Tag Archives: soil

xxx P. Kic
Electric infrared heating panels as an alternative source of heating for greenhouses
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Electric infrared heating panels as an alternative source of heating for greenhouses

P. Kic

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic
Correspondence: kic@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to show the possibilities of supplementary heating of greenhouses. There was used for this research an electric infrared heating panel ITA 700. The average total power was 630.8 W in laboratory measurements, of which 504.3 W has been transferred by the front part of the panel, of which 267.2 W has been transmitted by radiation. The total radiation efficiency of the front part was 42.4%. Similar measurements have been carried out in an experimental greenhouse (length 24 m, width 3.5 m). Approximately 448 W of average total power 603.7 W has been transferred by the front part of the panel, of which 159 W has been transferred by radiation. The total radiation efficiency of the front part was 26.3%. Differences between measured surface temperatures confirmed the influence of panel radiation on the flower bed. The average temperature in the soil (9 °C) shows that the influence of heating is mainly on the surface of the flower bed, where it could protect cultivated plants during the lowest temperature period. The obtained results can be useful for choosing suitable panel parameters for the placement in small horticultural or hobby greenhouse.

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650–661 A. Zapałowska, Cz. Puchalski, S. Stankowski and M. Gibczyńska
Fertilisation with ash from wood and with sewage sludge versus contents of macro-and microelements in the soil following cultivation of Helianthus tuberosus L.
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Fertilisation with ash from wood and with sewage sludge versus contents of macro-and microelements in the soil following cultivation of Helianthus tuberosus L.

A. Zapałowska¹, Cz. Puchalski¹, S. Stankowski² and M. Gibczyńska³

¹University of Rzeszow, Department of Bioenergetics, Food Analysis and microbiology, Zelwerowicza 4, PL35-601 Rzeszów, Poland
²West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Agroengineering, Papieża Pawła VI 3, PL71-459 Szczecin, Poland
³West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Bioengineering, Słowackiego 17, PL71-434 Szczecin, Poland

Abstract:

The present study investigated the effects produced in the soil by municipal sewage sludge and wood ash applied during the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke. The impact of the presence of applied the fertilizer materials on changes in soil and a macro- and microelements contents were investigated. The comparative analyses took into account 3 factors; the first factor – 4 levels of wood ash – 0; I–4.28; II–8.57; III–12.85 t ha-1, the second factor – 2 levels of sewage sludge – 0; 1 – 30.3 t ha-1, the third factor – 2 varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Gigant, Albik. Application of the fertilisers did not resulted in significant change in the total contents of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in soil examined after Jerusalem artichoke was harvested. Application of ash from coniferous trees, with high levels of calcium, resulted in increased total contents of calcium in the soil. Fertilisation of the soil with ash from coniferous trees or with sewage sludge, as well as cultivation of two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke, resulted in a significant increase in the concentrations of cadmium and lead, and produced no effects in the levels of nickel, zinc and copper identified in soil. The above findings, and in particular the fact that the limit values were not exceeded, indicate the possibility of using both sludge and biomass ash for fertilizing Jerusalem artichoke.

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483–493 L.G. Muhamedyarova, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova
Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain
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Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain

L.G. Muhamedyarova*, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova

Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education ‘South-Urals State Agrarian University’, Department of natural Sciences, RU457100, Chelyabinsk region, Troitsk, Russia
*Correspondence: muhamedyarovaliliya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The influence of bio humus on chemical indicators of the arable layer of soil, productivity and ecological safety indicators of spring wheat of ‘Chelyaba – 75’ variety during the period of 2017–2019 were studied. The object of research was samples of the soil arable layer from the control and experimental field, the structure of wheat yield from control and experimental plots. Bio humus aqueous extract was introduced in the soil of the experimental field before wheat sowing and in the phase of spring tillering at the rate of 10 L/200 L /1 hm2 using the trailer sprayer ‘Zarya’ (Russia) during the dark hours of day.
In the study of soil and grain samples, generally accepted methods and techniques were used. It is established that regular chernozems under the conditions of technogenic impact of emissions of thermal power plants are characterized by low humus content (4.58–4.60%) and weak acid reaction of medium (pH = 6.1–6.5); imbalance between biochemically active (copper, zinc, cobalt) and toxic (lead, nickel, cadmium) elements, as confirmed by soil contamination coefficients: for copper (C0 = 1.50–1.58), zinc (C0 = 0.79–0.85). The introduction of bio humus in the tilth top soil before sowing and during tillering of spring wheat contributed to the increase in humus composition by 1.88 times, the change in acidity to pH = 6.9–7.0, reduction of lead and cadmium concentrations in 1.63 and 1.20 times against the background of increased zinc and cobalt levels by 15.62% and 7.98%; increase of field germination of spring wheat from 75.0 ± 0.4 to 82.0 ± 0.9%; quantity of developed stems to be harvested per 1 m2 by 10.15%, productive tilling capacity by 8.33%, average quantity of spikes per ear by 20.00%, average quantity of grain per ear by 7.69%, mass of 1,000 grains by 16.12%, and wheat yield increase by 10.2 hwt ha-1 and decrease in spring wheat grain concentration of lead and cadmium at 14.00 and 16.00%.

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38–52 V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, Z. Ruzhylo, I. Fedosiy, Ye. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
Theory of oscillations performed by tools in spiral potato separator
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Theory of oscillations performed by tools in spiral potato separator

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, Z. Ruzhylo¹, I. Fedosiy¹, Ye. Ihnatiev² and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to provide for the intensification of the process of removing impurities from the potato heap by oscillating devices, which takes place, when potato tubers are cleaned in the spiral separator during their lifting. The authors have devised a new design of the spiral separator, which can be used in the process of lifting potatoes from the soil. It comprises cantilever cleaning spiral springs, which in their simultaneously rotary and oscillatory motion clean and transport the potato tubers with good quality. However, the removal of impurities from the cleaning area and the cleaning of the side surfaces of potato tuber bodies from the stuck soil can be significantly more effective, if the spiral springs perform their oscillatory motions in the longitudinal and vertical plane during their operation more intensively. In order to achieve that, the authors have worked out a new theory of the oscillatory motion of the cleaning spiral working under the action of the potato heap. That promotes the intensification of the process of cleaning potato bodies from the stuck soil. The authors have generated a new partial differential equation, which describes the oscillations of the cantilever cleaning spiral. The PC-assisted numerical solving of the said differential equation and further numerical modelling have made it possible to obtain the analytic expressions of the relations between the change in the helix pitch distance of the cleaning spiral and its deformation, in particular, the simultaneous longitudinal extension and transverse bending. That result, in its turn, provided for finding the maximum limit amount of the above-mentioned deformation under the condition that the potato tubers may not fall through the spaces between the spiral turns, taking into account the design and kinematic parameters of the cleaning spiral itself, the material it is made of and the process-dependent mode of operation of the separator. As a result of the PC-assisted numerical modelling, it has been found that the total deflection of the spiral on its length varies within the range of 0 to 0.05 m under the following parameters: angular velocity of rotation of the spiral ω = 30 rad s-1, density of the material of the spiral ρ = 7,700 kg m-3, elastic modulus Е = 2∙1011 Pa, cleaning spiral bar stock radius r = 8.5 mm and a uniform load intensity of 1000 N m-1. Such variation ensures the good quality of cleaning and transportation of potato tubers. According to the results of the PC-assisted numerical calculations, the helix pitch distance of a cleaning spiral with the above parameters and the original helix pitch distance S = 48 mm, due to the spiral’s deformation under the proposed transverse oscillations, can change up to 54 mm, which makes impossible for potato tubers to fall out of the cleaning unit. Experimental studies fully support the results from the theoretical calculations to determine the displacement of the ends of the cleaning unit’s spiral springs.

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2373–2385 S. Nouar, M. Baha, M. Latati, R. Djebbar and L. Reguieg
Short-term effect of sawdust biochar and bovine manure on the physiological behavior of turnip (Brassica rapa L.) grown in open fields in the Algiers region
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Short-term effect of sawdust biochar and bovine manure on the physiological behavior of turnip (Brassica rapa L.) grown in open fields in the Algiers region

S. Nouar¹*, M. Baha², M. Latati¹, R. Djebbar³ and L. Reguieg¹

¹National School of Agronomy, Department of Plant Productions. Laboratory of Integrated Improvement of Agricultural Productions, Laboratory of Plant Production. Rue Hassen Badi, El Harrach DZ16200 Algiers, Algeria
²National School of Higher Education (ENS), Department of General Agronomy. Laboratory of Ecobiology animal. Post box 92 old Kouba1 DZ6308 Algiers, Algeria
³Université des Sciences et Technologies Houari Boumediene Faculty of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Biology and Physiology of Organisms. Mailbox 32 El Alia Bab ezzouar DZ16111 Algiers, Algeria
*Correspondence: samnour207@gmail.com

Abstract:

This study was designed to determine the effect of different doses of biochar (B) 5.10, 20 t ha-1 alone and mixed with manure (F) 10 t ha-1 on turnips. The results showed that the OM (organic matter) rate had a maximum of 93.7% for (B20*F) and a minimum of 14.5% for (F); the CEC (cation exchange capacity) showed a maximum of 32.2% for (B10*F) and a minimum of 0.2% with (B5*F) compared to the control (T) and finally the pH to be increased with a maximum value of 11.2% for (B20*F) and a minimum value of 1.7% for (F) compared to (T) (≤ 0.01).
For the chemical parameters of the turnip, the maximum nitrogen rate was 93.8% with (B10) and 2% for (B20). The highest value for phosphorus was recorded in (F) and a minimal value in (B5) (≤ 0.01). The potassium level was high 4.2% for the treatment (B20*F) with the lowest value of 4.4% for (B5) and (B10) compared to (T) (0.05).
For the yield components, the fresh weight of the most important bulb was obtained with (F) with the value of 116.8% and minimum weight of 0.4% in the treatment (B5). The highest bulb length value was 36.8% in (F) and the lowest was 0.5% obtained with (B20*F). The bulb diameter was the largest in the treatment (F) and the smallest was 4.8% in (B20). Finally, the fresh weight of the leaves showed a maximum of 106.9% in (F) and an increase of 6% in (B20) compared to (T) (≤ 0.01).

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499-508 M. Klavins, O. Purmalis, S. Grandovska and L. Klavina
Properties of soil and peat humic substances from Latvia
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Properties of soil and peat humic substances from Latvia

M. Klavins*, O. Purmalis, S. Grandovska and L. Klavina

University of Latvia, Department of Environmental Science, Raiņa bulv. 19, LV 1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

The acidity, elemental, functional and spectral (UV, fluorescence, IR spectra) characteristics of humic substances isolated from soils of different origin and peat in Latvia are described and compared with values common for humic substances of different origin, to evaluate the character of processes during humification. Substantial dependence of properties of humic substances on the humification conditions are found.

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2012–2025 N. Montemurro, G. Cucci, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro
The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater
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The nitrogen role in vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater

N. Montemurro, G. Cucci*, M. A. Mastro, G. Lacolla and A. Lonigro

Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences – University of Bari – Via Amendola 165/A, IT70126 Bari, Italy
*Correspondence: giovanna.cucci@uniba.it

Abstract:

The reuse of treated municipal wastewater for irrigation is an established alternative to conventional water, in many countries of the world, particularly where or when water resources are extremely limited. Wastewater reuse could represent a double benefit when used in agriculture, helping overcome any lack of water resources and additionally, enriching the soil with nutrients – especially nitrogen and phosphorus.
In the experimental site of Castellana Grotte (Apulia region, Southern Italy) during the 2012/13 and 2013/14 growing seasons, vegetable crops (fennel and lettuce) in succession were drip-irrigated with three different water sources. Two reclaimed water streams, obtained by applying different treatment schemes to the same municipal wastewater (an effluent from the full-scale treatment plant and an effluent from the Integrated Fixed-film Activated Sludge – Membrane BioReactor pilot plant) and a conventional source, to verify the crops response and nutrient contribution through wastewater supply.
Both lettuce and fennel yields were enhanced by the high content of nutrients in the effluent of one of the treatment plants, which had been operated for partial nitrogen removal. For Fennel 2013/14, wastewater-reuse led to a 54% reduction of nitrogen supply in relation to the other plots normally fertilized. In this way, an estimated saving of about 98.00 € ha-1 was achieved.
Crops irrigated with treated wastewater operated for partial nitrogen removal (IMBR) showed early ripening (8 days for lettuce and 35 days for fennel 2013/14) and better quality than others not similarly-treated. However, the wastewater presented a nitrate content in excess of legal limits (35 mg L-1, D.M. 185/2003). Therefore, the contribution of nutrients increased production (47 vs 32 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2012/13 fennel theses, 53 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013 lettuce theses and 40 vs 31 t ha-1 in IMBR and WELL 2013/14 fennel theses respectively) and improved product quality, while simultaneously saving money for chemical fertilizers not supplied, producing less environmental impact.

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700–706 J. Hart, and V. Hartová
The next generation of multiple temperature sensor
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The next generation of multiple temperature sensor

J. Hart¹,* and V. Hartová²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: janhart77@gmail.com

Abstract:

Long-term and short-term measurements of temperature at different depths in soil have always been very complicated. The solution that was used until now was measuring using soil thermometers. Measurements were done at shallow depths and generally only allowed for measuring of one temperature, and always at the one depth which was determined for the measurement (normally 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150 and 300 cm). These problems were relatively limiting and impractical. It was therefore necessary to devise an alternative for a simple and effective solution that would eliminate these disadvantages – it was necessary for a probe to allow temperature to be measured at different depths at one measuring point without having to change its position. A requirement simultaneously arose for the need to be able to measure temperatures at greater depths, and a multiple probe was therefore conceived consisting of a rod for dynamic penetration tests.

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971–980 R. Chotěborský,, M. Linda and M. Hromasová
Wear and stress analysis of chisel
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Wear and stress analysis of chisel

R. Chotěborský¹,*, M. Linda² and M. Hromasová²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
² Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: choteborsky@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The object of research is stress analysis of worn chisel. The interaction between soil particles and chisel leads to change of shape and dimension of a worn chisel or other agriculture tools. The wear rate depends on the velocity of the chisel in the soil, position in the soil and shape of a chisel. These factors change the dimension and shape of chisel during its service life. The modern chisel includes sintered carbides on a tip. Sintered carbides plates are effective protection for wear resistance. But the body of the chisel is not protected and its wear resistance is lower than the tip. The service life of the tip is much higher than the body of the chisel. Stresses of the body of the chisel are stationary during the service life. The aim of this study is determining of optimising process of the strength of steel for chisels.

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790–800 J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof and P. Findura
Soil compaction caused by irrigation machinery
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Soil compaction caused by irrigation machinery

J. Jobbágy, K. Krištof* and P. Findura

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Systems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK 94976 Nitra, Slovakia, *Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

 This contribution is focused on the analysis of soil compaction with chassis of a wide-span irrigation machine, Valmont. The sprinkler had 12 two-wheeled chassis (size of tyre 14.9”×24”). During the evaluation of soil compaction, we monitored the values of penetration resistance and soil moisture during the operation of the sprinkler. Considering the performance parameters of the pump, the sprinkler was only half of its length (300 m) in the technological operation. In this area, also field measurements were performed in 19 monitoring points spaced both in tracks and outside the chassis tracks. The analysis showed the impact of compression with sprinkler wheels. The results of average resistance ranged from 1.20 to 3.26 MPa. The values of the maximum resistance ranged from 2.30 to 5.35 MPa. The results indicated a shallow soil compaction; however, it is not devastating.

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