Tag Archives: sewage sludge

650–661 A. Zapałowska, Cz. Puchalski, S. Stankowski and M. Gibczyńska
Fertilisation with ash from wood and with sewage sludge versus contents of macro-and microelements in the soil following cultivation of Helianthus tuberosus L.
Abstract |
Full text PDF (329 KB)

Fertilisation with ash from wood and with sewage sludge versus contents of macro-and microelements in the soil following cultivation of Helianthus tuberosus L.

A. Zapałowska¹, Cz. Puchalski¹, S. Stankowski² and M. Gibczyńska³

¹University of Rzeszow, Department of Bioenergetics, Food Analysis and microbiology, Zelwerowicza 4, PL35-601 Rzeszów, Poland
²West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Agroengineering, Papieża Pawła VI 3, PL71-459 Szczecin, Poland
³West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Bioengineering, Słowackiego 17, PL71-434 Szczecin, Poland

Abstract:

The present study investigated the effects produced in the soil by municipal sewage sludge and wood ash applied during the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke. The impact of the presence of applied the fertilizer materials on changes in soil and a macro- and microelements contents were investigated. The comparative analyses took into account 3 factors; the first factor – 4 levels of wood ash – 0; I–4.28; II–8.57; III–12.85 t ha-1, the second factor – 2 levels of sewage sludge – 0; 1 – 30.3 t ha-1, the third factor – 2 varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Gigant, Albik. Application of the fertilisers did not resulted in significant change in the total contents of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in soil examined after Jerusalem artichoke was harvested. Application of ash from coniferous trees, with high levels of calcium, resulted in increased total contents of calcium in the soil. Fertilisation of the soil with ash from coniferous trees or with sewage sludge, as well as cultivation of two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke, resulted in a significant increase in the concentrations of cadmium and lead, and produced no effects in the levels of nickel, zinc and copper identified in soil. The above findings, and in particular the fact that the limit values were not exceeded, indicate the possibility of using both sludge and biomass ash for fertilizing Jerusalem artichoke.

Key words:

, , , ,




404–409 S.B. Ismuratov, T.V. Bedych, T.I. Gluchshenko, D.S. Ismuratov and V.S Kukhar,
Production of bioethanol from biomass in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan
Abstract |
Full text PDF (177 KB)

Production of bioethanol from biomass in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan

S.B. Ismuratov¹, T.V. Bedych¹, T.I. Gluchshenko², D.S. Ismuratov³ and V.S Kukhar⁴,*

¹M. Dulatov Kostanay Engineering and Economic University, Department of Energy
and Mechanical Engineering, 59 Chernyshevskogo Str., KZ110000, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
²A. Baitursynov Kostanay State University, Agricultural and Technical Institute,
Department of Energetics, Str., Baitursynova 47, KZ110000, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
³Almaty Management University, Doctoral PhD, Str., Rozybakieva 227, KZ050060 Almaty, Kazakhstan
⁴Ural State Agrarian University, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Street Karl
Liebknecht 42, RU620075, Yekaterinburg, Russia

Abstract:

This article describes using renewable energy for bioethanol production. Kostanay Region is a developed agricultural region. Most part of its area is under grain crops and corn, oil crops and vegetables. In the course of production, transportation, storage and processing of agricultural crops, a large part of them becomes unsuitable for use; in future they cannot be used for the intended purpose. Substandard product often stays in the fields to rot or is thrown away. Information considered in this article demonstrates that agricultural waste can be used to produce rather inexpensive bioethanol. Most part of the population in this region is rural. Settlements are far apart from each. It would be reasonable to use bioethanol as a source of electric and thermal energy to meet the needs of rural residents and infrastructure. Wastes from bioethanol production can be used for feeding animal stock what is also important for rural areas and reduces environmental burden. In the course of human life, solid waste is formed that is suitable for producing bioethanol, and consequently, for generating thermal and electric energy. Presented calculations show the feasibility of processing municipal solid waste into bioethanol. EU countries successfully use researches performed by their scientists for developing technologies for the production of bioethanol and synthetic fuels. Kazakhstan, with its experience in cultivation
of oilseeds and required planted area, can successfully develop bioethanol industry. No researches in this respect have been conducted to this day in Kazakhstan. Using bioethanol provides
consumers with their own energy sources that meet quality standards, thereby increasing energy security of region, reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere, and creating small-scale energy enterprises where rural residents can work.

Key words:

, , , ,




781–787 L. Dubova, N. Strunnikova, N. Cielava, I. Alsina, O. Kassien and A. Bekker
Thermal decontamination of sewage sludge
Abstract |
Full text PDF (266 KB)

Thermal decontamination of sewage sludge

L. Dubova¹*, N. Strunnikova², N. Cielava³, I. Alsina¹, O. Kassien⁴ and A. Bekker²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Soil and Plant Sciences, 2 Liela street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Ekosoil Ltd, 26 Academy street, UA65009 Odessa, Ukraine
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Laboratory of Biotechnologies, 1 Strazdu street, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
⁴Earth Revival, Ltd, Maskavas street 57-3, LV-1003 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: Laila.Dubova@llu.lv

Abstract:

Every year a huge amount of sewage sludge is formed at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Sewage sludge contains a sufficient amount of biogenic elements and organic components, which characterizes them as possible raw materials for the production of organic fertilizers. However, direct incorporation of these sediments into the soil is impossible due to the fact that, in addition to useful organic and mineral components, they contain pathogens, viruses and helminth eggs. The aim of the study was to optimise thermal disinfection conditions for preparing of safety sewage sludge fertilizer. Laboratory studies were carried out using sediments from wastewater treatment plants of some cities. During laboratory experiments, the conditions for thermal disinfection of sediments – the thickness of the sediment layer, the air temperature in the disinfection furnace, and the treatment time of the sediment – were determined. When conducting industrial tests of a conveyor-type sediment decontamination furnace, the operating conditions of the furnace were determined, i.e., the temperature regimes of the sludge heating zone, the decontamination zone and the cooling zone, and the optimum parameters of the sludge layer thickness on the conveyor and the conveyor speed were determined.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1800–1807 D. Urbancl, J. Krope and D. Goričanec
Torrefaction – the process for biofuels production by using different biomasses
Abstract |
Full text PDF (282 KB)

Torrefaction – the process for biofuels production by using different biomasses

D. Urbancl*, J. Krope and D. Goričanec

University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Smetanova street 17, SI2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*Correspondence: danijela.urbancl@um.si

Abstract:

Torrefaction process is a mild pyrolysis, where biomass material is converted into solid fuel with higher heating value. The results of torrefaction at different temperatures in a range from 220 to 400 °C for three varied materials, oak wood, mixed wood and dehydrated, granulated sewage sludge are presented. The torrefaction process started with warm up stage, which took place for 30 minutes, after that sample was torrefied for 2 hours at constant temperature. The process continued with cool down stage. The energy demands were covered by electric power, while the flue gasses were not integrated in the process. The influence of the operating temperatures are analysed in order to determine optimal operation parameters to get the torrefied biomass with highest calorific value. Furthermore, the optimal operation time according to the largest increase in calorific value for each material is evaluated. The results of calorific value, mass drop and chemical compositions such as elemental analyses are also presented. Results show that heating values increase with raising temperature for both wood samples. The heating values for sewage sludge increases to approximately 320 °C, after that temperature are unchangeable. Torrefied oak wood samples were more fragile at higher temperatures in comparison to raw or torrefied oak wood samples at lower temperatures. At torrefied sewage sludge samples the changes in fragility are not detected due to pre-prepared granulates of sludge.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1583-1600 E. Haiba, L. Nei, M. Ivask, J. Peda, J. Järvis, M. Lillenberg, K. Kipper and K. Herodes
Sewage sludge composting and fate of pharmaceutical residues –recent studies in Estonia
Abstract |
Full text PDF (547 KB)

Sewage sludge composting and fate of pharmaceutical residues –recent studies in Estonia

E. Haiba¹, L. Nei¹*, M. Ivask¹, J. Peda¹, J. Järvis¹, M. Lillenberg², K. Kipper³ and K. Herodes³

¹Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Puiestee 78, EE51008 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 58A, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14A, EE51010 Tartu, Estonia *Correspondence: lembit.nei@ttu.ee

Abstract:

This review is to reflect the work addressed to the application of biosolids and especially sewage sludge as a resource in composting. A considerable drop in the use of P fertilisers can be followed since early 1990s. Due to this fact crop production in Estonia takes place at the expense of soil phosphorous (P) resources. One of the ways of increasing the fertility of agricultural lands is to use nutrient-rich sewage sludge. Unfortunately, this may cause several undesired consequences due to biological and chemical contaminants. The presence of some widely used pharmaceuticals, as ciprofloxacin (CIP), norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), was evident in sewage sludge of the two Estonian largest cities, Tartu and Tallinn. The concentrations of pharmaceuticals decreased after sewage sludge digestion and composting, but they were still present in detectable amounts. Sewage sludge co-composting experiments with sawdust, peat and straw showed the degradation of fluoroquinolones (FQ) and sulfonamides (SA). Additions of sawdust clearly speeded up this process, whereas the mixtures with peat and straw performed lower abilities to decompose pharmaceutical residues. Novel methodologies were developed and experiments conducted to study the potential accumulation of fluoroquinolones FQs and SAs by food plants. Due to the low adsorption of SAs on soil particles they are ‘free’ to migrate into plants. Different behaviour is characteristic to FQs as they are accumulated in sludge. Recent years have also shown progress in vermicomposting work and in using compost in afforestation.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1169–1179 V. Malijonytė,, E. Dace, F. Romagnoli and M. Gedrovics
Methodology for determining the mixing ratio of selected solid recovered fuels
Abstract |
Full text PDF (258 KB)

Methodology for determining the mixing ratio of selected solid recovered fuels

V. Malijonytė¹,², E. Dace¹*, F. Romagnoli¹ and M. Gedrovics¹

¹Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
²Kaunas University of Technology, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Donelaičio g.20, LT-44239 Kaunas, Lithuania
*Correspondence: elina.dace@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Energy recovery is a preferable waste management method for waste that cannot be reused or recycled. For energy recovery, various types of waste with differing properties are being used, e.g. mixed municipal solid waste or end-of-life tires. To achieve a more stable and homogeneous characteristics of the waste derived fuels (RDF, SRF), they can be mixed in a number of ratios. The paper presents a methodology for determining the optimal mixing ratio of three selected waste derived fuels (mixed municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, end-of-life tires) considering environmental and economic aspects. The developed method is based on combining life cycle assessment method, mass balance calculations and multi-criteria analysis (the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution – TOPSIS). The results show that mixing the various waste derived fuels allows obtaining a more sustainable solution than in the case of each separate waste derived fuel.

Key words:

, , , , ,