Tag Archives: reduction

xxx A. Lenerts, K. Naglis-Liepa, D. Popluga, Dz. Kreišmane, E. Aplociņa, L. Bērziņa and O. Frolova
Marginal abatement cost curve for an ammonia reduction measure in agriculture: the case of Latvia
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Marginal abatement cost curve for an ammonia reduction measure in agriculture: the case of Latvia

A. Lenerts¹*, K. Naglis-Liepa¹, D. Popluga¹, Dz. Kreišmane², E. Aplociņa², L. Bērziņa³ and O. Frolova³

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Economics and Regional Development, 18 Svetes street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, 2 Liela street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Environment and Civil Engineering, 19 Akademijas street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: arnis.lenerts@llu.lv

Abstract:

With the production of grain and livestock–derived agricultural commodities increasing, the agricultural sector has become one of the main sources of ammonia (NH3) emissions in Latvia. In 2018, the agricultural sector contributed to 83% of the total NH3 emissions originated in Latvia (15.46 kt) (LIIR 2020). The EU has already put in place measures to control NH3 emissions. This includes the EU target of reducing ammonia emissions by 21% by 2030 and sets out emission reduction commitments for Latvia. Considering Latvia’s indicative reduction target, the NH3 emission reductions need to be achieved by 2030 (Directive 2016/2284) so that the emissions do not exceed the 2005 level (11.33 kt). Implementing no mitigation measures, Latvia has projected agricultural sector NH3 emissions to be 32.4% higher than those in 2005, and therefore the mitigation of the NH3 emissions from agriculture is important. The research aims to estimate cost-effective NH3 emission reduction measures in agriculture in Latvia. The results of the research represent a marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) analysis, in which we have quantified the potential for reduction for selected NH3 emission mitigation measures in Latvia. A list of the measures has been established taking into account the experience of good agricultural practices in the reduction of NH3 emissions (UN, 2014) and of other European countries as well. The calculations carried out allowed us to group the measures according to their priorities: measures that are cost-effective and with high potential for reduction of NH3; measures that are cost-effective but with low NH3 emission reduction potential; measures that are not cost-effective but with high potential for reduction of NH3; measures that are not cost-effective and with low potential for reduction of NH3. The estimated cumulative (total) reduction of NH3 emissions in Latvian agriculture by 2030, with the implementation of the measures analysed, is equal to 20.08 kt.

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121-128 Z. Kviz, M. Kroulik and J. Chyba
Soil damage reduction and more environmental friendly agriculture by using advanced machinery traffic
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Soil damage reduction and more environmental friendly agriculture by using advanced machinery traffic

Z. Kviz, M. Kroulik and J. Chyba

Department of Agricultural Machines, Technical Faculty, Czech University of Agriculture in Prague,Kamycka 129, 16521 Prague, CzechRepublic;
*Correspondence: kviz@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Nowadays, the agriculture technologies using guidance systems during field operations are more and more common all around the world. Machines without satellite navigation in fields have a tendency to pass-to-pass errors, especially unwanted overlaps, resulting in waste of fuel and pesticides, longer working times and also environmental damage. Finally, such errors can be taken as useless additional costs of farming. When utilising satellite guidance for field operations, the pass-to-pass accuracy can be significantly improved and thus it is possible to make the agriculture production more efficient. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate advantages and real possibilities of using advanced machinery guidance systems with regard to energy consumption and efficiency and also more environmental friendly agricultural operations. Real pass-to-pass errors (omissions and overlaps) in a field were measured on different tractor-implement units with and without guidance system utilization. The outcomes from our measurements revealed that there is a statistically significant difference between the total area treated by machinery without any guidance system and machinery using precise guidance systems. It means, better accuracy of machinery passes in fields with guidance systems could help with energy and material savings. Namely the fuel, seeding material or chemicals can be saved up to 6% from a single field operation.

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421-434 T. Koppel,, T. Tasa and P. Tint
Electromagnetic fields in contemporary office workplaces
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Electromagnetic fields in contemporary office workplaces

T. Koppel¹,*, T. Tasa² and P. Tint¹

¹Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia;
*Correspondence: tarmo.koppel@ttu.ee
²Tallinn University Haapsalu College, Lihula mnt. 12, EE90507 Haapsalu,Estonia

Abstract:

Technological  progress  and  widespread  use  of  electronics  has  rapidly  increasedlevels of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in workplaces during the last decade. Today’s workersare exposed to levels of EMFs unprecedented in history. This has caused concern amongst thegeneral  public.  Although  the  EMF  levels  of  such  modern  devices  fall  within  current  safetylimits, the recent studies have still raised questions regarding the biological effects well belowthe  safety  limits.  The  European  Union  and  the  World  Health  Organization  have  called  forscientists to conduct more studies in this field and to investigate all aspects of EMFs. The aimof  this  study  was  to  quantify  the  actual  levels  of  the  EMFs  in  contemporary  workplaces.  Asmost  of  studies  have  only  addressed  a  certain  frequency  range,  this  study  covers  all  thespectrum  of  low  (LF),  intermediate  (IF)  and  high  frequency  (HF)  EMFs.  Altogether  69workplaces were investigated. Great variations were detected across the workplaces, dependingmainly  on  the  computer  set-up  configuration.  Exposure  levels  proved  to  be  affected  by  thenearby electrical equipment, arrangement of wires or faulty appliances. At the end of the paperthe  authors  discuss  different  network  connection  technologies  and  provide  the  results  whichsuggest solutions  for lower HF EMF exposures that allow  for following of the precautionaryprinciple.Key words: electromagnetic fields, occupational exposure, office, reduction, mitigation.

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