Tag Archives: quality

xxx O. Zavadska, І. Bobos, I. Fedosiy, G. Podpryatov and J. Olt
Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids
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Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids

O. Zavadska¹, І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosiy¹, G. Podpryatov¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv,Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi Str., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper presents the results acquired from the study of eight carrot hybrids which are suitable for growing in the climatic zone of woodland steppes, while considering a set of economical and/or biological, biochemical, and organoleptic properties. The carrot hybrids that were studied have a wide range of variation in their economic value indicators, which makes it possible to grow them for storage and processing in various soils and climate conditions without irrigation. The most productive carrot hybrids are White Sabine F1 and Yellowstone F1 with a commercial yield of 55.8–58.7 t hа–1 and an average taproot weight of 118.7–136.2 g. The levels of preservation of the taproot of the hybrids White Sabine F1 and Purple Haze F1 after seven months of storage in conditions that involved the use of a stationary pit storage facility was at 81.4% and 80.2% respectively. The use of the taproots of the hybrids Yellowstone F1 and Viking F1 for drying ensures a yield of a high-quality, biologically-valuable finished product with a yield of 11.4–11.7%. Dry hybrid Evolyutsiya F1 and Mars F1 carrots contain more than 40 mg (100 g)–1 of β-carotene.

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529–542 R.R. Rodrigues, S.C. Pizetta, G.M. Pereira, M.E.P.C. Jaeggi, R.S. Rocha,, I.M. Pereira, D.P. Cruz, J.N. Batista, R.K.G. Silva, P.M. Bernardes, A.S. Fonseca, G.C. Entringer and G.A. Gravina
Potential for macro and micronutrients extraction from tomato plants with different soil water stresses
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Potential for macro and micronutrients extraction from tomato plants with different soil water stresses

R.R. Rodrigues¹, S.C. Pizetta¹, G.M. Pereira¹, M.E.P.C. Jaeggi², R.S. Rocha²,*, I.M. Pereira², D.P. Cruz², J.N. Batista², R.K.G. Silva², P.M. Bernardes³, A.S. Fonseca⁴, G.C. Entringer² and G.A. Gravina²

¹Federal University of Lavras (FULA). Aquenta Sol, Lavras - MG, 37200-000, Brazil
²State University of North Fluminense / Postgraduate Program in Plant production. Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000. Parque California, 28035-200, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
³Belo Monte Agricultural Family School, 29400-000, Mimoso do Sul – ES, Brazil
⁴Ibitirama family Agricola school, 29540-000, Ibitirama – ES, Brazil

Abstract:

Different tomato cultivars may present differentiated water needs, making it indispensable to study water demand. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of six water stresses in the soil on the extraction potential of macro and micronutrients in the aerial part of tomato in vegetative stage, cultivar  Dominador’ F1, under protected cultivation and drip. The  experiment was installed in a greenhouse with a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of six soil water stresses as indicative of the time of irrigation. The preset stresses were 20, 45, 70, 95, 120 and 145 kPa at 20 cm depth. At 140 days after transplanting, the variables evaluated were: the macro and micronutrient content of shoots. The results showed that to obtain higher levels of macro (P and S) and micronutrients (B and Cu) of the total aerial part of the ‘Dominador’ tomato plant F1, it was obtained at a voltage of 20 kPa, and its value was reduced linearly with the increase of the water tension in the soil.

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450–460 M. Khajbullin, G. Kadaeva, B. Akhiyarov, A. Valitov and R. Gajfullin
The quality of spring rape seeds and its dependence on the doses of mineral fertilizers under the conditions of Southern Urals
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The quality of spring rape seeds and its dependence on the doses of mineral fertilizers under the conditions of Southern Urals

M. Khajbullin¹*, G. Kadaeva², B. Akhiyarov², A. Valitov³ and R. Gajfullin⁴

¹Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Soil science, botany and plant breeding, 50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
²Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Crop production, plant breeding and biotechnology, 50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
³Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Plant growing and agriculture,50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, 450001, Ufa, Russia
⁴Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Crop production and agriculture,50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
*Correspondence: khaibullinmuhamet@rambler.ru

Abstract:

Spring rape is a high-marginal crop that can be used in different areas of the national economy. Despite this, the area used for sowing this crop in the Russian Federation is still small, and the quality of its seeds does not always meet the standards. The purpose of the research is to identify the most effective doses of mineral fertilizers that allow obtaining the planned harvest of high-quality spring rape seeds in the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The paper presents the results of triennial field researches (2016–2018) on the effect of mineral fertilizers on some indicators of the quality of spring rape seeds of the Iubileynyi variety. The research was carried out in the educational and scientific center of Bashkir State Agrarian University (Ufa, the Russian Federation) on leached black soils of heavy loam granulometric composition. The positive effect of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on the object of interest was evident. Fertilization increased the spring rape yield capacity and its oil content by 0.34–0.51 t ha-1 and 0.1–1.8%, respectively. The yield of oil per hectare also increased. The use of fertilizers increased the content of nitrogen and potassium, averaging over three years 3.32–3.36% and 1.00–1.03%, respectively. The use of fertilizers did not significantly effect the content of phosphorus. The content of phosphorus did not exceed 1.74–1.79%. Crude protein content was 19.4–19.6% for researched period.

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742-754 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, Z. Ruzhylo, I. Fedosiy, J. Nowak and J. Olt
Theoretical study on motion of potato tuber on surface of separator
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Theoretical study on motion of potato tuber on surface of separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, Z. Ruzhylo¹, I. Fedosiy¹, J. Nowak² and J. Olt³

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv, UA03041, Ukraine
²University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 13 Akademicka Str., 20-950 Lublin, Poland
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the separator that cleans potatoes from impurities and has a design of the spiral type. The authors have devised a highly efficient design of the spiral type potato heap separator, in which the motion of the potato tubers takes place in the channel formed by two spiral members made in the form of cylindrical spiral springs. In order to substantiate the optimal kinematic and design parameters of the new spiral type potato heap separator, the authors have generated a mathematical model of the motion of a single potato tuber on the cleaning surface formed by two spirals. As a result of solving the obtained analytical expressions, the graphical relations between the parameters of the investigated process of the motion of a single potato tuber body situated between two adjacent spirals have been plotted, which has enabled selecting the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the spiral separator. It has been established in the completed investigation that the angular velocity of rotation of the cleaning rolls has to be within the range of 27-40 rad s-1 in order to ensure the efficient transportation and cleaning of the potato tuber with a diameter of 50 mm that moves on the surface of the spiral with a radius of 75 mm wound from the round bar with a diameter of 15 mm, in case the spirals are mounted with an eccentricity of 10 mm. By analysing the kinematics of motion of the potato tuber on the surface of the spiral type cleaning machine, in case the tuber contacts the spirals at two points, it has been established that the increase of the angular velocity of rotation of the spirals results in the respective growth of the transportation capacity of the cleaning tool, while the separating efficiency at the same time becomes reduced to some extent.

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1640–1648 O. Chernikova, I. Pityurina, A. Terentyev and E. Rakhmaev
Analysis of safety indicators for poultry products produced in subsidiary farms in penitentiary facilities
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Analysis of safety indicators for poultry products produced in subsidiary farms in penitentiary facilities

O. Chernikova*, I. Pityurina, A. Terentyev and E. Rakhmaev

Academy of law management of the federal penal service of Russia, 1 Sennaya street, RU390036 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: chernikova_olga@inbox.ru

Abstract:

The production of poultry, eggs and their processed products is growing rapidly worldwide. Poultry products are in great demand; however, they are a source of a number of risks: physical, chemical, as well as microbiological. Ensuring food safety is currently the main aspect for the global food industry, including for the production of poultry products. The article discusses the safety and quality of poultry products produced in subsidiary farms of correctional facilities of the penal system. Attention is drawn to the risks and threats of sanitary and epidemiological well-being that arise in connection with the intensification of the impact of negative environmental factors. In the subsidiary farms of correctional facilities, the cage-type bird keeping system and the frequency of feeding are regulated depending on the age of the bird. The results of the analysis have shown that poultry and chicken eggs comply with established sanitary standards. Thus, the average heavy metal content in poultry meat was: Hg – 0.0061 mg kg-1, Cd – 0.0233 mg kg-1, As – 0.0501 mg kg-1, Pb – 0.1765 mg kg-1; in the egg: Hg – 0.0072 mg kg-1, Cd – 0.0198 mg kg-1, As – 0.0485 mg kg-1, Pb – 0.1812 mg kg-1. Antibiotics, radionuclides and dioxins were not found in poultry meat. The pesticide content in poultry meat was below the permissible level: by 2.2 times of DTM and its metabolites, and hexachlorocyclohexane (a, b, g – isomers) – by 5 times. Coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus, as well as pathogenic salmonella, listeria were not found in poultry meat and eggs. NMAFAnM in meat amounted to 0.5×104, in the egg – 1×103 CFU g-1 incl. In general, poultry products produced in correctional facilities are of high enough quality and can be used to prepare various dishes not only for adults but also for baby food. These estimates allow us to conclude about a fairly high level of quality and safety of this product.

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393–403 D. Derevjanko, I. Holovach, V. Bulgakov, V. Kuvachev and, J. Olt
Theoretical and experimental research into impact of threshing tools in combine grain harvesters on quality of cereal crop seeds
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Theoretical and experimental research into impact of threshing tools in combine grain harvesters on quality of cereal crop seeds

D. Derevjanko¹, I. Holovach², V. Bulgakov², V. Kuvachev³ and, J. Olt⁴*

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, 7, Staryi Blvd, UA 10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony street, UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE 51006 Tartu, , Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The theoretical and experimental research into the micro-damaging of cereal crop seeds in the process of their harvesting by combine grain harvesters in relation to the strains, forces and stresses imparted to them by the threshing tools has been carried out. The propagation of deformations and cracks in the seeds as well as the nature of their strength and the damage that is sustained, when the critical load is applied, have been investigated. It has been established that the onset of cracks, the direction of their propagation and their quantity in the bodies of grain seeds depends in the majority of cases on the direction of action of the external forces and the specifics of the seeds’ internal biological properties. It has been established that the strength of the grain seed is, apart from the arisen cracks, also under the significant effect of the microtraumas in the germ, endosperm as well as the seed coat and shell. Theoretical calculations have been carried out on the PC and the effect that the drum and rotor threshing apparatus have on the deformation and damage sustained by cereal crop seeds has been substantiated. The said calculations and the obtained graphic relations support the results of the experimental investigations and prove that the macro- and especially micro-damage sustained by the seeds of winter wheat and rye is different, when they are threshed with the use of different types of threshing apparatus, which has a considerable impact on the final quality of the harvested cereal crop seeds. The results obtained in the experimental investigations, field and laboratory tests on the topic of the effect of mechanical loading on the sustained damage and quality of seeds indicate that the damage rate accounted for the work processes of the reaping and postharvest treatment of the cereal crop heaps of different winter wheat varieties with the use of rotor threshing apparatus is 3.1% as compared to the drum threshing apparatus – 6.4%, that is, 2 times lower. The total amount of the seeds with microtraumas collected in the hopper after threshing amounts to 23.0% and 54.0%, respectively, which is a significant difference. Similar results have been obtained in the experimental investigations on the effect of the equipment on the sustained damage and quality of seeds in the cleaning, chemical treatment and sowing of cereal crops.

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360-375 V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, S. Kiurchev, S. Pascuzzi, M. Arak, F. Santoro, A.S. Anifantis and J. Olt
The theory of vibrational wave movement in drying grain mixture
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The theory of vibrational wave movement in drying grain mixture

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, S. Kiurchev², S. Pascuzzi³, M. Arak⁴, F. Santoro³, A.S. Anifantis³ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv UA 03041, Ukraine
²Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT70125 Bari, Italy
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper outlines a theory that involves the vibrational wave transportation of bulk grain during the course of passing that grain under an infrared radiation source, in a working thermal radiation drying chamber, and using a vibrational wave transporter belt that has been developed by the authors of this paper. The main outstanding feature of the proposed design is the presence of mechanical off-centre vibration drives which generate the vibration in the working rollers at a preset amplitude and frequency, thereby generating a mechanical wave on the surface of the flexible transporter belt which ensures the movement of bulk grain along the processing zone which itself is being subjected to infrared radiation. A calculation method was developed for the oscillation system that is used in conjunction with the vibrational transportation of the grain mass, in order to be able to determine the forces that may be present in the vibrational system and to prepare the differential calculations for the movement of the vibrational drive’s actuators, utilising for this purpose Type II Lagrange equations. The solving of the aforementioned integral equations on a PC yielded a number of graphical dependencies in terms of kinetic and dynamic parameters for the vibrational system described above; the analysis of those dependencies provided a rational structural, along with kinetic and dynamic indicators. According to the results that were taken from theoretical and experimental studies on the functioning of the developed infrared grain dryer combined with a vibrational exciter, stable movement for its working roller takes place if the angular velocity of a drive shaft is changed within the range of between 50–80 rads–1, whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. It has been discovered that a rational speed when transporting soy seeds during infrared drying falls between the range of between 0.15–0.60 cm s-1, whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. An increase of this parameter within the stated limits increases the time that it takes to achieve the stage in which a constant drying soy speed is reached by more than 2.5 times (from 205 seconds to 520 seconds), stabilising the figure at a level of 520 seconds, which makes it possible to recommend a range of transport speeds of between 0.15–0.40 cm s–1 under infrared radiation for the seeds in order to achieve the required moisture content with a single pass of the produce on the wave transporter.
With that in mind, the power consumption levels for the vibrational exciter do not exceed 50W, while the angular velocity of the drive shaft’s rotation falls within the range of between 100–120 rads–1. The results of the experimental study that has been conducted indicated that a rational transportation speed for the soy seeds on the wave transporter under infrared radiation is between 0.15–0.40 cm s–1.

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1689–1699 M. Ibrahim, N. Barakova and I. Jõudu
Enrichment of the low-fat yoghurt with oat β-glucan and EPS-producing Bifidobacterium bifidum improves its quality
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Enrichment of the low-fat yoghurt with oat β-glucan and EPS-producing Bifidobacterium bifidum improves its quality

M. Ibrahim¹²*, N. Barakova¹ and I. Jõudu²³

¹ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnology and Engineering, Department of Food Biotechnology (Vegetable stock), Lomonosova 9, RU191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Chair of Food Science and Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56/5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, ERA Chair for Food (By-) Products Valorisation Technologies of the Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56/5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: monikanbil@yahoo.com, monica.nabil@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

The addition of β-glucan or EPS-producing bacteria is mainly used to improve the quality and the acceptability of low-fat yoghurt. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adding β-glucan, EPS-producing Bifidobacterium bifidum, or both on physical properties, fermentation time, and organoleptic criteria of low-fat yoghurt, additionally to the viability of L. bulgaricus and B. bifidum. Two types of low-fat yoghurt (1.5% fat) were prepared, with the addition of standard oat β-glucan by 0.15% or without its addition. Each type of yoghurt mixture was inoculated with two kinds of starters: traditional and probiotic (B. bifidum) culture. The physicochemical properties, the count of viable bacterial starter culture, and the organoleptic evaluation for all yoghurt types were evaluated after storage 24 h at 4 °C. Moreover, the fermentation time was monitored. The incorporation of both β-glucan and EPS in yoghurt resulted in the highest viscosity (13.7 mPa.s) and WHC (55.94%), besides to the lowest syneresis (28.47%). The acidity and pH of the yoghurt samples were significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the β-glucan addition. The yoghurt type Bifidobacterium glucan had the shortest fermentation time (215 min), and the maximum viability of both B. bifidum (7.63 Log CFU g-1) and L. bulgaricus (7.50 Log CFU g-1). The β-glucan had a pronounced effect on the overall acceptability of yoghurt more than the EPS. In conclusion, enriching the low-fat yoghurt with oat β-glucan and EPS-producing B. bifidum is the highest effective method for improving the yoghurt’s quality and the viability of probiotics.

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1969–1983 E. Merisalu J. Leppälä, M. Jakob and R.H. Rautiainen
Variation in Eurostat and national statistics of accidents in agriculture
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Variation in Eurostat and national statistics of accidents in agriculture

E. Merisalu¹* J. Leppälä², M. Jakob³ and R.H. Rautiainen²⁴

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56/1, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki
³Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE14469 Potsdam, Germany
⁴University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, US68198-4388, USA
*Correspondence: eda.merisalu@emu.ee

Abstract:

Agriculture is known as a hazardous industry worldwide, although there are great challenges in enumerating the size of the workforce and numbers of accidents at work. The aim of the study was to characterize variation in agricultural accident statistics in European countries and opportunities to improve collection and reporting of accident data in agriculture on the national and European levels. This study explored the incidence of fatal (FA) and non-fatal work accidents (NFA) in agriculture (excluding forestry and fishing) in selected European countries, using Eurostat and national sources in 2013. Eurostat reported highest NFA rates (per 100,000 workers) in Finland (5331) and lowest in Greece (5). The highest FA rate was reported in Malta (51), while zero fatalities were reported in Estonia, Greece, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Sweden and Iceland. Eurostat and national statistics differed in many cases. Some variations were observed in European and national statistics. Germany reported 89 fatalities (rate 2.3/100,000) in Eurostat and 160 (rate 16.3/100,000) in national sources. Poland, with a similar land area and five times more farms and workers as Germany, reported only 4 fatalities in agriculture in Eurostat. The Estonian Labour Inspectorate (2013) registered 785 NFAs per 100,000 agricultural workers, while the rate in Eurostat was more than twice as high (1914/100,000). Finland and Sweden with similar agricultural structures had a ten-fold difference in NFA rates in Eurostat; Finland 5,331 and Sweden 554 per 100,000 workers. These examples illustrate the large variation in agricultural accident statistics due to: a) farm structure, b) use of reference populations, c) under-reporting, d) different inclusion/exclusion criteria and e) interpretation by users. Some inconsistencies are structural due to lacking social insurance schemes for farmers, family labour and undocumented workers. Some inconsistencies could be addressed by better implementation of ESAW harmonizing rules. Alternative methods, such as standardized surveys, could be considered to augment Eurostat statistics.

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1388-1395 T. Kince, E. Straumite, D. Klava, Z. Kruma, K. Abelniece and A. Balgalve
Effects of processing conditions on physical parameters of triticale flakes
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Effects of processing conditions on physical parameters of triticale flakes

T. Kince¹, E. Straumite¹*, D. Klava¹, Z. Kruma¹, K. Abelniece² and A. Balgalve²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Rigas iela 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
²Ltd Felici, Rigas gatve 8, LV-2164 Adazi, Adazu novads, Latvia
*Correspondence: evita.straumite@llu.lv

Abstract:

Consumer interest in breakfast cereal flakes has increased during the last few years. Various technologies, used to produce flakes, significantly influence their quality parameters and shelf-life stability. The main purpose of the present research was to investigate how different processing methods affect the physical parameters of triticale flakes. For obtaining the flakes, cleaned whole triticale grains were treated using the following technologies: dry processing (hot air), steam processing and soaking with subsequent steaming. For preparing the flakes different kilning methods and traditional flaking rolls were used. Traditionally made rolled and dried whole grain triticale flakes were analysed as a control sample. Using standard methods, the flakes’ moisture content, water activity, microstructure, swelling capacity and colour changes were analysed. The gap settings of flake rollers do not influence significantly (P < 0.05) changes of starch during processing. However, the starch granules were fully transformed into sugars in the flake samples with greater thickness. Non-significant (P < 0.05) steaming and hot air drying (toasting) conditions’ effects were observed on the changes of the starch granules during processing. Strong correlation was determined during the analysis of water activity and moisture content. The moisture content of the ready- to-eat flakes varied from 2.54% to 10.66%, and the water activity value was from 0.108 to 0.494. Compared with traditionally processed flakes (control sample) the colour of the flakes prepared using other technologies changed significantly, the ΔE values varied from 9.587 to 18.554. The colour of the soaked-steamed-rolled-hot air dried samples was similar but those significantly differed from the colour of soaked-dried-rolled-hot air dried flake samples. The soaked-dried-rolled-hot air dried flakes were darker compared with other analysed flake samples.

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