Tag Archives: protein

xxx J. Wolko, A. Dobrzycka, J. Bocianowski, L. Szala, T. Cegielska-Taras, I. Bartkowiak-Broda and K. Gacek
Genetic Variation of Traits Affecting Meal Quality in Black × Yellow Seeded Doubled Haploid Population of Winter Oilseed Rape
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Genetic Variation of Traits Affecting Meal Quality in Black × Yellow Seeded Doubled Haploid Population of Winter Oilseed Rape

J. Wolko¹, A. Dobrzycka¹, J. Bocianowski², L. Szala¹, T. Cegielska-Taras¹, I. Bartkowiak-Broda¹ and K. Gacek¹*

¹Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute - National Research Institute (PBAI-NRI), Oilseed Crops Research Center, Strzeszynska 36, PL60-479 Poznan, Poland
²Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, PL60-637 Poznan, Poland
*Correspondence: k.gacek@ihar.edu.pl

Abstract:

The by-product of oil production from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is protein rich rapeseed meal. It is of great interest to improve the quality of rapeseed meal for poultry feed by reducing the level of anti-nutritional factors, mainly fibre and glucosinolates. The aim of the study was to assess genetic variation of traits affecting rapeseed meal quality in seeds from the M305 (black-seeded) × Z114 (yellow seeded) population of winter oilseed rape doubled haploid (DH) plants. The influence of weather conditions on these traits was tested under two-year field growing conditions in Poland. Significant effect of genotypes and the year of experiment was found for all of the studied traits, apart from neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The significant phenotypic variation in all of these traits makes future selection to improve quality of rapeseed meal possible. It was also found that all of the traits, apart from neutral detergent fibre, are regulated in a complex genetic manner involving additive and epistatic gene action. NDF is regulated by the additive gene action indicating that this trait might be easier for selection. Low heritability found for seed colour, fibre and glucobrassicin indicates great environmental effect on these traits. Large phenotypic variation for protein, oil, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre and glucosinolates found in this study will allow future genetic mapping analysis to identify key genes regulating these traits. The application of such genetic markers could enhance breeding programs aiming to improve oilseed rape which could be successfully introduced as poultry feed.

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1751–1759 A. Linina, I. Augspole, I. Romanova and S. Kuzel
Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and quality indices
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Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and quality indices

A. Linina¹*, I. Augspole¹, I. Romanova² and S. Kuzel³

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Liela street 2, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, K. Helmana street 2, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agroecosystems, Studentska 1668, CZ37005, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: anda.linina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Rye (Secale cereale L.) grain is an excellent raw material for healthy and tasty foods. Rye products are characterized by their unique composition and properties such as antioxidant capacity and total phenolic. The aim of the study was to assess radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic content, protein, starch content and falling number in rye varieties wholemeal. The trial included population winter rye varieties ‘Kaupo’, ‘Amilo’, ‘Dankowskie Amber’, ‘Dankowskie Rubin’, ‘Inspector’ and hybrid rye varieties ‘SU Drive’, ‘SU Mephisto’, ‘SU Bendix’, ‘Brasetto’, ‘Palazzo’ grown in Latvia. The antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) assay and total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteou method. The rye grain antioxidant capacity was estimated as Trolox equivalent, while the total phenolic content was expressed as gallic equivalents (GAE). ‘Su Drive’ rye variety contained the largest amount of total phenolic (average 208 mg GAE 100 g-1 DW), but the lowest – ‘Inspector’ rye variety 176 mg GAE 100 g-1 DW. In general, all rye samples tested in this study demonstrated similar level of antioxidant capacity (from 38.5 to 46.2 mmol Trolox eq. 100 g-1). Statistically higher (P < 0.05) total phenols content and falling number had hybrid rye grains, compared to the population rye grains. In the present trial, the differences between hybrid varieties grains protein and starch content comparing to population varieties were not observed.

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290–300 E. Serba, N. Pimenov, P. Mochalina, M. Overchenko, Yu. Borscheva, A. Sharikov and L. Rimareva
Production of Aspergillus oryzae RCAM 01133 biomass with increased protein and polysaccharides content using by-products of food industry
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Production of Aspergillus oryzae RCAM 01133 biomass with increased protein and polysaccharides content using by-products of food industry

E. Serba¹, N. Pimenov², P. Mochalina¹, M. Overchenko¹, Yu. Borscheva¹, A. Sharikov¹* and L. Rimareva¹

¹Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology – branch of Federal Research Center of Nutrition and Biotechnology, Samokatnaya street 4b, RU111033 Moscow, Russia
²Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after K.I. Skryabin, 23 Academician Skryabin street, RU109472 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: anton.sharikov@gmail.com

Abstract:

The biomass of filamentous fungi is a promising source of protein and carbohydrate. It can be used as an unconventional substrate in technologies for obtaining food and feed ingredients. The studies show that the fungus Aspergillus oryzae synthesizes an insufficient level of protein in the process of solid-state fermentation. The aim of the research was to develop conditions for the production of fungal biomass with a high content of protein and polysaccharides on the basis of solid-state fermentation using by-products of food industry as inexpensive substrate for biomass production. Wheat bran, soybean meal, distilled dry grains with solubles, and brewer’s spent grain were used as raw material. Results of fermentation show that the protein content was 73.4% and 82.0%, which is more than 3 times higher than in fungus grown by submerged fermentation. The studies of the biosynthesis properties of the selected strain A. oryzae RCAM 01133 confirmed the high biological value of microbial biomass cultivated using food by-products. Fermentation of micromycete on culture media containing soybean meal and DDGS provided an increase of protein content by 1.45 times. Maximum increase of amino acids was observed for isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, and glutamic acid. The increased content of synthesized polysaccharides related to media containing wheat bran and DDGS. The highest concentrations of polysaccharides were 27.9% and 32.9%, respectively

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974–981 O. Chernikova, Yu. Mazhayskiy and L. Ampleeva
Selenium in nanosized form as an alternative to microfertilizers
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Selenium in nanosized form as an alternative to microfertilizers

O. Chernikova¹, Yu. Mazhayskiy¹ and L. Ampleeva²

¹Academy of law management of the federal penal service of Russia, RU390036 Ryazan, Sennaya street 1, Russian Federation
²Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev, RU390044 Ryazan, Kostycheva street 1, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: chernikova_olga@inbox.ru

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is an obvious fact that it is necessary to look for new approaches to agriculture, which would ensure the maximum reduction in the dependence of the volumes and quality of the crop on external factors. The use of nanopreparations in crop production is the most promising. The development of new technologies and techniques using nanomaterials, which would ensure high yields and quality of potato products, is relevant and has great practical importance. The research in recent years has established the important role of selenium in the regulation of plant activity.The purpose of this work was to research the effect of selenium nanoparticles and selenium in the form of micronutrient fertilizers on early-maturing varieties of potatoes for table use: adaptive capacity and nutritional value. Selenium nanopowder in the form of a solution contained the optimum nanoselenium concentration applied–0.13 g per hectare seeding rate. The potato tubers were soaked in distilled water 30 minutes before seeding. The treatment of potato tubers with selenium micronutrient, the dose of which amounted to 400 g per 1 hectare, was also carried out before planting. The soil preparation and agrotechnology cultivation generally accepted in the Ryazan region.The research results showed that presowing treatment of potato tubers with selenium nanopreparation had the most favorable effect on the adaptive capacity of plants (heat resistance, water-holding properties), as well as on yield increase, than treatment of tubers with selenium in the form of microfertilizer. The use of Se nanoparticles leads to an increase in the protein and vitamin C content. The Udacha potato variety showed great responsiveness to the entering of various forms of selenium in comparison with others. The use of selenium in the form of microfertilizer leads to an increase in the accumulation of starch and dry matter. These figures were the highest in potato tubers of the Zhukovskiy Ranniy variety.

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1725–1732 M. Olle
The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions
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The yield, height and content of protein of field peas (Pisum sativum L.) in Estonian agro-climatic conditions

M. Olle

Estonian Crop Research Institute, Department of Plant Breeding, J. Aamissepa 1, EE48309 Jogeva alevik, Estonia
Correspondence: margit.olle@etki.ee

Abstract:

Pisum sativum L. is important protein crop in the world. The purpose of this investigation was to see whether pea varieties differ in their yield, height and content of protein. Another aim was to select the best varieties suitable for production. Field experiments with different varieties of peas (‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’, ‘Clara’ and ‘Vitra’) were carried out at the Estonian Crop Research Institute in 2014 and in 2015. Yields (t ha-1) in 2014 and 2015 did not differ much, while yield from variety ‘Bruno’ was very different between years 2014 and 2015 and was much higher in 2015. The most suitable height of field peas is in a range of 60…100 cm, because the plants with such a height are most effectively suppressing weeds. It can be concluded that varieties with suitable height in our investigation were: ‘Bruno’, ‘Capella’ and ‘Clara’. Variety ‘Vitra’ was too high, is lodging easily and is therefore hard to harvest. Crude protein content (% in dry matter) was lowest in ‘Clara’; all other varieties had a higher content of protein, within much the same range. Based on the results of present investigation it can be concluded that out of those four varieties the most suitable varieties for production are ‘Bruno’ and ‘Capella’. Choice of the right variety for pea cultivation is very important, but depends on the local agro-climatic conditions. As in Baltic – Nordic countries and in north of America the agro-climatic conditions are more or less similar the results are useful for those countries.

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1396–1406 T. Michlová, H. Dragounová, R. Seydlová and A. Hejtmánková
The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region
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The hygienic and nutritional quality of milk from Saanen goats bred in the Moravian-Silesian region

T. Michlová¹*, H. Dragounová², R. Seydlová² and A. Hejtmánková¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21, Prague, Czech Republic
²Dairy Research Institute Ltd, Ke dvoru 791/12A, CZ160 00, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: michlova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

 The aim of the study was to monitor milk yield and the hygienic and nutritional quality of milk of Saanen goats in the Moravian-Silesian region in Czech Republic. Milk samples were collected once a month during the lactation period. The average milk yield in the standardized lactation was 1,100 liters. The somatic cell count in pool samples ranged from 470 x 103 to 696 x 103. The total microorganism count ranged from 3.6 x 103 to 1.4 x 105. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus was proven no more than in 6.3%. The highest values of all main components of milk were achieved within a relatively short time after kidding (April 2015). The average content of fat was 3.64  0.52 g 100 ml-1, 3.17  0.16 g 100 ml-1 of protein, 2.60  0.06 g 100 ml-1 of casein, 4.56  0.24 g 100 ml-1 of lactose, and 12.02  0.80 g 100 ml-1 of solids. Average content of vitamin A was 0.27  0.14 mg kg-1 and average content of vitamin E was 0.60  0.34 mg kg-1. Content of vitamin E increased almost continuously during the lactation, and the content of vitamin A was significantly higher at the end of lactation. In lyophilized milk powder the average trace metal contents were 7.76  0.92 g kg-1 Ca, 1.62  0.26 g kg-1 Mg, 15.3  1.43 g kg-1 K, 789  111 mg kg-1 Na, 23.2  2.73 mg kg-1 Zn, and 0.85  0.55 mg kg-1 Cu. Contents of minerals varied during the lactation period, but no significant trends were observed.

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1112-1119 V. Tatar, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen
Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk
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Evaluation of size distribution of fat globules and fat and protein content in Estonian Goat milk

V. Tatar*, H. Mootse, A. Sats, T. Mahla, T. Kaart and V. Poikalainen

Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia, *Correspondence: vilma.tatar@emu.ee

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to investigate size distribution of fat globules, fat and protein content in Estonian goat milk. The bulk milk samples were collected from three different crossbreed goat herds. These herds consist of 30% of the Saanen breed and 70% did not belong to any certain breed. Lactation of goats was scattered over the year. Goat milk samples were examined weekly during a 10 month period. Fat and protein content in goat milk ranged from 3.09% to 5.04% and from 2.74% to 3.96% respectively. Fat content in cow milk ranged from 3.77% to 4.75% and protein content ranged from 3.14% to 3.75%. The average fat content in goat milk (3.88%) was less than the mean fat content in cow milk (4.0%). The average protein content in goat milk (3.41%) was higher than the mean protein content in cow milk (3.38%). Depending on the season, fat and protein content in goat milk varied by as much as 0.38% and 0.28% accordingly. The diameter of milk fat globules (MFG) was estimated using microscope Nikon SMZ 1000, equipped with the digital camera Nikon DS-U2/L2 USB and the software NIS-Elements D3.1. The average diameter of fat globules was 2.22 μm, ranging from 0.34 to 6.99 μm. The average size distribution of MFG had unimodal and slightly right skewed shape: 5.7% of globules were in range 0.5–1.0 μm, 15.9% in range 1.0–1.5 μm, 22.1% in range 1.5–2.0 μm, 21.0% in range 2.0–2.5, 16.1% in range 2.5–3.0 μm, 10.0% in range 3.0–3.5 μm, 4.3% in range 3.5–4.0 μm, 0.9% in range 4.5–5.0 μm.

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695-704 M. Ahokas,, A.-L. Välimaa, T. Lötjönen, A. Kankaala, S. Taskilaand E. Virtanen
Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia
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Resource assessment for potato biorefinery: Side stream potential in Northern Ostrobothnia

M. Ahokas¹,³⋅*, A.-L. Välimaa¹, T. Lötjönen², A. Kankaala¹, S. Taskila³and E. Virtanen¹

¹MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Biotechnology and Food Research, P.O. Box 413, FI90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland 2MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, Tutkimusasemantie 15, FI92440 Ruukki, Finland 3University of Oulu, Chemical Process Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FI90014 University of Oulu, Finland; *Correspondence: mikko.ahokas@oulu.fi

Abstract:

Potato industry side-streams consist of a significant amount of the original biomass. However, tightened demands of EU legislation together with the costs of side stream processing have forced potato industry towards more efficient use of the raw material. For this purpose, we have examined the possibility to recover main fractions from potato side streams, such as proteins, fibers and starch, and utilize them in a manner of biorefinery concept. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the potential for a potato biorefinery based on biomasses available at area of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. Study shows, that there is enough side-streams available to build a concept, which produces more value added products, like fibers and proteins. In this report, the main conclusions of the research are presented together with state-of-art on potato waste water processing technologies and current applications of their products.

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705-716 D. Baranenko, V. Kolodyaznaya and Y. Broyko
Effect of cold treatment on the amino acid composition of veal
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Effect of cold treatment on the amino acid composition of veal

D. Baranenko*, V. Kolodyaznaya and Y. Broyko

Institute of refrigeration and biotechnologies, ITMO University, 191002, Lomonosova Street 9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; *Correspondence: denis.baranenko@gmail.com

Abstract:

Veal is a promising raw material for use in the daily diet, as well as for production of functional and dietary foods. However the effect of cold treatment on the amino acid composition of veal has not been sufficiently studied. The aim of this study was the amino acid composition analysis of veal subjected to various variants of cold treatment. The selected material under research was muscle tissue of hip parts from calves, grown in the Leningrad Region, Russia and aged no more than 3 months. Cooling to 4 ± 1°C and rapid freezing to the temperature of minus 18°C at the cooling air temperatures of minus 24°C and minus 35°C were used as variants of cold treatment. Amino acid composition analyses were carried out using precolumn derivatization with phenylisothiocyanate and reversed-phase gradient HPLC on the Shimadzu 20-AD chromatograph with spectrophotometric detection at 254 nm. The results show the effect of cold treatment on the content of free amino acids and total amino acid composition of veal. In many respects changes in amino acid composition are concerned with moisture losses during the refrigerating treatment. The dependence between the change in amino acid content and the structure of its side chain group type is shown. Amino acid score for essential amino acids was calculated and conclusions about changes in biological value of veal protein were made. The obtained data can be used in biological value calculation of the multi-component products and food rations with veal subjected to refrigerating treatment.

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451-454 L. Narits
Effect of Top-fertilizing of Raw Protein and Glucosinolates Content of Winter Turnip Rape
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Effect of Top-fertilizing of Raw Protein and Glucosinolates Content of Winter Turnip Rape

L. Narits

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, J.Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia;
e-mail: Lea.Narits@jpbi.ee

Abstract:

Rapeseed is a major oil–yielding crop, ranking third place after soybeans and oil palm in the world. Rapeseed contains as average 36–38% crude protein and content of anti–nutritional compounds, among which glucosinolates have received the major attention. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the nitrogen rate and different application times to the crude protein and glucosinolate content of winter turnip rape. The trials were carried out at the Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in the 2007–08, 2008–09 and 2009–10 growing seasons. Ammonium sulfate (nitrogen content 21%, sulphur 24%) was used as top–fertilizer. Three different nitrogen rates, 120, 140 and 160 kg N ha−1 and three different application times were used: A) once at the beginning of spring growth (oilseed rape growing code 26), B) A + when the main stalk was 10 cm (code 33), C) B + start of flowering (code 60) (a total of nine different variants) in equal portions. The results indicate that the quantity of the fertilizer has not as strong an impact as application time on the glucosinolate content. The lowest glucosinolate content was obtained from the variant of one N application. The highest protein content was obtained from the variant of three times split-N.

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