Tag Archives: rye

1751–1759 A. Linina, I. Augspole, I. Romanova and S. Kuzel
Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and quality indices
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Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and quality indices

A. Linina¹*, I. Augspole¹, I. Romanova² and S. Kuzel³

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, Liela street 2, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, K. Helmana street 2, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agroecosystems, Studentska 1668, CZ37005, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: anda.linina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Rye (Secale cereale L.) grain is an excellent raw material for healthy and tasty foods. Rye products are characterized by their unique composition and properties such as antioxidant capacity and total phenolic. The aim of the study was to assess radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic content, protein, starch content and falling number in rye varieties wholemeal. The trial included population winter rye varieties ‘Kaupo’, ‘Amilo’, ‘Dankowskie Amber’, ‘Dankowskie Rubin’, ‘Inspector’ and hybrid rye varieties ‘SU Drive’, ‘SU Mephisto’, ‘SU Bendix’, ‘Brasetto’, ‘Palazzo’ grown in Latvia. The antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) assay and total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteou method. The rye grain antioxidant capacity was estimated as Trolox equivalent, while the total phenolic content was expressed as gallic equivalents (GAE). ‘Su Drive’ rye variety contained the largest amount of total phenolic (average 208 mg GAE 100 g-1 DW), but the lowest – ‘Inspector’ rye variety 176 mg GAE 100 g-1 DW. In general, all rye samples tested in this study demonstrated similar level of antioxidant capacity (from 38.5 to 46.2 mmol Trolox eq. 100 g-1). Statistically higher (P < 0.05) total phenols content and falling number had hybrid rye grains, compared to the population rye grains. In the present trial, the differences between hybrid varieties grains protein and starch content comparing to population varieties were not observed.

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1299–1312 N. Dubrovskaya, O. Savkina, L. Kuznetsova, O. Parakhina and L. Usova
Accelerated technology of rye bread with improved quality and increased nutritional value
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Accelerated technology of rye bread with improved quality and increased nutritional value

N. Dubrovskaya¹*, O. Savkina², L. Kuznetsova³, O. Parakhina² and L. Usova²

¹Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, RU195251 St. Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg branch State Research Institute of Baking Industry, Podbelskogo highway 7, RU196608 St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Russia
³Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova street, 9, RU191002 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: dubrovskaja_nata@mail.ru

Abstract:

Accelerated bakery technologies do not always ensure high bread quality. The taste and smell of bread is less pronounced when compared with the traditionally prepared bread and it is quickly subjected to microbial spoilage. The aim of the research was to develop an improved composite mixture for the accelerated technology of rye bread, which would improve its quality, nutritional value, extend shelf life and microbiological stability. Rowan powder (botanical species Sorbus aucuparia) as unconventional raw ingredients of high nutritional and biological value was used. Rowan powder has high acidity (40 degrees or 5.7% in terms of malic acid) and contains a wide range of organic acids, including volatile acids (2–3%) and preservative acids (such as sorbic acid), as well as other micro- and macronutrients. New acidifying additive with rowan powder was created. The optimal dosage of rowan powder in the new acidifying additive by 13% per 100 kg of flour allows bread making with higher specific volume, acidity and porosity of the crumb compared with the control sample. The research proves that rowan powder usage in the accelerated bread technology improves its organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators and also increases the content of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. The content of fibers in custard bread with rowan powder was 1.85 times higher than in the control sample. The rowan powder usage has a positive effect on the preservation of bread freshness during its storage. The rowan powder usage slows down the custard bread mould disease.

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361-366 E. Nugis, T. Võsa, K.Vennik, H. Meripõld, J. Kuht, M. Müüripeal
Results of observations of damages to field and landscape
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Results of observations of damages to field and landscape

E. Nugis¹, T. Võsa¹, K.Vennik², H. Meripõld¹, J. Kuht³, M. Müüripeal¹

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku 75501, Estonia; e-mail:edvin.nugis@eria.ee, taavi.vosa@eria.ee.
²Tartu University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Vanemuise 46, Tartu 50090; e-mail: kersti.vennik@ksk.edu.ee
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, Tartu 51014; e-mail:jaan.kuht@emu.ee

Abstract:

It is a fact that crop growth conditions vary greatly within the same field. Provisionally actual growth conditions are made up of many components, i.e. variation of natural conditions (climate & soil), results of effects of machinery on soil (soil compaction) and unfavourable conditions for plant growing. In Estonia rather widely used ATV’s are causing remarkable damage to landscapes.All collected data were geo-referenced by means of a GPS-receiver and post-processed forposition correction. For All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) damage assessment the trajectory was recorded. Both the area and forms of damages were assessed for damaged sites, (e.g.) damage to potato by Colorado beetles. The collected data were compared to the digital soil map.Economic loss on the average, due to unfavourable conditions for plant growth, in thecase of winter rye "Portal" was 131 euros per ha, for medicago 18.5 euros per ha, for spring barley "Anni" 1000 euros per ha and for potato “Ando” 27.1 euros per ha.

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684-690 A. Nykänen, L. Jauhiainen and M. Rinne
Biomass production and feeding value of whole-crop cereal-legume silages
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Biomass production and feeding value of whole-crop cereal-legume silages

A. Nykänen¹, L. Jauhiainen² and M. Rinne³

¹ MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Production Research, Lönnrotinkatu 3, FIN-50100Mikkeli, Finland; e-mail: arja.nykanen@mtt.fi
² MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Method Services, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland
³ MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Animal Production Research, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland

Abstract:

In eastern Finland, 12 mixtures of spring wheat, spring barley, spring oats and/or rye with vetches and/or peas  were evaluated in  field experiments from 2005 to 2007 for their dry matter (DM) production, crude protein (CP) concentration and digestibility using three different harvesting  times.  Spring  wheat-pea  and  spring  wheat-vetch-rye  mixtures  produced  the  highest DM  yields  (5,000–6,000  kg  ha-1)  while  the  lowest  yields  were  found  with  spring  oats-vetch (4,000 kg ha-1 DM). The highest CP concentrations were found in vetches (200 g kg-1 DM) and lowest in  spring cereals (90–120 g kg-1  DM). Organic  matter digestibility  was  highest in peas (700–750  g  kg-1)  and  lowest  in  spring  rye  and  wheat  (550–610  g  kg-1).  It  is  suggested  that decisions concerning when to harvest legume-cereal mixtures for forage could be based on the maturity stage of the cereal, because changes in digestibility and CP concentration are slow in legumes during the potential harvesting period.  Key words: barley, dry matter yield, forage digestibility, oats, pea, rye, vetch, wheatINTRODUCTION

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371-378 A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis
Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture
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Grain yield and disease resistance of winter cereal varieties and application of biological agent in organic agriculture

A. Sliesaravičius, J. Pekarskas, V. Rutkovienė and K. Baranauskis*

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Lt-53361, Akademija,Kaunas distr., Lithuania
*Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, Babtai, LT-54333 Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: algis.Sliesaravicius@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Field trials with different varieties of winter wheat, rye barley and triticale were carried out at the Agroecology Center of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture from 2003-2005. The biological agent biojodis was tested. The winter wheat varieties ‘Baltimor’ and ‘Residence’ were found to be the most resistant to Septoria tritici (leaf blotch. The biological agent biojodis increased wheat grain yield for separate varieties by 0.38 – 0.97 t ha-1. No significant differences in disease resistance were found among the triticale and rye varieties tested. Research on the biological agent biojodis revealed that this agent reduced the incidence of fungi in the grain of the winter wheat variety ‘Širvinta 1’, thus it could diminish the number of mycromicetes species and the fungal infection level.The grain untreated wtith biojodis was found to be infected with 4 fungi species(Aspergillus oryzae, Fusarium nivale, Fusarium poae, Mycelia sterilia), where the infection level reached 9.0×103 cfu (colony forming unit), whereas the grain treated with the agent at a rate of 2 l t-1 was found to be infected with 2 species of fungi (Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichiodes) at 5.5×103 cfu (colony forming unit) infection level.

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