Characterization of materials used in the manufacture of ceramic tile with incorporation of ornamental rock waste
¹Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Engineering school, Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Street Passo da Pátria, n.156, postal code: BR24210-240, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
²North Fluminense State University (UENF), Civil Engineering Department, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
³Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Department of Agricultural Engineering, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
⁴University of Évora, Polo da Mitra - Department of Rural Engineering - Évora/Portugal
⁵University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
The production of ceramic tiles, such as tiles, has a great environmental impact, either in the extraction of natural raw materials or gas emissions in the burning stages. The use of industrial solid waste in ceramic materials can contribute to the reduction of these impacts, according to the characteristics of solid waste and its interaction with ceramic materials in the processing steps. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the materials needed to make a ceramic tile with incorporation of ornamental rock waste (ORW), thus evaluating its main characteristics regarding the feasibility of this incorporation. The physical characterization of the clays used in the production of ceramic artifacts was performed, and for the waste the mineralogical analyzes were performed, through x-ray diffraction (XRD), microstructure analysis from confocal optical microscopy, after sintering the prototypes and chemical analysis by X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Soon after the raw materials went through the step of conformation and preparation of the prismatic specimens by the process of extrusion of the ceramic mass, with an incorporation of the ORW in 0% and 15% of the ceramic mass, for its subsequent The prototypes were sintered at three different temperatures (850 °C, 950 °C and 1,050 °C). The specimens were submitted to technological tests of mechanical resistance, water absorption, firing shrinkage and porosity to evaluate the incorporation viability. The results indicated the presence of quartz particles in all raw materials, and also that the clays of the study region are predominantly kaolinitic. The presence of these materials in the ceramic masses directly influences the micrographs, because they result in the formation of liquid phase, inert particles that can turn the site into a stress concentration point and when incorporated in the ORW the specimens met the technical specifications of the Brazilian standard for application on ceramic tiles. The results found in the technological tests carried out, that the incorporation of 15% of ornamental rock waste in both clays did not affect the tile properties, indicating the feasibility of incorporating this waste in civil construction, minimizing the impacts generated.