Due to very different weather conditions during the growth period, the figures of the falling number were very different in different years.

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