Tag Archives: quality

xxx O. Zavadska, І. Bobos, I. Fedosiy, H. Podpriatov, O. Komar, B. Mazur and J. Olt
Suitability of various onion (allium cepa) varieties for drying and long-term storage
Abstract |
Full text PDF (717 KB)

Suitability of various onion (allium cepa) varieties for drying and long-term storage

O. Zavadska¹, І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosiy¹, H. Podpriatov¹, O. Komar¹, B. Mazur¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

In the paper, the results are presented obtained in the research into the fresh bulbs and the dried products of 9 onion varieties cultivated in the conditions of the Ukrainian Forest Steppe area with regard to their economical biology, biochemical, marketability and organoleptic indices. The varieties that are most suitable for convection drying and long-term storage have been identified. It has been established that the marketability of both the fresh bulbs and dried products depends on the masses of the bulbs. The Bronze d’Amposta and Harmony varieties deliver the greatest amount of marketable output (94.0 and 93.2%) featuring marketable bulbs with masses of 67.4 g and 70.4 g, respectively (r = 0.82). As the bulb mass increases, the amount of non-standard (r = 0.81) and small (r = 0.76) particles in the dried product decreases substantially. It has been found that the content of solid matter and sugars in fresh bulbs has effect on the yield and quality of the dried and reconstituted products. The Harmony and Skvirskaya varieties, the bulbs of which during the vegetation season build up 12.9% and 13.8% of solid matter, respectively, are distinguished by the highest dry product yield – 17.1 and 16.8%, respectively. Correlation has been established between the contents of solid matter and sugars in fresh bulbs (r = + 0.58). During the tasting of reconstituted onion products, the highest scores were awarded to the samples produced from the Skvirskaya and Harmony varieties – 7.0 points each on the 9-point scale, as their bulbs had accumulated over 7.0% of sugars (total). Judging by the aggregate of the researched indices, the Harmony and Skvirskaya varieties of onions are the most suitable for convection drying. It has been established that the preservation of onions in the conditions of stationary buried storage without artificial cooling depends on the duration of storage and the specific varietal features. Within the five months of the test storage, the preservation of bulbs of all the varieties was high and varied within the range of 80–93%. Longer storage is expedient only in case of the Harmony, Skvirskaya and Gospodinya, for which the bulb preservation rates for a seven month storage period has been shown to be equal to 90.2, 88.4 and 87.2%, respectively. It has been proved that the quantity of healthy bulbs depends to a significant extent on the solid matter content in the bulbs (r = 0.93).

Key words:

, , , , , , ,




357-368 T. Balabanova and M. Ivanova
Relationship between somatic cell count in goat milk and mature Kashkaval cheese parameters
Abstract |
Full text PDF (745 KB)

Relationship between somatic cell count in goat milk and mature Kashkaval cheese parameters

T. Balabanova and M. Ivanova*

University of Food Technologies, Technological Faculty, Department of Milk and Dairy Products, 26, Maritsa Blvd., BG4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
*Correspondence: mihaela_18bg@abv.bg

Abstract:

It is challenging to ensure Kashkaval cheese consistent quality during the production process which is directly correlated to the somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial presence. This is one of the most popular and widely discussed topic areas in the dairy industry. SCC is used to limit the inflammatory process and to predict the health status of the animal’s mammary glands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of mature Kashkaval cheese was produced from goat milk with different SCC (below 1,200 thous cells mL-1 – group I (low), above 1,750 thous cells mL-1 – group II (high) and up to 1,600 thous cells mL-1 – group III (medium)) and samples were evaluated on the 1st and 60th day of ripening by chemical, microbiological and sensory profile. The results showed a significant relation (P < 0.05) between the levels of SCC and Kashkaval cheese water content during ripening. For all analysed samples, the total lactic acid bacterial count was the highest between the 15th and 45th day of ripening and reached values up to 6.0 log cfu g-1. Pathogenic microorganisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Coagulase-positive staphylococci) and coliforms were not detected. The highest number of psychrotrophic microorganisms was observed in Kashkaval samples with high SCC. The sensory evaluation revealed a higher score for cheese samples with low and medium SCC in comparison to the cheese sample with a high SCC.

Key words:

, , , , ,




2353–2364 M. Corneanu, E. Iurea and S. Sîrbu
Biological properties and fruit quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars from Romanian assortment
Abstract |
Full text PDF (645 KB)

Biological properties and fruit quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars from Romanian assortment

M. Corneanu, E. Iurea* and S. Sîrbu

Research Station for Fruit Growing, 175 Voineşti Str., RO707305 Iaşi, Romania
*Correspondence: iurea_elena@yahoo.com

Abstract:

The paper presents a 4-year study of the valuable characteristics in 15 autochthonous and cosmopolitan sweet cherry cultivars grown in northeastern Romania, named Moldavia area. Tree’s vigour, resistance to frost and anthracnosis, the fructification phenophases, epidermis colour, organoleptic and quality traits of fruits and also fruit’s and stone’s size were evaluated. Weak tree vigour was find at ‘Tereza’, ‘Ştefan’ and ‘Golia’ cultivars. From end of flowering to harvesting time were determined 39–40 days for the early cultivars (‘Scorospelka’, ‘Cătălina’), while for the late cultivars as ‘Marina’ and ‘George’ were identified 71–83 days. Eight cultivars have presented fruits’ resistance to cracking with low values between 1.3–9.3% fruits cracked. Fruit’s weight have varied between 5.9 g (‘Scorospelka’) and 9.2 g (‘Andreiaş’), while fruit’s equatorial diameter have varied between 22.4 mm (‘George’) and 25.8 mm (‘Paulică’). The cultivars with the largest fruit’s size were ‘Andreiaş’, ‘Bucium’, ‘Ştefan’, ‘Paulică’, ‘Golia’, ‘Van’ and ‘Stella’. The values of the soluble solids content range between 14.4°Brix (‘Scorospelka’) to 20.0°Brix (‘Bucium’), the titratable acidity has been between 0.39 (‘Andreiaş’) and 0.87 (‘Cătălina’) mg malic acid 100-1 mL juice and the total content of polyphenols has recorded values between 314.93–584.95 mg GAE 100-1 mL of fruit juice. The studied sweet cherry cultivars showed high variability but some got remarked through earliness, low vigour of the tree, large fruit’s size or fruit’s resistance to cracking.

Key words:

, , , , ,




2271-2284 O. Zavadska, І. Bobos, I. Fedosiy, G. Podpryatov and J. Olt
Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids
Abstract |
Full text PDF (841 KB)

Studying the storage and processing quality of the carrot taproots (Daucus carota) of various hybrids

O. Zavadska¹, І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosiy¹, G. Podpryatov¹ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv,Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi Str., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper presents the results acquired from the study of eight carrot hybrids which are suitable for growing in the climatic zone of woodland steppes, while considering a set of economical and/or biological, biochemical, and organoleptic properties. The carrot hybrids that were studied have a wide range of variation in their economic value indicators, which makes it possible to grow them for storage and processing in various soils and climate conditions without irrigation. The most productive carrot hybrids are White Sabine F1 and Yellowstone F1 with a commercial yield of 55.8–58.7 t hа–1 and an average taproot weight of 118.7–136.2 g. The levels of preservation of the taproot of the hybrids White Sabine F1 and Purple Haze F1 after seven months of storage in conditions that involved the use of a stationary pit storage facility was at 81.4% and 80.2% respectively. The use of the taproots of the hybrids Yellowstone F1 and Viking F1 for drying ensures a yield of a high-quality, biologically-valuable finished product with a yield of 11.4–11.7%. Dry hybrid Evolyutsiya F1 and Mars F1 carrots contain more than 40 mg (100 g)–1 of β-carotene.

Key words:

, , , , ,




529–542 R.R. Rodrigues, S.C. Pizetta, G.M. Pereira, M.E.P.C. Jaeggi, R.S. Rocha,, I.M. Pereira, D.P. Cruz, J.N. Batista, R.K.G. Silva, P.M. Bernardes, A.S. Fonseca, G.C. Entringer and G.A. Gravina
Potential for macro and micronutrients extraction from tomato plants with different soil water stresses
Abstract |
Full text PDF (473 KB)

Potential for macro and micronutrients extraction from tomato plants with different soil water stresses

R.R. Rodrigues¹, S.C. Pizetta¹, G.M. Pereira¹, M.E.P.C. Jaeggi², R.S. Rocha²,*, I.M. Pereira², D.P. Cruz², J.N. Batista², R.K.G. Silva², P.M. Bernardes³, A.S. Fonseca⁴, G.C. Entringer² and G.A. Gravina²

¹Federal University of Lavras (FULA). Aquenta Sol, Lavras - MG, 37200-000, Brazil
²State University of North Fluminense / Postgraduate Program in Plant production. Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000. Parque California, 28035-200, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
³Belo Monte Agricultural Family School, 29400-000, Mimoso do Sul – ES, Brazil
⁴Ibitirama family Agricola school, 29540-000, Ibitirama – ES, Brazil

Abstract:

Different tomato cultivars may present differentiated water needs, making it indispensable to study water demand. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of six water stresses in the soil on the extraction potential of macro and micronutrients in the aerial part of tomato in vegetative stage, cultivar  Dominador’ F1, under protected cultivation and drip. The  experiment was installed in a greenhouse with a randomized block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of six soil water stresses as indicative of the time of irrigation. The preset stresses were 20, 45, 70, 95, 120 and 145 kPa at 20 cm depth. At 140 days after transplanting, the variables evaluated were: the macro and micronutrient content of shoots. The results showed that to obtain higher levels of macro (P and S) and micronutrients (B and Cu) of the total aerial part of the ‘Dominador’ tomato plant F1, it was obtained at a voltage of 20 kPa, and its value was reduced linearly with the increase of the water tension in the soil.

Key words:

, ,




450–460 M. Khajbullin, G. Kadaeva, B. Akhiyarov, A. Valitov and R. Gajfullin
The quality of spring rape seeds and its dependence on the doses of mineral fertilizers under the conditions of Southern Urals
Abstract |
Full text PDF (287 KB)

The quality of spring rape seeds and its dependence on the doses of mineral fertilizers under the conditions of Southern Urals

M. Khajbullin¹*, G. Kadaeva², B. Akhiyarov², A. Valitov³ and R. Gajfullin⁴

¹Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Soil science, botany and plant breeding, 50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
²Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Crop production, plant breeding and biotechnology, 50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
³Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Plant growing and agriculture,50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, 450001, Ufa, Russia
⁴Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Crop production and agriculture,50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
*Correspondence: khaibullinmuhamet@rambler.ru

Abstract:

Spring rape is a high-marginal crop that can be used in different areas of the national economy. Despite this, the area used for sowing this crop in the Russian Federation is still small, and the quality of its seeds does not always meet the standards. The purpose of the research is to identify the most effective doses of mineral fertilizers that allow obtaining the planned harvest of high-quality spring rape seeds in the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The paper presents the results of triennial field researches (2016–2018) on the effect of mineral fertilizers on some indicators of the quality of spring rape seeds of the Iubileynyi variety. The research was carried out in the educational and scientific center of Bashkir State Agrarian University (Ufa, the Russian Federation) on leached black soils of heavy loam granulometric composition. The positive effect of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on the object of interest was evident. Fertilization increased the spring rape yield capacity and its oil content by 0.34–0.51 t ha-1 and 0.1–1.8%, respectively. The yield of oil per hectare also increased. The use of fertilizers increased the content of nitrogen and potassium, averaging over three years 3.32–3.36% and 1.00–1.03%, respectively. The use of fertilizers did not significantly effect the content of phosphorus. The content of phosphorus did not exceed 1.74–1.79%. Crude protein content was 19.4–19.6% for researched period.

Key words:

, , , ,




742-754 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, Z. Ruzhylo, I. Fedosiy, J. Nowak and J. Olt
Theoretical study on motion of potato tuber on surface of separator
Abstract |

Theoretical study on motion of potato tuber on surface of separator

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, Z. Ruzhylo¹, I. Fedosiy¹, J. Nowak² and J. Olt³

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv, UA03041, Ukraine
²University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 13 Akademicka Str., 20-950 Lublin, Poland
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to determine the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the separator that cleans potatoes from impurities and has a design of the spiral type. The authors have devised a highly efficient design of the spiral type potato heap separator, in which the motion of the potato tubers takes place in the channel formed by two spiral members made in the form of cylindrical spiral springs. In order to substantiate the optimal kinematic and design parameters of the new spiral type potato heap separator, the authors have generated a mathematical model of the motion of a single potato tuber on the cleaning surface formed by two spirals. As a result of solving the obtained analytical expressions, the graphical relations between the parameters of the investigated process of the motion of a single potato tuber body situated between two adjacent spirals have been plotted, which has enabled selecting the optimal design and kinematic parameters of the spiral separator. It has been established in the completed investigation that the angular velocity of rotation of the cleaning rolls has to be within the range of 27-40 rad s-1 in order to ensure the efficient transportation and cleaning of the potato tuber with a diameter of 50 mm that moves on the surface of the spiral with a radius of 75 mm wound from the round bar with a diameter of 15 mm, in case the spirals are mounted with an eccentricity of 10 mm. By analysing the kinematics of motion of the potato tuber on the surface of the spiral type cleaning machine, in case the tuber contacts the spirals at two points, it has been established that the increase of the angular velocity of rotation of the spirals results in the respective growth of the transportation capacity of the cleaning tool, while the separating efficiency at the same time becomes reduced to some extent.

Key words:

, , , , , ,




1640–1648 O. Chernikova, I. Pityurina, A. Terentyev and E. Rakhmaev
Analysis of safety indicators for poultry products produced in subsidiary farms in penitentiary facilities
Abstract |
Full text PDF (201 KB)

Analysis of safety indicators for poultry products produced in subsidiary farms in penitentiary facilities

O. Chernikova*, I. Pityurina, A. Terentyev and E. Rakhmaev

Academy of law management of the federal penal service of Russia, 1 Sennaya street, RU390036 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: chernikova_olga@inbox.ru

Abstract:

The production of poultry, eggs and their processed products is growing rapidly worldwide. Poultry products are in great demand; however, they are a source of a number of risks: physical, chemical, as well as microbiological. Ensuring food safety is currently the main aspect for the global food industry, including for the production of poultry products. The article discusses the safety and quality of poultry products produced in subsidiary farms of correctional facilities of the penal system. Attention is drawn to the risks and threats of sanitary and epidemiological well-being that arise in connection with the intensification of the impact of negative environmental factors. In the subsidiary farms of correctional facilities, the cage-type bird keeping system and the frequency of feeding are regulated depending on the age of the bird. The results of the analysis have shown that poultry and chicken eggs comply with established sanitary standards. Thus, the average heavy metal content in poultry meat was: Hg – 0.0061 mg kg-1, Cd – 0.0233 mg kg-1, As – 0.0501 mg kg-1, Pb – 0.1765 mg kg-1; in the egg: Hg – 0.0072 mg kg-1, Cd – 0.0198 mg kg-1, As – 0.0485 mg kg-1, Pb – 0.1812 mg kg-1. Antibiotics, radionuclides and dioxins were not found in poultry meat. The pesticide content in poultry meat was below the permissible level: by 2.2 times of DTM and its metabolites, and hexachlorocyclohexane (a, b, g – isomers) – by 5 times. Coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus, as well as pathogenic salmonella, listeria were not found in poultry meat and eggs. NMAFAnM in meat amounted to 0.5×104, in the egg – 1×103 CFU g-1 incl. In general, poultry products produced in correctional facilities are of high enough quality and can be used to prepare various dishes not only for adults but also for baby food. These estimates allow us to conclude about a fairly high level of quality and safety of this product.

Key words:

, , , ,




393–403 D. Derevjanko, I. Holovach, V. Bulgakov, V. Kuvachev and, J. Olt
Theoretical and experimental research into impact of threshing tools in combine grain harvesters on quality of cereal crop seeds
Abstract |
Full text PDF (474 KB)

Theoretical and experimental research into impact of threshing tools in combine grain harvesters on quality of cereal crop seeds

D. Derevjanko¹, I. Holovach², V. Bulgakov², V. Kuvachev³ and, J. Olt⁴*

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, 7, Staryi Blvd, UA 10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony street, UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE 51006 Tartu, , Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The theoretical and experimental research into the micro-damaging of cereal crop seeds in the process of their harvesting by combine grain harvesters in relation to the strains, forces and stresses imparted to them by the threshing tools has been carried out. The propagation of deformations and cracks in the seeds as well as the nature of their strength and the damage that is sustained, when the critical load is applied, have been investigated. It has been established that the onset of cracks, the direction of their propagation and their quantity in the bodies of grain seeds depends in the majority of cases on the direction of action of the external forces and the specifics of the seeds’ internal biological properties. It has been established that the strength of the grain seed is, apart from the arisen cracks, also under the significant effect of the microtraumas in the germ, endosperm as well as the seed coat and shell. Theoretical calculations have been carried out on the PC and the effect that the drum and rotor threshing apparatus have on the deformation and damage sustained by cereal crop seeds has been substantiated. The said calculations and the obtained graphic relations support the results of the experimental investigations and prove that the macro- and especially micro-damage sustained by the seeds of winter wheat and rye is different, when they are threshed with the use of different types of threshing apparatus, which has a considerable impact on the final quality of the harvested cereal crop seeds. The results obtained in the experimental investigations, field and laboratory tests on the topic of the effect of mechanical loading on the sustained damage and quality of seeds indicate that the damage rate accounted for the work processes of the reaping and postharvest treatment of the cereal crop heaps of different winter wheat varieties with the use of rotor threshing apparatus is 3.1% as compared to the drum threshing apparatus – 6.4%, that is, 2 times lower. The total amount of the seeds with microtraumas collected in the hopper after threshing amounts to 23.0% and 54.0%, respectively, which is a significant difference. Similar results have been obtained in the experimental investigations on the effect of the equipment on the sustained damage and quality of seeds in the cleaning, chemical treatment and sowing of cereal crops.

Key words:

, , , , , ,




360-375 V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, S. Kiurchev, S. Pascuzzi, M. Arak, F. Santoro, A.S. Anifantis and J. Olt
The theory of vibrational wave movement in drying grain mixture
Abstract |

The theory of vibrational wave movement in drying grain mixture

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, S. Kiurchev², S. Pascuzzi³, M. Arak⁴, F. Santoro³, A.S. Anifantis³ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv UA 03041, Ukraine
²Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT70125 Bari, Italy
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper outlines a theory that involves the vibrational wave transportation of bulk grain during the course of passing that grain under an infrared radiation source, in a working thermal radiation drying chamber, and using a vibrational wave transporter belt that has been developed by the authors of this paper. The main outstanding feature of the proposed design is the presence of mechanical off-centre vibration drives which generate the vibration in the working rollers at a preset amplitude and frequency, thereby generating a mechanical wave on the surface of the flexible transporter belt which ensures the movement of bulk grain along the processing zone which itself is being subjected to infrared radiation. A calculation method was developed for the oscillation system that is used in conjunction with the vibrational transportation of the grain mass, in order to be able to determine the forces that may be present in the vibrational system and to prepare the differential calculations for the movement of the vibrational drive’s actuators, utilising for this purpose Type II Lagrange equations. The solving of the aforementioned integral equations on a PC yielded a number of graphical dependencies in terms of kinetic and dynamic parameters for the vibrational system described above; the analysis of those dependencies provided a rational structural, along with kinetic and dynamic indicators. According to the results that were taken from theoretical and experimental studies on the functioning of the developed infrared grain dryer combined with a vibrational exciter, stable movement for its working roller takes place if the angular velocity of a drive shaft is changed within the range of between 50–80 rads–1, whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. It has been discovered that a rational speed when transporting soy seeds during infrared drying falls between the range of between 0.15–0.60 cm s-1, whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. An increase of this parameter within the stated limits increases the time that it takes to achieve the stage in which a constant drying soy speed is reached by more than 2.5 times (from 205 seconds to 520 seconds), stabilising the figure at a level of 520 seconds, which makes it possible to recommend a range of transport speeds of between 0.15–0.40 cm s–1 under infrared radiation for the seeds in order to achieve the required moisture content with a single pass of the produce on the wave transporter.
With that in mind, the power consumption levels for the vibrational exciter do not exceed 50W, while the angular velocity of the drive shaft’s rotation falls within the range of between 100–120 rads–1. The results of the experimental study that has been conducted indicated that a rational transportation speed for the soy seeds on the wave transporter under infrared radiation is between 0.15–0.40 cm s–1.

Key words:

, , , , ,