Tag Archives: soil tillage

xxx V. Bulgakov, H. Kaletnik, I. Goncharuk, S. Ivanovs and M. Usenko
Results of experimental investigations of a flexible active harrow with loosening teeth
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Results of experimental investigations of a flexible active harrow with loosening teeth

V. Bulgakov¹, H. Kaletnik², I. Goncharuk², S. Ivanovs³ and M. Usenko⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Obrony 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
⁴Lutsk National Technical University, Lvivska street 75, UA43018 Lutsk, Volyn region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Soil tillage processes significantly affect the growth of cultivated plants; therefore, improvement of various designs and combinations of ploughs is still an actual practical and scientific task. This paper presents investigations of the design of a soil tillage machine consisting of three plough bodies equipped from the lateral side with a module with a flexible active harrow driven by a support wheel. The technological process of tillage by this machine is carried out in such a way that the module of the flexible active harrow is installed at a certain depth of soil tillage. The purpose of this work is an experimental comparative investigation of the quality indicators of the work of a design of the soil tillage working body with a flexible active harrow having loosening teeth. In the process of comparative experimental investigations of the operation of ploughs with a standard flexible harrow and an experimental active harrow having loosening teeth, the soil lumpiness (characterising the quality of crumbling) and water permeability of the obtained soil structure were estimated. An experimental model of this working tool was tested under the production conditions, and it showed advantages of loosening and crumpling the soil compared to the conventional harrows. This can be explained by the fact that the harrow tines, freely mounted on the axes of its links, ensure their oscillatory movements when moving in two different planes, thereby creating conditions for more intense soil disintegration.

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754–760 P. Novák, P. Kovaříček, J. Hůla and M. Buřič
Surface water runoff of different tillage technologies for maize
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Surface water runoff of different tillage technologies for maize

P. Novák¹, P. Kovaříček², J. Hůla¹ and M. Buřič¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The present paper is focused on the evaluation of efficiency of soil-conservation technologies to reduce surface water runoff in Central Bohemia Region. In the last years, there has been an increase in maize planting on hillslope plots due to the construction of many biogas plants in conditions of Czech Republic. It enhances the risk of water erosion because the occurrence of sloping lands in the Czech Republic is high. To evaluate the technologies of stand establishment a field trial was laid out with four treatments of maize planting. The trial was laid out on a plot with light soil and slope of around 12%. It was a multi-year trial. To measure erosion parameters a rainfall simulator was used (measurement of surface runoff). The values obtained in two seasons show a positive effect of the soil surface cover by organic matter when reduced soil tillage was used. Soil loss also decreased at the same time compared to treatments with conventional soil tillage. It was found up to six-fold reduction in surface runoff by appropriate soil tillage technology during two seasons of measurement.

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1607-1613 M. Buřič, P. Novák, and J. Hůla
Effect of PTO- driven tillage machines on soil particles transfer
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Effect of PTO- driven tillage machines on soil particles transfer

M. Buřič, P. Novák*, and J. Hůla

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: novakpetr@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Displacement of soil particles by erosion can be seen as a major threat to the quality of agricultural land in the conditions of Czech Republic. While the effects of water and wind erosion have long been investigated and reported, the effect of soil tillage technology on soil particles translocation are relatively new area of agriculture research. Soil tillage may contribute to the undesirable translocation of soil particles towards lower-lying parts of fields especially on slopes. The effect of soil tillage implements on soil particle translocation has not been sufficiently explained yet. The object of this research was to assess the influence of PTO (power takeoff)-driven tillage machines on soil particle translocation during secondary tillage (soil preparation). Measurements to determine the displacement of soil particles were performed in location Nesperská Lhota in the Central Bohemia Region. Measurements were performed on a sandy loam cambisol after harvest winter cereals (winter wheat). To indicate displacement of soil particles was used grit of white limestone (size 10–16 mm). Limestone was put down into the trench with known position orthogonal to the direction of working operations. Subsequently were performed working operations in the specified sequence. Limestone particles were counted and weighed in each section. It was detected by measuring the different nature of displacement for each machine. Statistical significance of differences in the weight of translocated particles was evaluated for different type of machines.

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500-509 L. Litke Z. Gaile and A. Ruža
Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality
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Effect of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality

L. Litke¹²* Z. Gaile¹ and A. Ruža¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Lielā iela 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Study Farm "Pēterlauki", Lielā iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: linda.litke@llu.lv

Abstract:

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most common cereal, which is grown in Latvia. Nowadays, farmers are trying to get high grain yields in line with food quality, at the same time trying to minimize production costs and to use environmentally friendly technologies. The objective of this experiment was to clarify the impact of nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat yield and yield quality under two soil tillage systems and after two forecrops. Trials were conducted at the Research and Study farm ‘Peterlauki’ of Latvia University of Agriculture (56° 30.658’ N and 23° 41.580’ E). Researched factors were (1) crop rotation (wheat/wheat and oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera)/wheat), (2) soil tillage (traditional soil tillage with mould-board ploughing at a depth of 22–24 cm and reduced soil tillage with disc harrowing at a depth below 10 cm), (3) nitrogen fertilizer rate (altogether eight rates: N0 or control, N60, N90, N120(90+30), N150(90+60), N180(90+60+30), N210(90+70+50), and N240(120+60+60)), and (4) conditions of the growing seasons 2014/2015, 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The results indicate that winter wheat yield has been significantly affected by soil tillage, nitrogen fertilizer rate (p < 0.001) and forecrop (p < 0.05). Three-year research confirmed significant yield increase until the nitrogen fertilizer rate N180. Significantly higher average grain yield was obtained under traditional soil tillage. Nitrogen fertilizer affected significantly all tested yield quality indicators (p < 0.001). Increase of nitrogen fertilizer rate secured significant increase of winter wheat grain quality indices, except starch content, after both forecrops and in both soil tillage variants. Values of yield quality indicators increased significantly enhancing N-rate from N150 up to N210

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1629–1635 S. Kovář, J. Mašek and P. Novák
Comparison of tillage systems in terms of water infiltration into the soil during the autumn season
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Comparison of tillage systems in terms of water infiltration into the soil during the autumn season

S. Kovář*, J. Mašek and P. Novák

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kovars@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The soil belongs to the most valuable parts of the planet Earth. It is, endangered by water erosion, which causes huge destruction every year, or damage to farmland. More than half of the agricultural land in the Czech Republic is threatened by water erosion. The measurement was performed in the location Nesperská Lhota. The trial has been established on loamy sand Cambisol. In the field experiment, there were created 6 different variants which wad differed by soil tillage and crop. In the individual variants maize and oats were located. The field trial has been existing for a long time, as it was founded in 2009. Two measuring methods of water infiltration were used for the measurements: a mini disk infiltrometer and a single ring. The measurement was performed in the period of September 2016 before the harvest of maize. The soil aggregates were already stabilized at that time after all tillage operations. The measurement result showed the difference between the methods of soil tillage. The greatest ability of infiltration had a variant of maize with inter-row oats. Surprisingly, it was followed by maize, which was processed by ploughing technology. The lowest infiltration capacity was showed by oats reduced by soil tillage. A variant without vegetation had the second lowest infiltration. Our results obtained at rate of water infiltration into the soil affirm the need to control measures in the late vegetative stages. It is important for most of the rainfall to be quickly infiltrated so that it prevents the formation of massive surface runoff.

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95-100 M. Kroulík, J. Chyba and V. Brant
Measurement of tensile force at the fundamental tillage using tractor’s build-in sensor and external sensor connected between machines and their comparison
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Measurement of tensile force at the fundamental tillage using tractor’s build-in sensor and external sensor connected between machines and their comparison

M. Kroulík*, J. Chyba and V. Brant

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6 – Suchdol, 165 21, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: kroulik@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The value of tensile force during soil tillage is crucial for estimating the energy performance of trailed machines. For tensile force measurements, a mouldboard plough with working width of 4 m was used. The ploughing speed was approximately 7 km h-1. Measurements were carried out on two plots with different soil texture. Loam-sandy soil dominated on the first plot, whereas clay soil dominated on the second one. The slopes of the plots are 1.1° and 2.4° respectively. Both plots have been left without stubble modification after harvest. The dynamometer LUKAS type S-38 was used for measuring tensile force. The dynamometer was placed on a hinge, which was positioned between two tractors. As a second method of tensile force measurement, electro-hydraulic hitch sensors were used, from which the values were recorded. The obtained values of tensile force were approximately 30 kN on the first plot and 54.3 kN on the second plot. The interdependence values of tensile forces between internal and external sensors showed a high coefficient of determination R2 = 0.91 in regression data analysis. The comparison of tensile force measurements using a special dynamometer and electro-hydraulic tractor sensor proved that the outputs of serial sensors can be used for the continuous monitoring of tensile forces during operating the machine. The automated storage of data collected from tractor sensors during tillage can greatly simplify this work, while no additional expenses are incurred to obtain data. Thus, the findings can be used to determine the variability of the land.

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186-191 P. Procházka, P. Novák, J. Chyba and F. Kumhála
Evaluation of measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement
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Evaluation of measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement

P. Procházka¹, P. Novák², J. Chyba² and F. Kumhála²⋅*

¹BEDNAR FMT s.r.o., Lohenická 607, Prague-9 Vinoř, 190 17 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural machines, Kamýcká 129, 16521 Prague-6 Suchdol, Czech Republic;
*Correspondence: kumhala@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The knowledge of energy demands of the machines for soil tillage is useful factor for machinery design and also farm management. Currently used methods of draught force measurement are based on the use of the measuring rod. Basic part of this measurement apparatus is strain gauge load cell which is protected against damage by steel cage so that the forces were applied only in tension or compression. The main disadvantage of this solution is the necessity of using two tractors for the measurement: pulling one and pulled one equipped with soil tillage machine. To avoid this disadvantage, measuring frame for soil tillage machines draught force measurement was developed. For the evaluation of measuring frame function consequent measurement arrangement was used: crowled tractor John Deere 8320 RT as a pulling device, measuring frame mounted on its three point hitch, measuring rod connecting measuring frame and pulled wheel tractor New Holland T7050 and Köckerling Exact Gruber Vario soil tillage machine with 5 m working width. When comparing draught force results from strain gauge load cell placed into measuring frame with those from measuring rod it was found that there existed no statistically significant difference between the data from measuring frame and measuring rod. Measuring frame can be used for the aim of soil tillage machines draught force measurement and pulled tractor is not necessary in this case.

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115-120 K. Krištof, T. Šima, L. Nozdrovický and P. Findura
The effect of soil tillage intensity on carbon dioxide emissions released from soil into the atmosphere
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The effect of soil tillage intensity on carbon dioxide emissions released from soil into the atmosphere

K. Krištof, T. Šima*, L. Nozdrovický and P. Findura

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com

Abstract:

Soil tillage is among the factors which affect the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions released from soil into the atmosphere. The objective of the study was to compare three tillage systems which overall represents the most commonly used systems. No-tillage, reduced tillage (shallow disc cultivation) performed by LEMKEN Rubin 9/600 KU disc cultivator and ploughing performed by LEMKEN EuroDiamant 8 mouldboard plough. Experimental area was divided into three replications of each tillage treatment as a randomized block design and the effect of soil tillage intensity on CO2 emissions were observed in field conditions by using ACE device (Automated Soil CO2 Exchange Station, ADC Bio-Scientific Ltd., UK). There were found an effect of soil tillage intensity on CO2 emissions released from soil into the atmosphere. Increasing tillage intensity resulted in increasing rate of CO2 emissions released from soil into the atmosphere where reduced tillage was reflected as 43% and ploughing as114% of this escalation. The results of our study supporting the more ecological effects of reduced tillage and no-tillage systems in comparison with widespread conventional systems by using mouldboard ploughs.

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135-142 P. Novák, J. Chyba, F. Kumhála, and P. Procházka
Measurement of stubble cultivator draught force under different soil conditions
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Measurement of stubble cultivator draught force under different soil conditions

P. Novák¹, J. Chyba¹, F. Kumhála¹,* and P. Procházka²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ; *Correspondence: kumhala@tf.czu.cz 2BEDNAR FMT s.r.o., Lohenická 607, Prague-9 Vinoř, 19017 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Knowledge of the energy demands of the machines for soil tillage is a useful factor for machinery design as well as farm management. It was decided to measure the draught force necessary for the operation of the stubble cultivator Ecoland 4000 from BEDNAR FMT Co. The measuring set was composed as follows: pull tractor John Deere 8220 pulled by a rod in which the load cell was placed, another tractor John Deere 8345R. A cultivator type Ecoland 4000 (4 m working width) was mounted on the second pulled tractor. Measurements were carried out on two different soil types (light sandy and loamy) at operational speeds 6, 8 and 10 km h-1 and at two different adjusted depths of loosening. The soil physical properties were characterized by cone index measurements which were measured with a penetrometer PN-10 with cone angle 30° and area 100 mm2. The results showed an about 30% increase in the draught force at work in clayey soil in comparison to sandy soil. Different quality of tillage was also observed on different soil types.

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103-110 T. Šima,, L. Nozdrovický, M. Dubeňová, K. Krištof and J. Krupička
Effect of crop residues on nitrous oxide flux in the controlled traffic farming system during the soil tillage by LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow
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Effect of crop residues on nitrous oxide flux in the controlled traffic farming system during the soil tillage by LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow

T. Šima¹,*, L. Nozdrovický², M. Dubeňová³, K. Krištof⁴ and J. Krupička⁵

¹,²,⁴Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering,
Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra,
Slovak Republic; *Correspondence: tomasko.sima@gmail.com
³Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department
of Production Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic
⁵Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department
of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká129, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic

Abstract:

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Agriculture, especially soil tillage and the use of fertilisers, significantly contributes to N2O emissions from soil into the atmosphere. The aim of the paper was the comparison of the amount of nitrous oxide emissions released from the soil into the atmosphere depending on crop residues in conditions of a controlled traffic farming (CTF) system. Monitoring points were selected in parts of a field with/ without crop residues and in trafficked and non-trafficked areas. There were realised three variants of the experiment: before soil tillage, right after soil tillage and seven days after soil tillage. Soil tillage was carried out by a LEMKEN Rubin 9 disc harrow with a JOHN DEERE 8230 tractor on the loamy soil after the harvest of winter wheat. The used laboratory method of measuring N2O emissions released from the soil into the atmosphere consists of collecting soil samples from the field and their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. There were used INNOVA devices which consist of a photo-acoustic field gas monitor INNOVA 1412 based on the infrared photo-acoustic detection method, a multipoint sampler INNOVA 1309 used for gas sampling transport to the gas analyser INNOVA 1412, and a notebook with operation software used for the control and setup of the analysis. There was discovered an effect of crop residues and soil compaction on the nitrous oxide flux.

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