Tag Archives: sensors

xxx A. Avotins, A. Potapovs, J. Gruduls and R. Ceirs
Testing outcomes of IoT based continuous crop weight and PAR sensors at industrial greenhouse
Abstract |

Testing outcomes of IoT based continuous crop weight and PAR sensors at industrial greenhouse

A. Avotins¹*, A. Potapovs¹, J. Gruduls² and R. Ceirs²

¹Riga Technical University, Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Azenes 12, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
²SIA ‘Latgales darzenu logistika’ greenhouse, Kloneshniki, Mezvidi parish, Ludza region, Latvia
*Correspondence: ansis.avotins@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Industrial greenhouses have automated control systems for climate, lighting, irrigation, ventilation, and heating regulation using different types of feedback sensors. Nowadays it is a trend to increase the data precision and measurement data amount, thus various additional IoT sensors are installed, and the regulation becomes more precise, due to available data, which enables new analytical features to create new control rules or strategies. The general aim is to raise the level of process automation, quality, energy efficiency, and other important parameters. Still, further, we go into data resolution and amount, and the problem of data reliability and interpretation starts to become a challenging problem. In this article, authors focus on earlier developed PAR sensor modules and continuous tomato crop weight sensor modules (TWS) testing and received data analysis from an industrial greenhouse. Both sensors were tested in detail at the tomato greenhouse of ‘Latgales Darzenu Logistika’ in Mezvidi parish, with a total growing area of 5,062.4 m2 from 1.05.2022 to 30.06.2022., and gathered data is analysed for this period. Received sensor data can be used as the main feedback signal to create a lighting control strategy, same time increasing energy efficiency and reducing also costs. As artificial lighting energy consumption costs make 20–40% of total greenhouse costs, it is worth having a more precise lighting control system algorithm, integrating the crop growth increase and accumulated light energy during the day from the sun, and then adding only the missing amount (also period) of light provided by artificial lighting. Experimental studies of both sensor data, show that plants reaction can be monitored, as by decreasing the lighting period and temperature setpoint by 6% each, the plants daily weight gain decreases by 14%, and it can be measured already in first day after the new settings were set in place.

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xxx A.P. Montoya, F.A. Obando, J.A. Osorio and V. Gonzalez
Integration of low-cost technologies for real-time monitoring of pigs in pre-fattening stage
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Integration of low-cost technologies for real-time monitoring of pigs in pre-fattening stage

A.P. Montoya¹*, F.A. Obando², J.A. Osorio³ and V. Gonzalez³

¹Institución Universitaria Digital de Antioquia, Carrera 55#42-90, postal code 050015 Medellín, Colombia
²Universidad de Antioquia, Facultad de Ingeniería, Calle 67 #53-108, postal code 050010 Medellín, Colombia
³Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Carrera 65 #59A-110, postal code 050034 Medellín, Colombia
*Correspondence: apmontoy@gmail.com

Abstract:

Measurement of environmental, behavioural, and physiological variables is essential for decision making in intensive animal production systems. Data collection and analysis, in real time, employing low-cost tools are fundamental to increase competitiveness and animal wellness. In this context, the goal of this research was to develop a low-cost measurement system for monitoring bioclimatic and behavioural parameters in the production of pigs in the pre-fattening stage. Internet of things technologies was employed in order to increase control over the production and as a tool for decision-making in real time. Sensor Networks were developed using low-cost sensors open-source platforms and code. The system was validated in a pig farm located in Antioquia-Colombia with two groups of 10 pigs in the pre-fattening stage. Parallel tests with three sequential repetitions were carried out. The system was validated through continuous environmental data collection and periodic physiological measurements. The developed system includes temperature, relative humidity, global radiation, wind speed, pressure, and lighting sensors. A high microclimatic variability was found inside the facilities, presenting thermal discomfort conditions in some hours of the day, which impacted the development and behaviour of the animals. The adaptation of low-cost technologies for real-time monitoring of pigs is viable and facilitate decision-making in real time improving the productive efficiency, supplying important information at a productive and scientific level.

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1419-1426 J. Vošahlík
IoT and measurement of fermentation process of rice wine
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IoT and measurement of fermentation process of rice wine

J. Vošahlík*

Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, Prague, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: vosahlik@rektorat.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article deals with the fermentation process of rice wine and obtaining data during fermentation with the help of IoT, developed and implemented stirrer. Stirrer was printed by 3D printer. The process of converting
D-glucose into ethanol together with the oxidation of reduced coenzymes is called fermentation. Ethanol fermentation takes place anaerobically, i.e., without access to air with the help of yeast. The fermentation process is gradually being improved with the help of acquired sensor data and the gradual possibility of automation. The main objective of this paper is to develop an experimental environment for measuring rice wine fermentation processes with the help of IoT. During the fermentation of rice wine, there are measurable attributes that can be measured with the help of sensors. These attributes affecting the final product quality, positively but also negatively (pH, temperature, humidity, etc.). It is therefore necessary to select a given sensor that can monitor the attributes and then devices that can then manage and evaluate it. the correct selection and use of sensors and computing equipment, the acquisition and processing of data and the application of the resulting values to fermentation procedures, the resulting product quality increases.

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314–323 T. Ahmadi, C.A. Casas Díaz, Y.E. García Vera and N. Escobar Escobar
A prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga Municipality. Colombia
Abstract |
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A prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga Municipality. Colombia

T. Ahmadi¹*, C.A. Casas Díaz¹, Y.E. García Vera¹ and N. Escobar Escobar²

¹Universidad de Cundinamarca, Facultad de Ingeniería, Diagonal 18 No. 20-29, Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
²Universidad de Cundinamarca, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Diagonal 18 No. 20-29, Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
*Correspondence: tahmadi@ucundinamarca.edu.co

Abstract:

Crop and animal production generate a high level of organic waste that causes negative effects on the environment and communities. The use of composting processes can improve the quality of these biowastes. Additionally, the application of technologies such as telemetry and remote sensors, allows optimizing the transformation of organic matter in a more controlled and efficient way. The city of Fusagasugá is well known in agriculture. However, it lacks sustainable management of the organic waste system.
In this study, after a three-dimensional electromechanical design, a prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga municipality will provide. The capacity of this prototype reactor is considered to be 20 litres. In order to control temperature and humidity of biowastes in different working conditions, it is used A PI controller with 3 temperature and a humidity sensors. With these sensors the compost materials temperature and humidity will remain at 65 °C and 55–60%. By using a special form of temperature sensor placement, the time to oxygenate the compost materials will be found. Furthermore, this system is integrated by a Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which allows the supervision and manipulation from a remote access user.

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101-114 H. Karadöl and S. Arslan
Development of an active boom controller for field sprayers
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Development of an active boom controller for field sprayers

H. Karadöl¹ and S. Arslan²

¹Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, 46100, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
²Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Biosystems Engineering Department, 46100 Kahramanmaraş, Turkey,
e-mail: sarslan@ksu.edu.tr

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to develop an electronic control system to automatically control the boom of an agricultural sprayer. This paper addresses the electronic circuits and programmes used to accomplish active boom control under laboratory conditions. The boom sections were mounted on two sides of the frame in the laboratory and ultrasonic sensors were placed at the tips of boom sections. The sensors were tested at varying heights from 50 cm to 150 cm to obtain a
calibration equation correlating voltage output of the sensors to the boom
height. In the lab experiments, the calibration of the ultrasonic distance
sensors could be done with a high coefficient of determination (R2=0.999).
Both PLC and PIC programming were used to develop the
control programmes. T
he simulations of control programs were written in
PIC C and Ladder programming languages and were executed on a computer. The
sensor data were interpreted with the control programme loaded on the control
device and automatically controlled the hydraulic valves and cylinders. The
control program was programmed to neglect vertical oscillations with magnitudes
less than 3.5 cm
under laboratory conditions, which can be varied for field conditions. It was
concluded that PLC and PIC circuits could work fast enough to sample analogue
signals generated by the sensors at a forward speed of 6-8 km/h when used in real
field conditions. Further research is ongoing to adapt the system to a field
sprayer for field experiments.

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109-113 M. H. Jorgensen
Agricultural Field Machinery for the future – from an Engineering Perspective
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Agricultural Field Machinery for the future – from an Engineering Perspective

M. H. Jorgensen

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Aalborg University,
Fibigerstraede 16, DK-9220 Aalborg East, Denmark; e-mail: mhj@m-tech.aau.dk

Abstract:

When analyzing agricultural field machinery from an engineering perspective, it appears that the technical development has progressed in a different pattern compared to what is seen in other industrial mechanical or tooling systems. As in other fields, the technical development of agricultural field machinery has brought new technical and engineering elements into use. Especially for tractors and combine harvesters, where modern mechanical and control engineering solutions are implemented. Developing work on implements has more concerned on monitors, sensors and actuators for the classical adjustment elements. It is special for agricultural field machinery, that the overall design and the tooling principles have changed very little even since the time of horse driven units and during the following up-scaling of tractor and implement size, which has continuously taken place until now, where the power of an tractor is more than 10 times bigger, than for the first tractors. When analyzing the design of industrial mechanical or tooling systems, the technological and engineering based development has in many cases been accompanied by change of working principles, operation interactions and of the overall design and layout. The assumption is that the development of agricultural field machinery is in a stage where further up-scaling is not the best solution due to optimization of the overall production economy. Instead it is expected probable, that the next design step will involve a radical redesign of the whole systems for the different types of implements. A logical approach is development of compact integrated tooling systems, where propulsion and tooling systems will be integrated in harmonic systems and the design will be dedicated to specific operations. The sizing then, will be balanced due to a new set of conditions.

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60-67 M. Hautala
Measurement and Modelling of Circumstances in Animal Houses: What, Why and How
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Measurement and Modelling of Circumstances in Animal Houses: What, Why and How

M. Hautala

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
e-mail: mikko.hautala@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

The indoor air of the animal house has to be of such quality that the animal, the human being and the building should feel well. It means suitable temperature without moisture and gas, microbe and dust contents which should be low enough. The objective of our studies is to create general physical-chemical models for the ventilation and temperature of animal houses as the function of factors which affect micro climate (temperature, moisture, gases, dust, microbes, mould) and the heat balance of the animals. The optimal climate given by the models is achieved by the right ventilation. A system which is automatic or gives alarms and can be used to carry out the optimum conditions of the animal buildings in as stable a way as possible is needed. For this purpose reasonable and reliable sensors which measure the right factors are needed. So the results of sensors can be used for model based control of the ventilation in which case one can switch to the modelling adjustment in which more quantities can be simultaneously used and in such a way the quality of the indoor air of animal houses can be improved by the adjustment of only one quantity (temperature or moisture or carbon dioxide or other gas).

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