Tag Archives: sensors

101-114 H. Karadöl and S. Arslan
Development of an active boom controller for field sprayers
Abstract |

Development of an active boom controller for field sprayers

H. Karadöl¹ and S. Arslan²

¹Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, 46100, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
²Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Biosystems Engineering Department, 46100 Kahramanmaraş, Turkey,
e-mail: sarslan@ksu.edu.tr


The objective of this study was to develop an electronic control system to automatically control the boom of an agricultural sprayer. This paper addresses the electronic circuits and programmes used to accomplish active boom control under laboratory conditions. The boom sections were mounted on two sides of the frame in the laboratory and ultrasonic sensors were placed at the tips of boom sections. The sensors were tested at varying heights from 50 cm to 150 cm to obtain a
calibration equation correlating voltage output of the sensors to the boom
height. In the lab experiments, the calibration of the ultrasonic distance
sensors could be done with a high coefficient of determination (R2=0.999).
Both PLC and PIC programming were used to develop the
control programmes. T
he simulations of control programs were written in
PIC C and Ladder programming languages and were executed on a computer. The
sensor data were interpreted with the control programme loaded on the control
device and automatically controlled the hydraulic valves and cylinders. The
control program was programmed to neglect vertical oscillations with magnitudes
less than 3.5 cm
under laboratory conditions, which can be varied for field conditions. It was
concluded that PLC and PIC circuits could work fast enough to sample analogue
signals generated by the sensors at a forward speed of 6-8 km/h when used in real
field conditions. Further research is ongoing to adapt the system to a field
sprayer for field experiments.

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109-113 M. H. Jorgensen
Agricultural Field Machinery for the future – from an Engineering Perspective
Abstract |

Agricultural Field Machinery for the future – from an Engineering Perspective

M. H. Jorgensen

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Aalborg University,
Fibigerstraede 16, DK-9220 Aalborg East, Denmark; e-mail: mhj@m-tech.aau.dk


When analyzing agricultural field machinery from an engineering perspective, it appears that the technical development has progressed in a different pattern compared to what is seen in other industrial mechanical or tooling systems. As in other fields, the technical development of agricultural field machinery has brought new technical and engineering elements into use. Especially for tractors and combine harvesters, where modern mechanical and control engineering solutions are implemented. Developing work on implements has more concerned on monitors, sensors and actuators for the classical adjustment elements. It is special for agricultural field machinery, that the overall design and the tooling principles have changed very little even since the time of horse driven units and during the following up-scaling of tractor and implement size, which has continuously taken place until now, where the power of an tractor is more than 10 times bigger, than for the first tractors. When analyzing the design of industrial mechanical or tooling systems, the technological and engineering based development has in many cases been accompanied by change of working principles, operation interactions and of the overall design and layout. The assumption is that the development of agricultural field machinery is in a stage where further up-scaling is not the best solution due to optimization of the overall production economy. Instead it is expected probable, that the next design step will involve a radical redesign of the whole systems for the different types of implements. A logical approach is development of compact integrated tooling systems, where propulsion and tooling systems will be integrated in harmonic systems and the design will be dedicated to specific operations. The sizing then, will be balanced due to a new set of conditions.

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60-67 M. Hautala
Measurement and Modelling of Circumstances in Animal Houses: What, Why and How
Abstract |
Full text PDF (228 KB)

Measurement and Modelling of Circumstances in Animal Houses: What, Why and How

M. Hautala

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
e-mail: mikko.hautala@helsinki.fi


The indoor air of the animal house has to be of such quality that the animal, the human being and the building should feel well. It means suitable temperature without moisture and gas, microbe and dust contents which should be low enough. The objective of our studies is to create general physical-chemical models for the ventilation and temperature of animal houses as the function of factors which affect micro climate (temperature, moisture, gases, dust, microbes, mould) and the heat balance of the animals. The optimal climate given by the models is achieved by the right ventilation. A system which is automatic or gives alarms and can be used to carry out the optimum conditions of the animal buildings in as stable a way as possible is needed. For this purpose reasonable and reliable sensors which measure the right factors are needed. So the results of sensors can be used for model based control of the ventilation in which case one can switch to the modelling adjustment in which more quantities can be simultaneously used and in such a way the quality of the indoor air of animal houses can be improved by the adjustment of only one quantity (temperature or moisture or carbon dioxide or other gas).

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