Tag Archives: soil compaction

847-854 E. Nugis, J. Kuht, A. Etana & I. Håkansson
Effects of seedbed characteristics and surface layer hardeningon crop emergence and early plant growth
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Effects of seedbed characteristics and surface layer hardeningon crop emergence and early plant growth

E. Nugis¹, J. Kuht², A. Etana³ & I. Håkansson³

¹Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
³Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box
7014, S-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden

Abstract:

The emergence and early growth of barley were studied in seedbeds of various properties arranged in plastic boxes. The main objective was to check whether results similar to those obtained in Sweden (Håkansson et al., 2001) could be obtained under somewhat different conditions. In an experiment in Tartu, Estonia, the effects of sowing depth in a sandy loam and a silt loam were studied. Under suitable moisture conditions, sowing at 5 or 10 cm led to lower and later emergence than sowing at 2 cm in both soils. In the silt loam, the effects of surface layer hardening caused by irrigation immediately after sowing was also studied. Since the surface layer started hardening before crop emergence, the number of plants that emerged was considerably reduced. Early loosening of the hardening layer eliminated a large part of the detrimental effect. In an experiment in Saku, Estonia, the effects of moderate compaction of the layer under the seed was studied in a clayey silt and a silty sand. Compaction of this layer improved the early growth of the crop.

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101-108 K. Trükmann, E. Reintam, J. Kuht, E. Nugis and L. Edesi
Effect of soil compaction on growth of narrow–leafed lupine, oilseed rape and spring barley on sandy loam soil
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Effect of soil compaction on growth of narrow–leafed lupine, oilseed rape and spring barley on sandy loam soil

K. Trükmann¹, E. Reintam¹, J. Kuht¹, E. Nugis² and L. Edesi²

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: katrin.trykmann@emu.ee
²Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

Soil compaction is an environmental problem and has been recognized as the main form of soil degradation in Europe. Soil compaction may increase soil strength and compacted soil layers can affect root and shoot growth. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil compaction on soil properties and on the growth of narrow–leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Hertzg.), and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The experiment was carried out on the research field of the Estonian University of Life Sciences in the summers of 2004 and 2005 on the sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol. The field was compacted by tractor MTZ-82 (total weight 4.84 Mg) characterized by multiple tire-to-tire passing. Parameters such as plants biomass (roots and shoots) and the changes in physical properties, bulk density and penetration resistance of soil were measured. The results of the present study revealed that the highest increase of penetration resistance and soil bulk density due to the soil compaction occurred in growing spring barley. Although the roots and shoots mass of lupine and oilseed rape increased with increased soil bulk density, there was a very strong negative linear correlation between the roots and shoots weight and soil bulk density on spring barley. A positive correlation was detected between the roots and shoots mass of narrow–leafed lupine and soil bulk density, and soil compaction had a positive effect on the roots and shoots mass of oilseed rape. The study indicates that oilseed rape and narrow–leafed lupine can grow more successfully on compacted soils than can barley.

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189–202 E. Reintam, J. Kuht, H. Loogus, E. Nugis and K. Trükmann
Soil compaction and fertilisation effects on nutrient content and cellular fluid pH of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
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Soil compaction and fertilisation effects on nutrient content and cellular fluid pH of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

E. Reintam¹, J. Kuht¹, H. Loogus², E. Nugis² and K. Trükmann¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kreutzwaldi Str. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: endla.reintam@emu.ee
²Estonian Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Harjumaa, Estonia

Abstract:

The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of soil bulk density on nutrient (N, P, K) assimilation and on cellular fluid pH of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with different levels of fertilisation. Data were collected from the research fields of the Estonian University of Life Sciences (58o23´N, 26o44´E) with four different levels of soil compaction on sandy loam Stagnic Luvisol from 2001 to 2003. The soil was compacted by a tractor MTZ-82 (with loader; total weight 4.9 Mg) before spring sowing. Four levels of fertilisation (N0P0K0, N40P7K20; N80P14K40; N120P21K80) were applied using N20: P3.5: K10 fertiliser. Results of our experiments showed a high positive correlation between soil bulk density and cellular fluid pH (average r = 0.87) and negative correlation between soil bulk density and nutrient content (average r = –0.88) at highest rates of fertilisation (N80P14K40; N120P21K80) and positive correlation (r = 0.84) at lower rates of fertilisation (N0P0K0, N40P7K20) in the earing phase of barley. If the soil bulk density increased up to the level 1.56 Mg m-3, there was a sudden increase of cellular fluid pH without fertiliser use. Use of fertilisers decreased the barley stress. A sudden increase of cellular fluid pH started after soil bulk density 1.61 Mg m-3. The greatest impact of soil compaction was on nitrogen and potassium content in barley dry matter in all fertilisation levels. The nitrogen and potassium content in barley dry matter decreased up to 37% by high soil bulk density depending on fertilisation. The experiment showed that the higher decrease of nutrient content and the sudden increase of cellular fluid pH started at the same soil bulk density value.

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187–194 E. J. Kuht and E. Reintam
Soil compaction effect on soil physical properties and the content of nutrients in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
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Soil compaction effect on soil physical properties and the content of nutrients in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

E. J. Kuht¹ and E. Reintam²

¹Institute of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University,
Eerika, 504012 Tartu, Estonia
²Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian Agricultural University,
Eerika, 504012 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

The long-term use of heavy-weight agricultural machinery has caused extensive and lasting phenomena of degradation, especially in the basic layer of soil. The influence of soil compaction by heavy tractor on spring wheat and barley has been investigated. The field trials were completed on a Stagnic Luvisol (WRB), quite characteristic of Estonia but sensitive to compaction. The results of soil measurements demonstrated a strongly negative effect of wet soil compaction on soil physical characteristics and were in good connection with the number of compactions carried out. In order to find out the nutrient assimilation ability of plants on these soils, the amount of elements (N; P; K; Ca; Mg) in the dry matter of spring wheat and spring barley was determined. It appeared that the nitrogen uptake ability of spring wheat plants decreased almost by 30% and that of barley by 40% in the case of heavy soil compaction (4 and 6 times). As a result of compaction, the content of potassium and calcium in barley and spring wheat was decreased as compared with the non-compacted area.

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139–144 J. Kuht, E. Reintam, H. Loogus and E. Nugis
Changes of nitrogen assimilation and intracellular fluid pH in plants of barley depending on bulk density of compacted soils
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Changes of nitrogen assimilation and intracellular fluid pH in plants of barley depending on bulk density of compacted soils

J. Kuht¹, E. Reintam², H. Loogus³ and E. Nugis³

¹Institute of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University
²Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Estonian Agricultural University
³Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture

Abstract:

The penetration resistance of different arable soils is quite different depending on the Estonian area. We are briefly introducing the results of our research on soil compaction, penetration resistance of different soils in Estonia, uptake of nutrients and changes of intracellular fluid pH of barley depending on soil bulk densities. These data were mainly collected in a research field (58º23´N, 26º44´E) of the Estonian Agricultural University, with different levels of soil compaction (10 levels) on sandy loam Fragi-Stagnic Albeluvisol (WRB) soil in 2001 and 2002. The investigated cultural plant was spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In Estonia H. Loogus has studied changes of cellular fluid pH, depending on seedbed, by using  microelectrodes directly on plants by quick method. The effect of soil bulk density on cellular fluid pH of barley leaves generally depends of number of passes. The experiment showed also that a higher decrease in nitrogen content started at the same soil bulk density value as the cellular fluid pH quickly increased. If the soil bulk density was increasing up to level 1.52–1.54 Mg m-3, the cellular fluid pH suddenly increased very quickly. Nitrogen assimilation change in plants of barley decreased at the same bulk density values as a remarkable increase of intracellular pH was observed.

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