Productivity of corn hybrids in relation to the seeding rate
Voronezh State Agrarian University after Emperor Peter I, Department of Agriculture, Plant and Plant Protection, Michurina 1, RU394087 Voronezh, Russia
Potential yield of corn hybrids with a different FAO number is limited by not only rainfall amount, average soil and air temperature throughout vegetation period, but also directly depends on plant density. The study and practical application of special agricultural techniques allows us to limit and mitigate the negative impact of these factors on the productivity of maize, depending on the indicators under study and the soil and climatic resources of the cultivation zone. Therefore, the study of the influence of the seeding rate on the growth and development of corn plants remains relevant. The results presented make it possible to choose optimal seeding rates for corn hybrids of early and middle groups of ripeness (FAO 180-280). Overcrowding from 61,000 to 93,000 seeds ha-1 leads to increase in interstage period ‘sprouting–wax ripeness’ of Rodnik 179SV hybrid for 4 days, of MAS 12R and AMELIOR hybrids–for 2 days, and of MAS 30K hybrid – for 3 days. Hybrids Rodnik 179SV and AMELIOR reached maximum height –217 cm and 214 cm respectively – at seeding rate of 73,000 seeds ha-1, while hybrids MAS 12R and MAS 30K grew up to their 213 cm and 223 cm respectively at seeding rate of 77,000 seeds ha-1. Decrease in seeding rate to less than 73,000 seeds ha-1 and, contrary to it, overcrowding of seeds of more than 77,000 seeds ha-1 leads to decrease in corn hybrid plant height. Agronomically, the most efficient for maximizing early ripe Rodnik 179SV and MAS 12R hybrids yields (6.39 and 6.73 t ha-1) and middle-early ripe AMELIOR hybrid yield (6.81 t ha-1) was the seeding rate of 73,000 seeds ha-1, while the highest yield of middle MAS 30K hybrid (7.21 t ha-1) was at the seeding rate of 77,000 seeds ha-1.